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this blessed Spirit that CHRIST hath promised to be with us to the end of the world. (Matt. xxviii. 20.) And CHRIST Himself hath assured us, that upon his ascension into heaven He would "pray His Father, and He should give us another Comforter," meaning this Holy Ghost, "that he might abide with us for ever;" (John xiv. 16;) and, accordingly, the Holy Ghost is vitally united to the Church of CHRIST, even as souls are united to their bodies. For as there is one Body, the Church, so here is one Spirit, i. e. the Holy Ghost, which animates that Body, (Eph. iv. 4,) and hence the unity of the Church is in the foregoing verse called the unity of the Spirit; because as the soul by diffusing itself through all the parts of the body, unites them together, and keeps them from flying abroad, and dispersing into atoms, so the Holy Spirit, by diffusing Himself throughout this mystical Body, joins and unites all its parts together, and makes it one separate and individual corporation. So that, when by Baptism we are once incorporated into this body, we are entitled to, and do at least, de jure participate of the vital influences of the Holy Ghost, who is the soul of it; and accordingly, as Baptism joins us to that body, of which this Divine Spirit is the soul; so it also conveys that Divine Spirit to us. So that, as in natural bodies, those ligaments which unite and tie the parts to one another, do also convey life and spirit to them all; so also in this mystical body, those federal rites of Baptism and the LORD's Supper, which are, as it were, its nerves and arteries, that join and confederate its members to one another, are also the conveyance of that spiritual life from the Holy Ghost, which moves and actuates them all. And hence the "washing of regeneration," and "the renewing of the Holy Ghost," the "being born of water and of the Holy Ghost," are put together as concurrent things; and in Acts ii. 38. Baptism is affirmed to be necessary to our receiving the Holy Ghost; and if by baptism we receive the Holy Ghost, that is a right and title to His grace and influence, then must the Holy Ghost be still supposed vitally united to the Church, whereof we are made members by our Baptism, and, like an omnipresent soul, to be diffused all through it, and to move and actuate every part of it by His heavenly grace and influence.

JENKIN, PRESBYTER.-On Christian Religion, vol. ii. p. 427.

Baptism is very agreeable to the nature of the Christian Religion, being a plain and easy rite, and having a natural significancy of that purity of heart, which it is the design of the Gospel to promote and establish in the world; and it is fitted to represent to us the cleansing of our souls by the blood of CHRIST, and the grace of purity and holiness, which is conveyed in this

sacrament, and the spirit of regeneration which is conferred by it. Tit. iii. 5.

SHERLOCK, BISHOP.-Vol. ii. Disc. vii.

You see the power of Baptism, and the blessings that are annexed to it, to which all are entitled who partake in the Baptism of CHRIST: for Himself He was neither born nor baptized but for our sakes; that the blessings of both might descend on us, who, through faith, are heirs together with Him of the promises of God.

By Baptism the gates of heaven are set open to us, and the way paved for our return to our native country. By Baptism we are declared to be such sons of GoD in whom He will delight, and whom He will appoint to be heirs of His kingdom. By Baptism we receive the promise of the Spirit, by which we cry, Abba, Father.

Are not these great privileges? And is not here room for mighty expectations? And yet how unsuitable to these claims do the circumstances of a Christian's life often appear? He is upon the road to heaven, you say, and the gates stand open to receive him; but how does he stumble and fall like other men, and sometimes lose his way, and wander long, bewildered in night and darkness? Or, if he keeps the road, how lazily does he travel, as if he were unwilling to come to his journey's end, and afraid to see the country which he is going to possess? The Christian only, of all men, pretends to supernatural power and strength, and an intimate acquaintance with the Spirit of GOD; and yet how hardly does he escape the pollutions of the world, and how often look back, with languishing eyes, upon the pleasures, riches, and honours of this life? And though he boasts of more than human strength, yet how does he sometimes sink below the character and dignity even of a man? Ye sons of God, for such ye are, how do ye die like the children of men, and how like is your end to theirs?

And what must we say of these things? Is the promise of GoD become of none effect? Is Baptism sunk into mere outward ceremony, and can no longer reach to the purifying the heart and mind? The fact must not be disputed; it is too evident, at least in these our days, that the lives of Christians do not answer to the manifold gifts and graces bestowed on them.

WALL, PRESBYTER.—On Infant Baptism, part ii. chap. vi. I believe Calvin was the first that ever denied this place (John iii. 5.) to mean Baptism. He gives another interpretation, which

he confesses to be new. This man did, indeed, write many things in defence of Infant Baptism. But he has done ten times more prejudice to that cause, by withdrawing (as far as in him lay) the strength of this text of Scripture (which the ancient Christians used as a chief ground of it) by that forced interpretation of his, than he has done good to it by all his new hypotheses and arguments. What place of Scripture is more fit to produce, for the satisfaction of some plain and ordinary man, (who, perhaps, is not capable of apprehending the force of the consequences by which it is proved from other places,) that he ought to have his child baptized, than this, (especially if it were translated in English, as it should be,) where our SAVIOUR says, that no person shall come to heaven without it? meaning, at least in GoD's ordinary way.

POTTER, ARCHBISHOP.-Of Church Government, chap. i. P. 14.

Whoever wilfully neglects to be made a member of the Christian Church, does, by necessary consequence, deprive himself of all the privileges which belong to it; just as in any civil corporation they who are not members of it can plead no right to any of its privileges. This has already been shown to be the sense of CHRIST, and the same is constantly affirmed by the Christian writers of all ages. "They who do not come into the Church [saith Irenæus] do not partake of the Spirit, but deprive themselves of life." For where the Church is, there is the Spirit of God. And in St. Cyprian's opinion, he cannot have God for his Father who has not the Church for his Mother.

Hence the privileges of the Christian Church, such as Remission of Sins, the Grace of the Holy Spirit, and Eternal Life, are commonly said to be annexed to Baptism, this being the constant rite of initiation into the Church. Thus, in Ananias's exhortation to St. Paul," Arise, and be baptized," &c. .. ... St. Barnabas expressly affirms, that "Baptism procures remission of sins;" and proves, from the Scriptures, that they who are baptized, are received into God's favour, whereas all the rest of mankind lie under His displeasure. Peter thus exhorts his new converts: "Repent, and be baptized every one of you," &c. ..... Our blessed SAVIOUR joins Faith and Baptism together, as necessary conditions of salvation: "Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit," &c. ..... And in another place, "He that believes, and is baptized, shall be saved." From these, and like passages of Scripture, the Primitive Church constantly inferred, that where the Gospel had been sufficiently propounded, no man could be saved, without Baptism actually obtained, or earnestly desired. Whence Tertullian calls it the "happy sacrament of water, where

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by we are washed from the sins of our former blindness, and delivered into eternal life." And Cyprian gives this reason, why the Baptism of infants should not be delayed so long as the eighth day after their birth, that (since it is said in the Gospel, that "the Son of Man came not to destroy men's souls, but to save them") it is our duty, as far as in us lies, to take care that no soul shall be destroyed.

NELSON, CONFESSOR.-Festivals and Fasts, p. 115.

By this means [by Baptism] the children of believers are entered into covenant with GOD under the Gospel, as they were under the Law by circumcision; and that infants are capable of this federal relation, is plainly declared by Moses; (Deut. xxix. 11;) and since they are the offspring of Adam, and consequently obnoxious to death by his fall, how can they be made partakers of that redemption which CHRIST hath purchased for the children of GoD, if they do not enjoy the advantage of that method which is alone appointed by CHRIST for them to become members of God's kingdom? For JESUS himself has assured us, "Except one be born of water," &c. .. .. And therefore it was the constant custom of the Primitive Church to administer Baptism to infants for the remission of sins.. And this practice was esteemed, by the best tradition, to be derived from the Apostles themselves.

WATERLAND, PRESBYTER.--On Regeneration. 2.

The second is the case of infants. Their innocence and incapacity are to them instead of repentance, which they do not need, and of actual faith, which they cannot have. They are capable of being savingly born of water and the Spirit, and of being adopted into sonship with what depends thereupon; because, though they bring no virtues with them, no positive right eousness, yet they bring no obstacle, no impediment. They stipulate, they enter into contract, by their sureties, upon a presumptive and interpretative consent: they become consecrated in solemn form to Father, Son, and Holy Ghost; pardon, mercy, and other covenant privileges are made over to them; and the Holy Spirit translates them out of their state of nature (to which a curse belongs) to a state of grace, favour, and blessing; this is their regeneration.

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KETTLEWELL, PRESBYTER

AND CONFESSOR.On the

Creed-Article, Forgiveness of Sins, p. 685.

Ques. For whose sake doth ALMIGHTY GOD allow us all this benefit of forgiveness?

Ans. For JESUS CHRIST, who, as you have seen, died for our sins, and gave His blood a ransom, to purchase for us this pardon of them. "He is set forth a propitiation," &c. (Rom. iii. 25.) And thus we shall receive all this mercy for His sake, when, with the disposition before expressed, we devoutly pray to God for it in His name.

Ques.-By the promises of the Gospel, I see that this forgiveness is assured to all Christians upon the terms which you have described. But is it in any signs and tokens outwardly dispensed to them?

Ans.-Yes; both in the Holy Sacraments and in the sacerdotal Absolution. Which ways of ministering this forgiveness, as well as the forgiveness itself, are noted in some ancient Creeds: this article being thus professed in St. Cyprian's Form at Baptism: "I believe the Remission of Sins by the Church."

Ques. Is this forgiveness dispensed to us in the Sacrament of Baptism?

Ans.-Yes; and that most amply, the water of Baptism washing off the stain of all former sins. "Be baptized, and wash away thy sins," said Ananias to Saul; "Repent, and be baptized for the Remission of Sins," said St. Peter to the Jews; and, "He hath saved us by the Laver of Regeneration;" i. e. the Water of Baptism, and the Renewing of the Holy Ghost. (Tit. iii. 5.) So that whatever pollutions men had upon them, if they come to Baptism with true faith and repentance, they are thereby made clean again.

HICKES, BISHOP AND CONFESSOR.-Christian Priesthood.

It belonged to the Apostles and Presbyters, by virtue of their sacerdotal office and ministry, to be advocates and intercessors with GOD. . . . I need not insist upon their power of baptizing for the remission of sins with fasting and prayer, which was a most solemn act of expiation for washing away all the past sins of the baptized.

JOHNSON, PRESBYTER.- Unbloody Sacrifice.-Vol. i. ch. ii. sect. 1. p. 165.

I think the only immediate effect of the Spirit in Baptism, is the remission of all sin, and removing our natural disability to

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