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the mortgage, and hire himself out as a day labourer, until he and his family have saved enough wherewith to purchase another farm. Under this system, therefore, land never remains long in the hands of those who are not able to cultivate it profitably, or who are not interested in its cultivation. But under the system of entails and of great estates, we know that it is constantly the case that landlords have no capital wherewith to cultivate their land; that they have already borrowed so much upon it that they can borrow no more; and that they cannot, owing to the terms of the settlement, sell their estate or any part of it; so that the landlord finds his hands tied fast, while the estate is left in a state of miserable cultivation, because its owner has no spare capital to expend upon it, and because he cannot sell it to any one else who has spare capital, and who would feel interested in improving the land, although there may be many such purchasers in the market.

Under the German, French, and Swiss systems, a peasant proprietor never retains his land in his own possession, if he finds he cannot make a profit from it large enough to live upon. There are no regulations, no laws, no settlements, which prevent the peasant selling whenever he feels disposed to do so.

There are always great numbers of rich merchants or small shopkeepers, who wish to invest capital in land, and who are able to bring capital to its cultivation.

It is the principal feature of the foreign systems, that land can be brought into the market just as easily and cheaply as any other commodity. It can be passed from hand to hand with the greatest facility. This feature of these systems secures their vigour and the productiveness of cultivation in those countries, where they are in force. Land and capital are not necessarily separated. They can be always easily united.

Small estates, however, under a system of strict settlements and complicated successions, such as ours, will always be ruinous; because, under such systems, the small proprietor cannot get rid of his land, when he feels it is ruining him to cultivate it. Land under such a system is often kept for years in the hands of men who have no capital to expend upon it. So in Saxony, before the beginning of the present century, there were a number of small proprietors, who held their lands under strict settlements; and accounts published in those times represent the condition of the proprietors themselves, and that

of their farms, to have been wretched, and to have been progressively deteriorating; and those old reports, with great discrimination and justice, declare, that the cause of that state of things was, not the smallness of the estates, but that the small proprietors could not dispose of their lands to men of science and capital, when they felt it to be their interest to do so.

INDEX OF SUBJECTS IN THE APPENDIX.

2. THE EDUCATION OF THE PEASANTS, COMBINED WITH THE
SUBDIVISION of Land, TENDS TO STRENGTHEN THEIR
PRUDENCE, FORESIGHT, AND ECONOMY

The laws prohibiting marriage in certain cases in Switzer-
land

Opinions of Reichensperger and Thaer

Statistics of the age of marriage in Geneva, Vaud,
Prussia, and England.

PAGE

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178

178
180

182

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The postponement of marriage does not necessarily in-
crease the immorality of the peasants.

186

Opinions of Mill, Laing, Sismondi, Rau, Quetelet, and

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The small amount of pauperism in some of the Protestant
cantons of Switzerland

197

5. THE EDUCATION OF THE PEASANTS AND THE DIVISION
OF THE LAND TEND VERY GREATLY TO IMPROVE THE
CULTIVATION OF THE LAND

199

The difference between tenants-at-will and peasant pro-
prietors

199

The Irish peasants are tenants-at-will
Opinions of Reichensperger and Kraus

The produce of land farmed by small proprietors is greater
than its produce when farmed by great proprietors
Opinions of Reichensperger, Rau, Thaer, and Shubert .
Increased productiveness of agriculture in Prussia since
the subdivision of the land

200

201

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203

203

208

Rau's account of agriculture in the Palatinate
Banfield's account of the condition of agriculture in the
Prussian Rhine provinces

Opinions respecting the progress of agriculture in Prussia
The improvement in the cultivation of the land in Saxony
and Switzerland since the division of the lands
The difference between the state of agriculture in Wales
and Scotland and in Saxony and Switzerland.
Gleig's account of farming in Saxony

The hillside farming in Saxony .

PAGE

208

212

215

219

220

221

224

The agricultural colleges of Switzerland and Germany
Sismondi's description of the peasant proprietors of
Switzerland

225

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229

Nicholls' and Reichensperger's descriptions of the small
farms of Belgium

230

Howitt's account of peasant farming in the Palatinate and
in Germany

231

Professor Rau's account of the state of agriculture in the
Palatinate

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Strohmeier's account of the progress of agriculture in the
canton of Soleure

Professor Vulliemin's account of the progress of agricul-
ture in the canton of Vaud

236

237

Herr von Knonau's account of the progress of agricul-
ture in the canton of Zurich

237

Herr Pupikofer's account of the progress of agriculture
in the canton of Thurgovie

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Herr von Knonau on the management of cattle in Zurich
Inglis' account of farming in Switzerland

238

240

Laing's account of the farming by peasant proprietors in
Norway and on the Continent

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Mr. Mill's opinions of the excellent effects of the system
of peasant proprietors

245

6. THE EDUCATION OF THE POOR AND THE DIVISION OF THE
LAND TEND GREATLY TO IMPROVE THE CHARACTER OF
THEIR HOUSES AND OF THEIR VILLAGES

253

The cottages in Prussia and the Rhine provinces
Banfield's description of the peasants' farms in the Rhine

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The difference between the state of the town labourers of

England and Germany.

257

Dr. Bruggeman's opinion.

The cottages in Switzerland.-Von Knonau's description
of the peasants' houses in the canton of Zurich
Bronner's description of the peasants' houses in the

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257

259

canton of Aargau

261

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Strohmeier's description of the peasants' houses in the
canton of Soleure

262

Pupikofer's description of the peasants' houses in the
canton of Thurgovie

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Professor Vulliemin's description of the peasants' houses
in the canton of Vaud .

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Im Thurm's description of the peasants' houses in the
canton of Schaffhausen
Von Knonau's description of the peasants' houses in the
canton of Schweitz
Symon's description of the peasants' houses in the can-
tons of St. Gall and Appenzell.—Chambers' opinion
of the condition of the Swiss peasantry
Mügge's description of the improvement of the condition
of the peasantry in the canton of Vaud since the aboli-
tion of the feudal laws .

262

263

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Sismondi's description of the social condition of the
peasant proprietors of Switzerland

266

Laing's description of the social condition of the peasant
proprietors of Switzerland

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Nicholls' description of the houses and social condition
of the small proprietors of Belgium

267

Reichensperger's opinion of the effect of the subdivision
of land upon the peasants of Prussia.

268

The difference between the state of the houses of the
peasants in those parts of Germany where the land is
divided, and in those parts where it is not divided
The causes of the miserable condition of the houses of
the peasantry in countries where the land is in the
hands of a few persons.

268

269

8 ONE GENERALLY TRUE INDEX OF THE CONDITION OF THE
POORER CLASSES OF ANY COUNTRY IS THE CHARACTER
OF THEIR AMUSEMENTS

273

The respect for property, and the absence of enclosures,
enable the townspeople in Germany to enjoy walks
through the fields.-The little respect shown for landed
property in our manufacturing districts

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