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heighten its effect, and of hanging it on the walls of a hall or gallery, where a painting with colossal figures by Caravaggio is placed perhaps above a minutely finished Breugel, because they fit to the place, but not certainly to the eye or its laws of vision. But at any rate in other parts of Europe some little care has been taken to make the gallery suited to the specimens which it contains, and often costly buildings have been erected for their preservation. The unsettled state of Spain, which has not yet allowed the roads to be mended, has not permitted this attention, at least in the provinces, to the splendid productions of its artists. And greatly do we fear, that, as prosperity returns to that long agitated nation, its first efforts will be manifested far more by an ambition to raise cotton-mills and iron-foundries, than to erect pinacotheks and glyptotheks for its master-pieces of art. Indeed,

more important duties of restoration than this, weigh on the national conscience. And bad as is the present collection of paintings in what are now called their galleries, besides the convenience for inspecting them which is now afforded, we rejoice that the churches are spared the profanation to which the curiosity of the picture-gazer generally subjects the house of God.

But to return. Spanish art is, more eminently than any other, the daughter of Religion; because, unlike the Italian or Flemish schools, she never turned her back upon her mother, nor called down her censures on herself; but to the end remained her child and handmaid, working faithfully for her, and on her own principles. There never has been in Spain a profane, or to speak more tenderly, a classical school of art; a school of nudities, that is, of mythologies, of heathenism, and of the vices. Nay, even more. The extra-religious domain of Spanish painting, would naturally be the same as of its poetry, not the classical, but the romantic, world. In a nation which, up to the very moment when its arts reached a great development, was still engaged in the christian war against the Moslem, in which the spirit of chivalry had been prolonged by its two chief sources, great courage animated by strong religious feeling, we should hardly have been surprised to see the great deeds of the Campeador and his brother heroes immortalized by the pencil, while Mars or Brutus might have been easily despised, beside real and recent and virtuous feats of war. But even in the face of these

more national and noble themes, painting has remained, in Spain, true to her maiden-love of the celestial alone; she has given them up to poetry, and she has disdained aught less elevated than the glory of God and His Saints.

But Mr. Stirling has expressed all this in language which, as coming from one by no means partial to the Catholic religion, will be more striking and convincing than any thing that we can say. We must therefore make room for a long passage from him.

"Spanish art, like Spanish nature, is in the highest degree national and peculiar. Its three principal schools of painting differ in style from each other, but they all agree in the great features which distinguish them from the other schools of Europe. The same deeply religious tone is common to all. In Spain alone can painting be said to have drawn all its inspiration from Christian fountains, and, like the architecture of the middle ages, to be an exponent of a people's faith. Its first professors, indeed, acquired their skill by the study of Italian models, and by communion with Italian minds. But the skill which at Florence and Venice would have been chiefly employed to adorn palace-halls with the adventures of pious Æneas, or ladies' bowers with passages from the Art of Love, at Toledo, Seville, and Valencia was usually dedicated to the service of God and the Church. Spanish painters are very rarely to be found in the regions of history or classical mythology. Sion hill delights them more than the Aonian mount, and Siloa's brook than ancient Tiber or the laurel-shaded Orontes. Their pastoral scenes are laid, not in the vales of Arcady, but in the fields of Judea, where Ruth gleaned after the reapers of Boaz, and where Bethlehem shepherds watched their flocks on the night of the nativity. In their landscapes it is a musing hermit, or, perhaps, a company of monks, that moves through the forest solitude, or reposes by the brink of the torrent: not there

"Gratia cum Nymphis geminisque sororibus audet
Ducere nuda choros.'*

"Their fancy loves best to deal with the legendary history of the Virgin, and the life and passion of the Redeemer, with the glorious company of Apostles, the goodly fellowship of Prophets, and the noble army of Martyrs and Saints; and they tread this sacred ground with habitual solemnity and decorum...... Far different [from those of the Italian artists] were the themes on which Murillo put forth his highest powers. After the Mystery

* 1 Horat. Carm, lib. iv. 8, v. 5, 6.

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of the Immaculate Conception,' he repeated, probably more frequently than any other subject, the Charity of St. Thomas of Villanueva;' and it was his finest picture of that good prelate, inimitable for simplicity and grandeur, that he was wont to call emphatically his own.'*

"The sobriety and purity of manner which distinguished the Spanish painters, is mainly to be attributed to the restraining influence of the Inquisition. Palamino † quotes a decree of that tribunal, forbidding the making or exposing of immodest paintings and sculptures, on pain of excommunication, a fine of fifteen hundred ducats, and a year's exile. The holy office also appointed inspectors, whose duty it was to see that no works of that kind were exposed to view in churches and other public places. Pacheco, the painter and historian of art, held this post at Seville, and Palamino himself at Madrid..... .Another cause of the severity and decency of Spanish art, is to be found in the character. of the Spanish people. The proverbial gravity-which distinguishes the Spaniard, like his cloak-which appears in his manner of address, and in the common phrases of his speech, is but an index of his earnest and thoughtful nature. The Faith of the Cross, nourished with the blood of Moor and Christian, nowhere struck its roots so deep, or spread them so wide, as in Spain. Pious enthusiasm pervaded all orders of men; the noble and learned as well as the vulgar. The wisdom of antiquity could not sap the creed of Alcala or Salamanca, nor the style of Plato or Cicero seduce their scholars into any leaning to the religion of Greece or Rome...... After all the revolutions and convulsions of Spain, where episcopal crosses have been coined into dollars to pay for the bayoneting of friars militant on the hills of Biscay, and the Primacy has become a smaller ecclesiastical prize than our Sodor and Man; it is still in Spain-constant, when seeming most false-religious, when seeming careless of all creeds that the pious Catholic looks hopefully to see the Faith of Rome rise, refreshed, regenerate, and irresistible. Nurtured in so devout a land, it was but natural that Spanish art should show itself

* chap. xii. p. 876.

† Pal. tom. ii. p. 138.

"See the able article on 'Spain,' in the Dublin Review,' No. Xxxvi., art. 4, containing an interesting sketch of the present state of the Spanish Church, which, though drawn by the too favourable hand of an enthusiastic partisan, displays that knowledge of the subject in which some zealous Protestant travellers who have lately written books about it, are so lamentably defi cient, and the absence of which few of their Protestant readers ever seem to detect."

devout. The painter was early secured to the service of religion. His first inspiration was drawn from the pictured walls of the churches or cloisters of his native place, where he had knelt a wondering child beside his mother, where he had loitered or begged when a boy to their embellishment his earliest efforts were dedicated, out of gratitude, perhaps, to the kindly Carmelite or Cordelier who had taught him to read, or fed him with bread and soup on the days of dole; or who had first noticed the impulse of his boyish fancy, and guided his desperate charcoal round the convent walls.' As his skill improved, he would receive orders from neighbouring convents, and some gracious friar would introduce him to the notice of the bishop or the tasteful grandee of the province. The fairest creations of his matured genius then went to enrich the cathedral or the royal abbey, or found their way into the gallery of the sovereign, to bloom in the gardens of Flemish and Italian art. Throughout his whole career the Church was his best and surest patron. Nor was he the least important or popular of her ministers. His art was not merely decorative and delightful, but it was exercised to instruct the young and the ignorant that is, the great body of worshippers in the scenes of the Gospel history, and in the awful and touching legends of the saints, whom they were taught from the cradle to revere. 'For the learned and the lettered,' says Don Juan de Butron, a writer on art in the reign of Philip IV., written knowledge may suffice; but for the ignorant, what master is like painting? They may read their duty in a picture, although they cannot search for it in books.'* The painter became, therefore, in some sort a preacher; and his works were standing homilies, more attractive, and perhaps more intelligible, than those usually delivered from the pulpit. The quiet pathos, the expressive silence of the picture, might fix the eye that would drop to sleep beneath the glozing of the Jesuit, and melt hearts that would remain untouched by all the thunders of the Dominican."-vol. i. pp. 10-16.

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But we feel sure that our readers will desire us to expatiate on this topic even further. It is our earnest wish to encourage the feeling, or rather to establish the principle, that religious art will make religious artists, and cannot be carried on without them. It is well known that early Italian art was not only eminently Christian, but either produced, or nourished in holiness, such men as the Beato Angelico, Simone Memmi, and Fra Bartolomeo. Now Spanish art will be found to have done the same. We will begin with an illustrious example. But first we

*Discursos Apologeticos.' Madrid, 1626. 4to. p. 36.

must give some account of the rise of art in Valencia, to the school of which it belongs, Mr. Stirling thus describes it:

"The city of Valencia, so full of beauty and delight, says the local proverb, that a Jew might there forget Jerusalem, was equally prolific of artists, of saints, and of men of letters. Its fine school

of painting first grew into notice under the enlightened care of the good archbishop, Thomas of Villanueva. Illustrious for birth, piety, and benevolence, and admitted after his death to the honours of the Roman Calendar, this excellent prelate, once a favourite preacher of the Emperor Charles V., became a favourite saint of the south, rivalling St. Vincent Ferrer, and receiving, as it were, a new canonization from the pencils of Valencia and Seville. There were few churches or convents, on the sunny side of Sierra Morena, without some memorial picture of the holy man, with whom almsgiving had been a passion from the cradle, who, as a child, was wont furtively to feed the hungry with his mother's flour and chickens, and, as an archbishop, lived like a mendicant friar, and, being at the point of death, divided amongst the poor all his worldly goods, except only the pallet whereon he lay. These pictorial distinctions were due not only to his boundless charities, but to his munificent patronage of art, which he employed, not to swell his archiepiscopal state, but to embellish his cathedral, and to instruct and improve his flock."-vol. i. pp. 353-4.

A Saint then has the honour of being the founder and patron of the school of Valencia; and we need not be surprised if it had saints among its artists. One of its greatest ornaments, both in skill and in virtue, was Vincente de Juanes, more generally known by the name of Juan de Juanes. Mr. Stirling shall once more speak for himself, and give an account of this great artist:

"Being a man of a grave and devout disposition, his fine pencil was never employed in secular subjects, nor in the service of the laity, but wholly dedicated to religion and the Church. Cumberland, in 1782, doubted if any of his pictures were even then in lay hands. With this pious master, enthusiasm for art was inspiration from above, painting a solemn exercise, and the studio an oratory, where each new work was begun with fasting and prayers. His holy zeal was rewarded by the favour of the doctors and dignitaries of the Church. For the archbishop he designed a series of tapestries on the life of the Virgin, which were wrought for the cathedral in the looms of Flanders. He was largely employed by the chapter, and for most of the parish churches of the city; and many of his works adorned the monasteries of the Carmelites, Dominicans, Jesuits, Franciscans, and Jeronymites..........He was

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