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various distances, ran similar smaller rents, evidences of the fearful forces that had shattered the whole summit in this direction. The distance to which the lava stream advanced from Hekla on this occasion, was between seven and eight English miles; but the quantity thrown out, though large indeed, was yet far less than what has been ejected on former occasions. Its aggregate amount is estimated by our author at 14,400 million of cubic feet, a quantity sufficient to bury the whole city of Copenhagen to the depth of 330 feet.

As far as could be explored, the lava stream appeared everywhere to consist of loosely aggregated fragments of scoriæ, and in no part did it exhibit that solid and often mamillated form observed in those lavas which have been subjected to pressure, or that have cooled more slowly than this would do under the influence of an Iceland winter. Still, six months after the lava had reached its furthest point, it was found to be in many places only half cooled, and the thermometer, at no great distance below the suface, rose to 84 centigrade. From the rents in the mass, a vast quantity of steam constantly issued, forming a brilliant contrast of white vapour on the hideous black surface of the torrent. The longer that these vapours continued to rise from the crevices, the more did they become charged with acid, and this acid, as might be expected from the extreme whiteness of the steam, was chiefly the hydrochloric. Of carbonic acid, and of sulphuretted hydrogen gas, but few traces could be discovered. Salmiak (muriate of ammonia) was observed in considerable quantities on the surface of the lava, and was thought by the natives to be an efflorescence of pure salt, such as the ancient historians record to have been formerly ejected from the mountain. No doubt the pure salt of the old writers was nothing else but salmiak; though even the Icelanders of the present day regarded this appearance as produced by the influx of the sea water through the subterraneous communications between Hekla and the ocean. So convinced were they of this, that one speculating Icelander, during the summer of 1846, loaded his horses with the muriate of ammonia from the mountain, and actually employed it in curing his fish; but with what success may easily be imagined.

Little or no pumice-stone (pimpsteen) seems to have been ejected by Hekla during the late eruption. Indeed, our

author strongly doubts the fact of pumice ever having been thrown out by this volcano. Into his arguments regarding this disputed point, want of space forbids us to enter; but his researches go far to prove that the small quantities of pumice found about this mountain, are probably the produce of some other volcano.

A short but interesting chapter on the injury caused to the inhabitants of the neighbouring districts by the eruption, closes the book. No damage was done directly to any of the dwellings; but it was found necessary to desert the farmhouse of Næfrholt, as the near approach of the lava had dried up the springs which supplied that house with water. It was fortunate that the enormous showers of ashes and scoriæ which fell on the earlier days of the eruption, descended chiefly upon the almost uninhabited districts to the east of Hekla. Several of the grazing farms in this direction, however, did not escape, and as the hay had not yet been entirely got in, all that remained in the fields was lost and spoiled. In this way the horses and cattle were deprived of the food absolutely necessary for their maintenance during the winter, and the farmers were forced to diminish their stock by disposing of them for what they would bring. Much more serious, however, was the damage done to the mountain pastures. Of nearly two hundred ewes and lambs possessed by the farms of Næfrholt, in August, 1845, there remained only sixty head in the spring of 1846, the remainder had been killed on account of the deficit of winter provender, and the destruction of the mountain pastures of the summer season. Indeed, the mountain ranges where the sheep had fed during the previous summer, were in great part ruined beyond all hope; for where they had not been overflowed by the lava, they were covered by a dense layer of ashes and sand to the depth of two feet and more. As a consequence of the scarcity of provender, sickness soon showed itself amongst the cattle. Many of the sheep were seriously lamed by their hoofs being torn and cut to the quick by the sharp and rugged scoria they had traversed in their homeward flight; their wool, too, was blackened and burnt, and fell off so much, that the fleeces were of little value in the succeeding season. The Iceland Ptarmigan, which forms no unimportant item in the winter's consumption among the farmers, almost entirely deserted the country, and the fishing on that part of the coast where the consequences of the eruption were

Although so

chiefly felt, was specially unproductive. many years had elapsed since the previous eruption of Hekla, this last cannot be classed with some of the more serious outbreaks upon record. Its chief interest indeed is, that in Mr. Schythe a historian has been found, thoroughly competent to describe and to judge of the phenomena presented by its progress. Of his own individual exertions, our author says little or nothing; but from a few scattered hints, we learn that he spent many days wandering through the almost unexplored districts to the east of Hekla, where the natives themselves rarely venture, save in search of strayed cattle, or as guides to more adventurous travellers.

The volume of which we now take our leave is most creditable, as regards printing and paper, to the Copenhagen press; but the lithographs which accompany it are of a very inferior character. The geological portion of the work, and especially the second and fourth chapters, form most interesting papers for translation into some of our many scientific journals.

ART. II.-1. Oratio habita a P. F. X, de Ram, Rectore Magnifico, &c., &c., ad Academicos, &c. Anno 1847, Louvain. Valinthout et Vandezande, 1848.

2-Documents relatifs a l'erection et l'organization de l'université Catholique de Louvain, E. M. Devroye and Co., Brussels, 1844. 3.-Quelques Mots sur L'Université Catholique de Louvain. J. J. Vanderborght, Brussels.

4.-Annuaires de L'Université Catholique de Louvain. Louvain, Valenthout et Vandezande.


E had promised in a past number, to furnish our readers with a sketch of the history of the University of Louvain, and its re-establishment under the constitutional monarchy which now governs the little kingdom of Belgium, since its revolution and separation from Holland. The letter of his Holiness Pius IX. to the Bishops of Ireland, in proposing the example of the Bishops of Belgium, to whose efforts the present university owes its recovered existence, as a pattern worthy to be followed, has

rendered the name of Louvain doubly interesting. Without further preface therefore, we enter upon our task, believing that not only the interest of the subject, but the obvious usefulness to the Catholics of Great Britain, of some authentic information respecting a seminary so easy of access, will be such as to render all apology needless.

We had proposed, had space permitted, to have begun with a sketch of the history of the former University, specially with regard to its faculty of theology; respecting which we may mention by the way, that Henry VIII. after having prevailed, principally by bribery, with so many of the chief Universities of Europe to declare in favour of the nullity of his marriage with Catherine of Arragon, made no application to the doctors of Louvain from sheer despair of its success. On a future occasion we may perhaps be able to complete our subject, by taking a glimpse of its history, as this would bring to light many interesting facts, touching the manners of our forefathers in conducting the great work of education.

The ancient university came to an end in a manner worthy of its long and faithful career. The following account of its suppression is given in a collection of historical documents, by Dr. Vandevelde, vol. 3, p. 1122.

"In the year 1797, on the 25th of October, the central administration of the Department of the Dyle, which was held at Brussels, made a decree, by which the ancient University of Louvain, celebrated throughout Europe for so many centuries, is suppressed, overthrown and trampled down; the Professors are forbidden to continue their academic prælections, and the administrators of the revenues and property of the colleges, to concern themselves any further in receiving and managing them. The libraries, the archives, museums, are all sealed up. The presidents and other members of the Colleges are commanded to leave them within ten days' time, to be expelled by the military if they neglect too bey. The professors are all deprived of their office, dignity, prerogatives and emoluments, without the least indemnification; a penalty is laid upon the Rector, John Joseph Havelange, and some others among the ecclesiastical professors... If it be asked, what is the cause of this work of destruction, their answer is-That the University of Louvain, from its constitution and the nature of the sciences taught in it, did not follow the kind of instruction suited to republican principles, (que l'Université de Louvain, par sa forme et par la nature des sciences qui y sont enseignées, ne suivait pas le mode d'instruction publique, conforme aux principes republi cains.) But what sort of principles, these republican principles

were, could be neither doubted nor concealed. The University of Louvain, abhorring these counsels of impiety which it dared not approve either in word or thought, came to a glorious end, 'certans bonum certamen fidei confessa bonam confessionem coram multis testibus.' -(1 Tim. vi. 12.)"

The members of the University thus suppressed, were dispersed, and forced to take refuge and maintain themselves as they best could, and so long as Belgium continued subject to the French, the survivors could entertain no hope of being able to unite again as an University.

Their hopes however revived when Napoleon was forced to commence his retreat from Russia, with the remains of the most formidable army that a conqueror had probably ever collected together. In that year, 1813, Belgium, together with the Low Countries, was separated by the allies from France, to which Napoleon had annexed it, on the plea of its being France's natural territorial complement. In the month of November, William Frederick, son of the last Stadtholder, was called from his retirement in England, where he was living unknown, to become prince, and shortly king of the Low Countries; and on the 30th of the same month he disembarked at Scheveningen, from whence nineteen years ago he had effected his escape, together with his father. He appears to have proceeded with some prudence and moderation in taking the first steps to establish himself as monarch, promising his people a constitution to protect their interests and liberties. On the 11th of February, a temporary government was organized in Belgium, by Baron Wolzogen, General-major in the service of Russia, and Baron de Boyen, in the name of Prussia, on the 30th of May, 1814. The treaty of Paris was concluded by the allies, in which Belgium was annexed to Holland in virtue of the right of conquest, and for the ostensible motive of preserving the equilibrium of power in Europe. On the 14th of August, 1814, William, already firmly secured in the possession of Holland, published a proclamation, taking possession of the provinces of Belgium as governorgeneral. This concession was purchased on the part of Holland, by ceding to England all claims on the colonies of the Cape of Good Hope, Demerara, Essequibo, Berbice, and Ceylon.

No sooner was the union with France dissolved, than a meeting of such of the dispersed survivors of the old

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