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still more appropriate, for the commemoration of great legislative measures, which are generally the result of the patient labour of the Committee room. But the Royal Gallery we would have filled with the choicest deeds of true greatness in the annals of our country, in those ages which preceded the architectural age of the building. We would have that apartment, beyond others, to be the Gallery of British virtue, whether shown forth in feats of chivalry, or in generous acts of virtue, whether foreign or domestic. Several such have been chosen, as the actions of Alfred, Bruce, and Philippa. But what has the buccaneer Blake to do in such a place, or the marriage of Henry V? Then, when we get nearer our times, we have nothing but a series of battles fought amidst clouds of "villanous saltpetre," in no less villanous costumes. These will no doubt rivet the attention of the passer-by: but they will not be the instructive lessons of an age of peace. A grand episode in a battle may be made a moral lecture; but the din of war itself, the strife, and the agony, the gashing and the blood-pouring of the field are not good to be paraded before a nation, which hails a victory not as an arch of triumph, but as the gate of peace. Again we most fervently trust, that this gallery, and indeed every other nobler part of this magnificent palace, be dedicated to the truly great, the truly glorious, and only to the truly good. Let the history of England be read on its walls, even by the unlettered beholder. Show him nothing but what you would inspire him to imitate, or what at least you would not be sorry to hear him praise. Let the arrangement of subjects be more simple and more intelligible. In rooms particular ideas or points may be illustrated, but the corridors and waiting rooms, and lobbies, must be for the people, and brought to their level. If we are making a new experiment in art, we are also making one in its effects. For the first time we are going to instruct by pictures. Let not the chance be lost, by over ingenuity, or complex efforts. A chronological arrangement will give every variety, and be most intelligible.

We know how difficult it is, in England, to obtain a hearing, unless some privilege of name or of position gives one a title to it. We have no doubt the nation considers the whole matter of the building as one belonging to "the Woods and Forests," just as building a new seventy-four does to the Admiralty; and it does not see why it should

trouble itself about the painting of the one, any more than about the decoration of the state-cabin of the other. It is somebody's place to look after each, and John Bull's, yearly to grumble at the estimates for both. Each may be a failure in the end-the one may lag miles behind its experimental squadron, and have to be cut down; the other may be pronounced by foreigners and good judges an abortive effort in regard to art. However, they have been duly paid for, and there is an end of the matter. We trust however that the apathy which has been shown till now on the subject of the national palace, as the great field and monument of national art, will not continue. We sincerely hope that men of intelligence and of public standing will take the matter up, and that artists in particular will give their views openly and boldly. For we are sure that the Royal Commission is formed of emn too high-minded to be unfavourably biassed in their award of the commissions still at their disposal, by any candid and open remonstrances or appeals. Their reputation individually, as well as the glory of national art, is at stake: and mistakes, in great works like these, are irreparable. Such an opportunity as the present will not return. If it does, it must, and only can, be, by some grand Catholic undertaking.


I.-The Canons and Decrees of the Sacred and Ecumenical Council of Trent, Translated by the Rev. J. WATERWORTH; with Essays on the External and Internal History of the Council. 8vo. London : Dolman, 1848.


THE return of the third centenary commemoration of the opening of this memorable council (1545), has brought with it a number of valuable and important publications connected with its history and proceedings. Editions of its canons and decrees-some of them of more than ordinary sumptuousness-have been specially prepared for the

occasion; and in Germany, where its interest comes more home to the public mind, the festival has been marked by more than one important historical and controversial publication. Perhaps it is hardly right to enumerate Wessenberg's general work on "The Councils of the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries" among this class, although its chief interest centres in the great council of Trent, and it has given occasion to many rejoinders on this subject from the Catholic historians of Germany, especially Dr. Hefele of Tübingen.* But a second work by Dr. Rutjes, t professedly designed as a Fest-gabe for the tercentenary festival, contains, along with a translation of the canons and a summary of the chapters, a concise and comprehensive view of all that is most important in the proceedings of the council; while the more elaborate work of Brischart may be regarded as a resumè of all the weighty historical and polemical controversies which have arisen out of the subject.

It is pleasant to find that, for once, we have not been behind our active and enterprising brethren abroad. Mr. Waterworth's massive and elaborate volume comprises all the most important features of these publications. It contains a complete and most careful translation of the canons and decrees, and of all the bulls, briefs, and other documents connected therewith; together with a condensed history of the entire proceedings of the assembly. Indeed, the latter might well have been offered as a distinct and independent work. It occupies above two hundred and fifty pages, and contains, as far as regards mere history, almost every single detail of interest or importance connected with the deliberations of the council.

It is divided into two parts. The first (which is called the external history of the council) comprises the history

* Kritische Beleuchtung der Wessenbergischen Schrift uber der Kirchen-versammlungen des 15ten und 16ten jahrhunderts. Von Dr. J. C. Hefele. Tübingen.

+ Geschichte des hochheiligen und allgemeinen Conciliums von Trient übersichtlich dargestellt, von Dr. Heinrich Rutjes. 8vo. Muster, 1846.

Beurtheilung der Controversen Sarpi und Pallavicini, in der Geschichte des Trienter Concils. Von Dr. J. N. Brischar. 2 vols. 8vo. Tübingen, 1844.

of the circumstances which led to its convocation-the origin and progress of the heresy of Luther-the early efforts towards a reunion of parties-the first demands for a council-the deliberations about the place of sittingthe impediments which arose to prevent its meeting under Clement VII.-and the various convocations and prorogations which preceded its actual assembling under Paul III.

The second part contains the actual history of the sessions-its opening at Trent, December 13th, 1545its translation to Bologna after the eighth session, March 11th, 1547-its languid and inefficient sittings in that city -its suspension in the September of the same year-its resumption under Julius VII., May 1st, 1551-its second suspension, April 28th, 1552-the ineffectual attempts made to resume it under Paul IV., and its final re-opening and concluding sessions at Trent, under Pius IV.

It is because of the exceeding difficulty of compressing all this within the narrow limits of an introductory essay, that we have said the history might well have been made an independent work, for, strange as it may seem, we do not hesitate to say that it would have been far less troublesome to have written the same history at twice the length which Mr. Waterworth prescribed as his limit. Indeed, we can hardly speak too highly of the manner in which this portion of the work is executed. It is only one who has plodded his laborious way through the five ponderous quartos of Pallavicini, that can fully estimate the nature and extent of the service which Mr. Waterworth has rendered by this compilation. Of course we need not say, that by far the larger part of Pallavicini's work is occupied by his controversy with Fra Paolo, and his detailed accounts of the minute proceedings of the council. These, as a matter of necessity, Mr. Waterworth has omitted. But we can safely state, after a very close and careful examination of the most important sessions, that there is no fact of moment mentioned by Pallavicini which Mr. Waterworth has overlooked, and no discussion of interest the leading characteristics of which he has not preserved.

We have not been able to enter so minutely into translation of the canons and decrees, and therefore we shall not pronounce so unreservedly of this part as a whole. But, as far as we have had leisure to examine,

we do not hesitate to express, not alone our complete satisfaction with the manner in which the translation is executed, but also our full confidence that, from the style in which so much has been done, the same character must pervade the entire performance. After having confronted the translation, word for word, with the original in some of the most difficult and technical passages of the entire, (as, for example, the chapters of the sixth session,) we are enabled to state, that not only is the meaning fully and faithfully, and even literally, preserved, and the strict technical phraseology fully, equivalently, and intelligibly rendered; not only are all the niceties of language (especially those which are known to have been adopted for a particular purpose) rigidly adhered to, and, indeed, in a way which no translator not fully acquainted with the history of the debates could have maintained; but, moreover, this is done in such a way as never to violate the strict proprieties of language, but even, generally speaking, to maintain so much of ease and freedom of style as is compatible with the nature of such a subject, or indeed consistent with the dignity and solemnity of such an authority.

We cannot, therefore, bring these observations to a close, without expressing our strong and earnest hope that Mr. Waterworth may be induced, by the success of this important volume, to pursue the design which he announces in his preface, and prepare for publication a complete translation of at least the decrees of the general councils. It is, no doubt, a large and laborious undertaking; but his Faith of Catholics,' no less than the present volume, point him out as a person eminently fitted for the task; and the preparatory studies in which these works have necessarily engaged him, have supplied advantages which it is the lot of few to enjoy.


II.-The Bass Rock; its Civil and Ecclesiastic History, Geology, Martyrology, Zoology, and Botany. 8vo. Edinburgh, Johnstone, 1848.


In a recent number of the Quarterly, an amusing article-attributed, we believe correctly, to the Sheriff of Moray-is devoted to the subject of Scottish Topo

No. clxiv. March, 1848.

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