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University as could be found forthcoming, was held at Louvain, in which the Drs. Vandevelde and Van Auderode were chosen as deputies, and authorized to take all the steps that should be found necessary to procure the re-opening the University, the suppression of which they regarded as an act of violence, that could neither abolish or even weaken their rights. The meeting consisted of eighteen doctors and professors. Their first step was to present a petition to the Baron de Vincent, the governorgeneral of Belgium, who had been appointed provisionally by the allies. It bears the date of June 1814. It produced, however, no result, the governor considering it prudent to wait to see what measures could be taken for the formation of a permanent government in Belgium.

On the occasion of a visit of the prince of Orange to Louvain, the same request was energetically made by the burgomaster of the town, and M. Lamal, the dean of St. Peter's, but again without success. It seemed as if a party was formed, which opposed its re-establishment. Towards the end of September, the same parties met together again, to consider what means they still possessed of urging their demand, and resolved to address a petition to the emperor of Austria, and to the Sovereign Pontiff. They thought that they might seek the protection of the emperor and the Pope with success, inasmuch as the same august personage, who, by his edict, confirmed the rights of the University in 1793, was still alive, and a congress was about to take place at Vienna, where the Pope's legate would be in a condition to advocate the cause of the University. M. M. Vandevelde and Auderode found an active agent at Vienna, in the person of L'Abbe Martens, priest of the diocese of Ghent, to whom they transmitted, before the end of October, all the documents necessary to their cause. The first of these was a petition to the emperor Francis II., and the second a letter to the reigning Pope Pius VII., each signed by the deputies, J. F. Vandevelde, and P. F. Van Auderode; the third, a letter to prince Metternich Winnebourg, minister of state. letter of a similar character was also addressed to cardinal Gonsalvi, the Pope's legate at the court of Vienna. An application also, to the same effect, was made to the powers assembled in Congress, by the vicars-general of the diocese of Ghent.

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It would appear that all these measures remained equally

fruitless, for in the month of August, 1815, a deputation was sent to Frederick William, the king of Holland, and another long petition addressed to the king on the 12th of October, 1815. The little effect all these attempts had may be collected from the letter of P. H. S. Vermoelen, mayor of Antwerp, addressed to Dr. Vandevelde, (11 Dec. 1815.)

"The king has spoken to me, respecting the note I wrote to him, remarking that I seemed to be a great partisan of the University, whereupon I had the honour to observe to him, that I was not alone, but that the greater part of the people of Belgium were of the same opinion. He observed that the Bishops had not always agreed with the Faculty of Theology, that they had certainly sometimes been unfavourable to it, and would continue to be so, that it had always been with jealousy that they had seen the pupils of the University preferred to those of their own seminaries, and that the faculty had sometimes professed opinions, with which they disagreed, at least tacitly. I replied that the principles of the University were the same as those received in other countries, except perhaps by some few persons in France, and that I had never heard it said that they differed in doctrine; and if there were inconveniences to be apprehended, from a preference for the University pupils, it would be possible to remedy them. The prince asked me in joke, whether I wanted the re-establishment of the University at Louvain, or of Louvain; I said, I asked for the University of Louvain at Louvain. The conversation was throughout very amicable, nevertheless I did not see the signs of any very favourable disposition, although no absolute reason to despair."

All hopes, however, were put to an end by the publication of the decree for the organization of the upper branches of public instruction, issued by the king the 25th of September, 1816. Articles seven and eight of this decree, create three new Universities-at Louvain, at Ghent, and Liege; each to possess the usual five faculties, of-1, Theology, 2, Jurisprudence, 3, Medicine, 4, Mathematical and Physical sciences, 5, Philosophy and Letters, although the theological faculty for the moment was to remain in abeyance. These Universities continued to exist throughout the reign of William, and numbered from two to three hundred students each. A full account of every detail connected with them, may be found in the report of M. Nothomb, Minister of the Interior, presented to the chambers, and published in Brussels, (1844.)

All hopes of the eventual restoration of the ancient

Catholic University of Louvain, under the sovereignty of Holland, being thus destroyed, we have now to examine the circumstances which prepared the minds of the clergy and people to combine together to effect its restoration, as soon as their new constitution, obtained by the Revolution of 1830, set them at liberty to unite their efforts towards the attainment of their long desired end.

The policy of William, from the moment of his taking possession of the Belgium provinces, shows symptoms of having been directed towards the fusion of the two countries into one kingdom, and the creation, if the expression may be allowed, of one nationality. With this object in view, the Dutch language was forcibly made the language of all the public documents, and a knowledge of it required as a qualification for nearly all departments of the state. The Catholic Church also was regarded as the most formidable obstacle in the way of this policy, it being very justly thought, that so long as the Catholic faith and worship possessed the heart and affections of the Belgians, it would be morally impossible that they would blend into one empire and people with their protestant neighbours of Holland. With this view of the ruling principle of William's policy, it is easy to explain the fruitlessness of the repeated applications for the restoration of the ancient University, which had been in its former history so distinguished for its attachment to the holy see, and for its active propagation of the Catholic faith.

After the battle of Waterloo, it became one of the first objects of William's government, to lay the basis of a constitution that should embrace the whole of his new kingdom. A commission was named to draw up a document for the purpose of being submitted to the states. On the 8th of August, the result of their labours was submitted to the general assembly of the states, at the Hague, under the title of "The Fundamental Law," and accepted; but when proposed to the principal persons of Belgium, assembled at Brussels, it was rejected by a majority of 796 to 527. This was the beginning of the king's actual quarrels with the Catholic clergy, whom he accused of having used their influence to procure its rejection. Not daunted by this check, the king published a proclamation, declaring the law accepted, and that, since the majority had founded their opposition on a mistaken view of the provisions contained in it, their decision could not be admitted.

were, could be neither doubted nor concealed. The University of Louvain, abhorring these counsels of impiety which it dared not approve either in word or thought, came to a glorious end, 'certans bonum certamen fidei confessa bonam confessionem coram multis testibus.' (1 Tim. vi. 12.)"

The members of the University thus suppressed, were dispersed, and forced to take refuge and maintain themselves as they best could, and so long as Belgium continued subject to the French, the survivors could entertain no hope of being able to unite again as an University.

Their hopes however revived when Napoleon was forced to commence his retreat from Russia, with the remains of the most formidable army that a conqueror had probably ever collected together. In that year, 1813, Belgium, together with the Low Countries, was separated by the allies from France, to which Napoleon had annexed it, on the plea of its being France's natural territorial complement. In the month of November, William Frederick, son of the last Stadtholder, was called from his retirement in England, where he was living unknown, to become prince, and shortly king of the Low Countries; and on the 30th of the same month he disembarked at Scheveningen, from whence nineteen years ago he had effected his escape, together with his father. He appears to have proceeded with some prudence and moderation in taking the first steps to establish himself as monarch, promising his people a constitution to protect their interests and liberties. On the 11th of February, a temporary government was organized in Belgium, by Baron Wolzogen, General-major in the service of Russia, and Baron de Boyen, in the name of Prussia, on the 30th of May, 1814. The treaty of Paris was concluded by the allies, in which Belgium was annexed to Holland in virtue of the right of conquest, and for the ostensible motive of preserving the equilibrium of power in Europe. On the 14th of August, 1814, William, already firmly secured in the possession of Holland, published a proclamation, taking possession of the provinces of Belgium as governorgeneral. This concession was purchased on the part of Holland, by ceding to England all claims on the colonies of the Cape of Good Hope, Demerara, Essequibo, Berbice, and Ceylon.

No sooner was the union with France dissolved, than a meeting of such of the dispersed survivors of the old

University as could be found forthcoming, was held at Louvain, in which the Drs. Vandevelde and Van Auderode were chosen as deputies, and authorized to take all the steps that should be found necessary to procure the re-opening the University, the suppression of which they regarded as an act of violence, that could neither abolish or even weaken their rights. The meeting consisted of eighteen doctors and professors. Their first step was to present a petition to the Baron de Vincent, the governorgeneral of Belgium, who had been appointed provisionally by the allies. It bears the date of June 1814. It produced, however, no result, the governor considering it prudent to wait to see what measures could be taken for the formation of a permanent government in Belgium.

On the occasion of a visit of the prince of Orange to Louvain, the same request was energetically made by the burgomaster of the town, and M. Lamal, the dean of St. Peter's, but again without success. It seemed as if a party was formed, which opposed its re-establishment. Towards the end of September, the same parties met together again, to consider what means they still possessed of urging their demand, and resolved to address a petition to the emperor of Austria, and to the Sovereign Pontiff. They thought that they might seek the protection of the emperor and the Pope with success, inasmuch as the same august personage, who, by his edict, confirmed the rights of the University in 1793, was still alive, and a congress was about to take place at Vienna, where the Pope's legate would be in a condition to advocate the cause of the University. M. M. Vandevelde and Auderode found an active agent at Vienna, in the person of L'Abbe Martens, priest of the diocese of Ghent, to whom they transmitted, before the end of October, all the documents necessary to their cause. The first of these was a petition to the emperor Francis II., and the second a letter to the reigning Pope Pius VII., each signed by the deputies, J. F. Vandevelde, and P. F. Van Auderode; the third, a letter to prince Metternich Winnebourg, minister of state. A letter of a similar character was also addressed to cardinal Gonsalvi, the Pope's legate at the court of Vienna. An application also, to the same effect, was made to the powers assembled in Congress, by the vicarsthe diocese of Ghent.

It would appear that all these measures rent

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