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are trodden in, by lads practising jumping over them; and,

what is worse, every fruit tree which is not strictly guarded, is soon cleared of its fruit.

All this makes the owners of land in Lancashire, and near our larger towns, necessarily and naturally anxious to keep the operatives and lads out of their lands. Enclosures of the strongest kind are therefore becoming more and more numerous, and the rural walks are being gradually spoiled by walls; so that while the population is becoming denser and denser, the labourers are being shut into the high roads and lanes more and more, and the public paths through the fields are being themselves enclosed by fences on either side, from the absolute necessity of protecting the land from the depredations of those who feel no interest whatever in its being kept in good condition.

One proof, among many others, that a system like that of Germany, Switzerland, France, and Holland, would in England produce, in this respect, a result similar to that produced in those countries, may be derived from the fact, that where there are any allotments, even merely rented by the poor, in the neighbourhood of a manufacturing town, however near to the town they lie, and however exposed and unenclosed they may be, they are quite safe, and are undisturbed, showing that the people have a great respect in general for the property which belongs to any of themselves. Instances of this kind may be seen in the neighbourhood of Birmingham, Preston, and some other towns in England.

9. The excellent education given to the poor of Germany, Switzerland, and Holland, the great subdivision of the land, and the amusements of the people, tend very materially to improve the health and social comfort of the poorer classes in the towns.

Counsellor Reichensperger, in his learned work "Die Agrarfrage," says 1 :—“In general there can be no doubt that, in those countries where the land is subdivided, and where the subdivision is not extremely small, the people are well fed, well

1 Die Agrarfrage, p. 43.

clothed, highly civilised, both physically and mentally, and comfortably housed; that under the influence of the small proprietor system, the whole subdivided land exhibits, in every part, the proof of industry and of praiseworthy improvement; and that, by the happy change of different kinds of cultivation, by rich orchards and by products and manufactures of all kinds, it exhibits the significant proof of evenly divided and real prosperity."

The remarkable increase in the quantities of bread and meat consumed per head by the people of Prussia, since the division of the land, is one proof among others of the improvement in their social condition.


It appears 1 that the increase in the consumption of grain per head of the population, in seven large towns of Prussia, between 1831 and 1841, was as follows :

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The consumption of corn in all the Prussian towns increased, between 1805 and 1831, 10 lbs. 12 oz. rye per head, with a diminution of only 1 lb. 10 oz. per head in wheat, and a very considerable increase per head in the consumption of potatoes!

There are, however, some towns in Prussia, as Magdeburg and Potsdam, where the consumption of bread per head since 1831 has somewhat lessened. But the consumption of all the great towns taken together, shows a considerable progress since 1831, both in the quantity and in the quality of the food

1 See a very interesting paper published by Mr. Banfield, in the eleventh volume of the Journal of the Statistical Society, and founded upon the reports of my friend, the Prussian Minister of Statistics.

eaten by the people. This increase in the great towns is represented to have been as follows:

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Increase per head of the consumption of bread from 1831 to 1841.

But what is still more remarkable, is, that since the division of the land among the peasants, the quantity of meat consumed per head, by the population of the whole kingdom, has also greatly increased, notwithstanding the increase in the numbers of the population.

In 1805 the average quantity of meat consumed by each per-
son in Prussia was

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3312 lbs.

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While in the following towns the increase, in the average quantity of meat eaten by each individual, had increased still more remarkably :—

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When it is considered how very greatly the population of Prussia has increased since 1804, viz., from 10,000,000 in 1804, to 15,000,000 in 1841, it will be evident to all, that this increase, in the quantity of good wholesome food eaten by the people, is an undeniable proof of the good effects of their social system, and proves incontestably that the social condition of the people is progressively improving.

A further proof of the improved social condition of the people of Prussia, since the subdivision of the land, is the increase, which has taken place since that event, in the general consumption of the whole country. The following table, taken from the able work of the Minister of Statistics in Berlin, shows what the amount of this improvement in the social condition has been.

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The Prussian people, therefore, eat more bread, meat, rice, and sugar, as much wheat and corn, drink more coffee, and wear more cloth, linen, woollen stuffs, and silks, than they did before the peasants were enabled to purchase lands.

The Prussian Minister of Statistics, after giving these remarkable statistics, says 2:—"The principal object of agriculture is to obtain bread and meat. As our Prussian agriculture raises so much more meat and bread on the same extent of territory than it used to do, it follows that agriculture must have been greatly increased both in science and 1 Der Volkswohlstand im Preuss. Staate; pp. 28, 218, and 250.

2 Ibid., seite 251.

industry. There are other facts which confirm the truth of this conclusion. The division of estates has, since 1831, proceeded more and more throughout the country. There are now many more small independent proprietors than formerly. Yet, however many complaints of pauperism are heard among the dependent labourers, WE NEVER HEAR IT COMPLAINED,


Nor do we hear that the estates of the peasants in the eastern provinces are becoming too small, or that the system of freedom of disposition leads to too great a division of the father's land among the children. Complaints such as these are heard in a few exceptional cases from the western provinces of the kingdom, where there was freedom of disposition before 1806. They are not, therefore, the necessary consequences of the law, which regulates the rights of the possessors of land. Throughout the kingdom, wherever the small proprietor has become the unfettered owner, there agriculture has been delivered from all the fetters which used to impede its improvement. The owner is well acquainted with his small estate. It is an almost universally acknowledged fact, that the gross produce of the land, in grain, potatoes, and cattle, is increased, when the land is cultivated by those who own small portions of it; and if this had not been the case, it would have been impossible to raise as much of the necessary articles of food, as has been wanted for the increasing population. Even on the larger estates, the improvement in the system of agriculture is too manifest to admit of any doubt. . . . Industry, and capital, and labour, are expended upon the soil. It is rendered productive by means of manuring and careful tillage. The amount of the produce is increased. . . . The prices of the estates, on account of their increased productiveness, have increased. The great commons, many acres of which used to lie wholly uncultivated, are disappearing, and are being turned into meadows and fields. The cultivation of potatoes has increased very considerably. Greater plots of lands are now devoted to the cultivation of potatoes than ever used to be. . . . The old system of the three-field-system of agriculture, according to which one-third of the field used to be left always fallow, in order to recruit the land, is now scarcely ever to be met with. With respect to the cattle, the farmers now labour to improve the breed. Sheep breeding is rationally and scien

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