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Christ our Lord, be glory and majesty, dominion and power, as before all timet, so now, and throughout all ages. Amen.

* The words "through Jesus Christ our Lord" are omitted in the received text and by Newcome. They are introduced in Griesbach, 2d edit., upon the authority of the Alexandrian, Vatican, and Ephrem MSS, and many ancient versions.

+ The words "before all time" are wanting in R. T. and N., but introduced by Griesbach, 2d edit., upon the same authorities as in the preceding note. q. d. "As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be."





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THE Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave him, that he might shew to his servants things which must shortly come to pass; and he sent and signified it by his 2 angel to his servant John: who hath thus testified of the word of God, and of the testimony given to Jesus Christ, 3 even whatever things he saw. Happy is he that readeth, and those that hear, the words of this prophecy, and keep the things written in it: for the time is near.


John to the seven churches which are in Asia: favour be to you, and peace, from him that is, and that was, and that is to come; and from the seven spirits which

The Apocalypse or Revelation of St. John, is one of those books, the genuineness and authority of which, as Eusebius informs us, was, by some, called in question. It has, however, been almost universally received in modern times. As a book of prophecy, the evidence of its divine authority must chiefly rest upon the perceived accomplishment of the predictions which it contains: so that it may be regarded as in a considerable degree independent of external evidence. In this, however, in the estimation of many learned men, it is far from being deficient. Sir Isaac Newton says, (Observ. on Apoc. p. 249,) "I do not find any other book of the New Testament so strongly attested, or commented upon so early as this." Dr. Priestley (Notes, vol. iv. p. 573,) says, he thinks it impossible for any intelligent and candid person to peruse it without being convinced that, " considering the age in which it appeared, none but a person divinely inspired could have written it." See also Mr. Towers's observations and extracts respecting the authenticity of the Apocalypse, in his learned Illustrations of Prophecy, vol. i. ch. iii. Mr. Evanson has even endeavoured to prove that the apostle Paul alludes and thus bears testimony to the authenticity of this book in some of his epistles. See Evanson's Reflections upon the State of Religion, p. 39-42. Some learned men, however, who have even admitted the divine authority of the Apocalypse, have expressed a doubt whether this book was written by John the apostle and evangelist. The arguments of Dionysius, a disciple of Origen, and an eminently learned and pious bishop of Alexandria, in the third century, are contained in a large extract from 2

5 [are] before his throne; and from Jesus Christ who is the faithful witness, the first-born from the dead, and the prince of the kings of the earth.

To him that loveth us, and hath washed us from our 6 sins by his own blood, and hath made us a kingdom of priests to his God and Father; to him be glory and dominion for ever and ever. Amen.



Behold, he will come with clouds; and every eye will see him, and those also who pierced him and all the tribes of the earth will lament because of him. Even 8 so, Amen. "I am Alpha and Omega," saith the Lord Godt, that is, and was, and that is to come, the Almighty.


I John, your brother and companion in the affliction, and kingdom, and patience of Jesus Christ, was in the island which is called Patmos, for the word of God,

treatise of Dionysius in the seventh book of Eusebius's Ecclesiastical History. They are thus abridged by Dr Lardner: "Dionysius's objections are five in number. 1. That the evangelist John has not named himself, either in his gospel or in his catholic epistle, but the writer of the Revelation names himself more than once. 2. That though the writer of the Revelation calls himself John, he has not shewn us that he is the apostle of that name. 3. That the Revelation doth not mention the catholic epistle, nor that epistle the Revelation. 4. That there is a great agreement in sentiment, expression, and manner, between St. John's gospel and epistle, but the Revelation is quite different in all these respects, without any resemblance or similitude. 5. That the Greek of the gospel and epistle is pure and correct, but that of the Revelation has barbarisms and solecisms. Dionysius's own opinion is, that the Revelation was written by some holy and inspired person named John, but who that John was he does not know: he might be John the Elder, said to have resided for some time at Ephesus, in Asia." Dr. Lardner, having examined the arguments of Dionysius at large, and stated the opinions of other learned men, concludes with his usual candour, "I must acknowledge that the Revelation, when compared with the apostle's unquestioned writings, has an unlikeness not easy to be accounted for." Lardner's Works, vol. iii p. 130. The principal authors who have attempted the interpretation of this difficult prophecy are Joseph Medc, Sir Isaac Newton, Waple, Daubuz, Vitringa, Lowman, Bp. Newton. See also Mr. Towers's Illust. of Prophecy, Abp. Newcome's and Dr. Priestley's Notes upon the Scriptures, and Mr. Evanson's Reflections upon the State of Religion in Christendom in the 19th Century.

kings and priests, R. T. and N. See Griesbach and Wetstein.

R. T. reads, "I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending, saith the Lord."

who am also your brother, R. T.

10 and for my testimony to Jesus [Christ.] I was in the spirit on the Lord's day; and heard behind me a loud 11 voice, as of a trumpet, saying, "What thou seest, write in a book, and send it to the seven churches†; to Ephesus, and to Smyrna, and to Pergamus, and to Thyatira, and to Sardis, and to Philadelphia, and to 12 Laodicea." And I turned to see whence the voice came ‡ which spake to me: and, when I had turned, I saw 13 seven golden candlesticks||; and in the midst of the seven candlesticks, one like the Son of man, clothed with a garment down to the feet, and girt about his breast with a 14 golden girdle. And his head and his hair were white, as

white wool, or snow and his eyes were as a flame of 15 fire; and his feet like fine brass, as if they had been purified in a furnace; and his voice as the sound of many 16 waters. And he had in his right hand seven stars and out of his mouth went a sharp two-edged sword: and his 17 countenance was as the sun shineth in his strength. And, when I saw him, I fell at his feet as dead. And he put

his right hand upon me, saying [unto me,] "Fear not: 18 I am the first, and the last; and he that lived, and be

came dead; and, behold, I live for ever and ever, and 19 have the keys of death and of the grave¶. Write there

fore the things which thou hast seen, and the things which now are, and the things which will be hereafter. 20 As to the mystery of the seven stars which thou sawest in my right hand, and as to the seven golden candlesticks; the seven stars are the angelsft of the seven churches, and the seven candlesticks ‡‡ are the seven churches.

*I am Alpha and Omega, the first, and the last, and what, etc. R. T. These words are wanting in the Alexandrian and Ephrem MSS. and in the Coptic, Ethiopic, and other versions; and are omitted in the editions of Griesbach and Newcome.

to the seven churches in Asia; R. T.

So Le Clerc and L'Enfant and Beausobre translate. Or, discover, N. m.
lampstands, N. wherever the word occurs.

Gr. Hades. q. d. the invisible state.

+ Generally understood to be the elders or bishops of the seven churches. The word signifies messengers, which is Mr. Wakefield's translation.

# which thou sawest, R. T.


CH. "To the angel of the church at Ephesus write; These things saith he that holdeth the seven stars in his right hand, that walketh in the midst of the seven golden 2 candlesticks: I know thy works, and thy labour, and thy patience, and that thou canst not bear those that are evil and thou hast tried those who say that they are 3 apostles, and are not; and hast found them false: and hast patience, and hast borne much for the sake of my 4 name, and hast not fainted t. Nevertheless I have somewhat against thee, because thou hast let go thy first 5 love. Remember therefore whence thou art failen, and repent, and do thy first works or else I will come to thee [quickly], and will remove thy candlestick out 6 of its place, unless thou repent. But this praise thou hast, that thou hatest the deeds of the Nicoläitans, which I also hate.' He that hath an ear, let him hear what the spirit saith to the churches. To him that overcometh I will give to eat of the tree of life which is in the paradise of my God.


"And to the angel of the church at Smyrna write; 'These things saith the first and the last, who was dead, 9 and lived again: I know thy [works, and] affliction, and poverty, (yet thou art rich,) and the blasphemy of those who say that they arc Jews, and are not, but are the sy10 nagogue of Satan††. Fear none of those things which

thou art about to suffer. Behold, the accuser ‡‡ is about to cast some of you into prison, that ye may be proved; and ye will have affliction for ten days. Be thou faithful 11 unto death, and I will give thee the crown of life.' He that hath an ear, let him hear what the spirit saith to the churches. He that overcometh shall not be hurt by the second death.

* Or, messenger.

omitted, N.

Or, messenger.

#devil, N. See Wakefield.

† thou hast laboured, and hast not fainted. R.T. Hin the midst of the paradise of God. R. T.

Jewish adversaries to the gospel. See ch. iii. 9.

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