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and about 50 acres in Guernsey. Mr. Thornton says that, whereas in England 30s. an acre would be thought a fair, and indeed rather a high, rent for middling land, it is only inferior land that in Guernsey and Jersey will not let for at least £4; while in Switzerland the average rent is £6 an acre. And indeed, according to Mr. Le Quesne, in his "Ireland and the Channel Islands" (p. 123), the average rent of good land in the Channel Islands may be estimated at £6 an acre.

There are, of course, in the Islands, and especially in Alderney, as in France and Switzerland, many small properties which are much smaller than the size I have mentioned, and which do not exceed one or two or five acres in extent. But the same remark applies to these, as to the similar plots in France and Switzerland. They are generally not farms. Their owners do not pretend to be farmers. Some of these plots are the kitchen gardens of shopkeepers in the towns. Some are the small plots or fields of cottagers, who earn their living by day labour. Some are the gardens of market gardeners, who now carry on a large trade with London in early vegetables, &c.

And such is the enterprise and intelligence of these small proprietors and gardeners, that they have-small as their population is, and small as their resources would be expected to be, by those who expect to find countries where land is much subdivided to be mere "pauper warrens," established a large trade with London in early vegetables, potatoes, grapes, apples, and pears. In 1873, as Mr. Zincke informs us, Jersey sent to London £300,000 worth of early potatoes, and Guernsey fifty tons of grapes grown. under glass, an article of export, the amount of which increases every year. And as Mr. Zincke most truly adds, "without the division of the land, which obtains throughout these islands, these astonishing results could not have been produced. The temporary occupiers of other men's lands. cannot plant orchards or build vineries; and as to the potatoes, which must be forced into maturity by the middle

of May, the culture they require is so costly—it amounts to about £40 an acre-that, as a general rule, it will not be applied on a large scale, or to land of which the cultivator is not also the owner." And this enterprise and intelligence of these small proprietors is shown in other remarkable facts. Guernsey contains only 10,000 cultivable acres in its whole extent-an amount of land which would in Great Britain and Ireland only constitute a respectable medium-sized estate-and yet this small island, with no large town, and only its yeomen and peasant farmers, is now spending £16,000 in building a covered market for vegetables and fruit. It has also, Mr. Zincke informs us, lately carried a broad street across the town of St. Peter's Port, from the harbour to the heights above the town, at a cost of £10,000.

But the great glory of this little island is its noble harbour, upon which it has from the resources of its inhabitants recently expended £285,000. Of this, at the time of Mr. Zincke's visit, 1875, £65,000 had been paid off, and the remainder of the outlay was being cleared off at the rate of £1500 a year.

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"No one," Mr. Zincke says, can see without surprise the massiveness of the enclosing walls of the harbour, and the amplitude of space on the top of them for quays, carriage roads, and footways."

Jersey, too, it appears, is constructing a new harbour in deeper water, for the accommodation of larger ships, as their old harbour was found too shallow. So much for the enterprise of these "pauper warrens."

Take another test of the prosperity of the two principal Channel Islands. Mr. Thornton says ("Plea," &c., page 40): "The agricultural population is more than four times as dense as in England, there being in the latter country only one cultivator to 17 acres of cultivated land, while in Guernsey and Jersey there is one to about four. Yet the agriculture of these islands maintains, besides cultivators, non-agricultural populations, respectively twice and

four times as dense as that of England. The difference does not arise from any superiority of soil or climate possessed by the Channel Islands, for the former is naturally rather poor, and the latter is not better than in the southern counties of England. It is owing entirely to the assiduous care of the farmers and the abundant use of manure."

Mr. Brock, a late bailiff of Guernsey, and therefore a person who ought to be competent to express an opinion on such a subject, says: "There are larger estates in England than the whole of this island." Mr. Brock might have said that there is one estate in England 20 times as large as the whole of this island, and several 10 and 15 times as great; and one in Scotland 130 times as great! Mr. Brock continues: "Let the production of the island be compared to that of any 10,000 acres kept in one, two, or three hands in Great Britain, and the advantage of small farms will be obvious." ("Guernsey and Jersey Magazine," October. 1837, p. 258; Thornton's "Plea,” p. 41.)

But let us inquire what the condition of the yeomen farmers and small owners is. I shall again cite Mr. Thornton, who has both examined for himself and who has examined the best authorities. "The happiest community," says Mr. Hill, “which it has ever been my lot to fall in with, is to be found in this little Island of Guernsey." ("Tait's Magazine" for June 1834.) "No matter," says Sir George Head, "to what point the traveller may choose to bend his way, comfort everywhere prevails," ("Home Tour through various Parts of the United Kingdom"); and then Mr. Thornton gives the results of his own observations in the following remarkable passage:

"What most surprises the English visitor in his first walk or drive beyond the bounds of St. Peter's Port is the appearance of the habitations with which the landscape is thickly studded. Many of them are such as in his own country would belong to persons of middle rank; but he is puzzled to guess what sort of people live in the others, which, though in general not large enough for farmers, are almost invariably

much too good in every respect for day labourers. The walls are often completely hidden by rose trees, geraniums, and myrtles, which reach up to the ledge of the roof, and form an arch over the door. Every window is crowded with pots of choice flowers, which are sometimes to be found also in the little front garden, though the latter is more commonly given up to useful than to ornamental plants. Such attention to elegance about a dwelling has always been held to signify that the inmates are not absorbed by the cares of life, but have leisure and taste for its enjoyments. But beauty is not the only nor the chief recommendation of the Guernsey cottages. They are always substantially built of stone, and being generally of two storeys, contain plenty of accommodation. The interior is not unworthy of the exterior. In every room, pulley windows, with large squares of glass, take the place of leaded casements with diamond-shaped panes; equal attention is paid to comfort and to neatness in the fitting up; there is abundance of all needful furniture, and of crockery and kitchen utensils; and flitches of bacon, those best ornaments of a poor man's chimney, are scarcely ever wanting. This picture is not drawn from one or two select models, but is a fair representation of the generality of the dwellings of the peasantry. Literally, in the whole island, with the exception of a few fishermen's huts, there is not one so mean as to be likened to the ordinary habitation of an English farm labourer. . . . The people of Guernsey are as well clad as lodged. The working dress of the men, who wear a short blue frock over their other clothes " [a similar dress to that worn by the Swiss, French, and many of the German farmers and peasants, which washes easily and well, and which keeps the under garments clean, but which is so short as not to interfere with the free action of the limbs], "is not indeed very becoming, but is never ragged; and on Sundays they don a suit of broadcloth, while their wives and daughters make an equal display of the outward symbols of respectability.

"What makes the evident affluence of these islanders a


still more gratifying spectacle is its almost universal diffusion. Beggars are utterly unknown. . . . Pauperism, ablebodied pauperism at least, is nearly as rare as mendicancy. There are two so-called 'hospitals' in Guernsey, one for the town and the other for the country parishes, which, in addition to the purpose indicated by their name, serve also as poorhouses and houses of industry; yet the inmates of all descriptions in the town hospital, at the time of my visit, were only 80 men, 130 women, 55 boys, and 39 girls, and I was assured that every one of the adults was incapacitated from earning a livelihood by some mental or bodily defect, or by bad character. No one fit for employment had been compelled to take refuge there by inability to procure work. The same remark applies to the country hospital, in which I found 18 men able to work, but who were either habitual drunkards, or otherwise of such bad character that no one would employ them. The average number of inmates, of both sexes and of all ages and classes was 146." (Thornton's "Plea," p. 100.)

Writing of the houses and cottages of the farmers and peasants in the islands generally, Mr. Zincke says:

"All that one sees in them speaks of sufficiency, ease, and prosperity throughout all classes. The number of substantial houses in the environs of their two towns surprises one who calls to mind the smallness of the islands of which they are the capitals. In the country parishes, too, good houses abound. One accustomed to the uninhabited look of so large a proportion of the rural parishes of England wonders how the possessors of so many good houses as he sees here can find the means to live in them. So with the better class of houses. The same is observable with respect to the houses of the peasantry and of the artisans. A month's search for something of the mean and dilapidated kind, not unknown among ourselves, was quite unsuccessful. I went into several cottages, all of which I found well built, roomy enough, and in good repair. This was very remarkable in the houses of the peasantry. As to the clothing

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