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notwithstanding the decrees passed by the Church upon ancient heresies. Which to meet with, Vincentius saith further, that whatsoever hath been unanimously taught in the Church by writing, that is, always, by all, everywhere, to that, no contradiction is ever to be admitted in the Church. Here the style changes; for whereas Irenæus, Tertullian, and others of former time, appeal only to that which was visible in the practice of all Churches; by the time of the Council at Ephesus, (the date of Vincentius's book) so much had been written upon all points of Faith, and upon the Scriptures, that he presumeth, evidence may be made of it all, what may stand with that which the whole Church had taught, what may not.—p. 44.

ID.-Just weights and measures.

It is not the decree of the present Church, but the witness and agreement of the whole Church, that renders any thing infallible. -Seeing, therefore, that the malice of man, by dividing the Church, rendereth it invisible, as hard to be seen, though not invisible, as not possible to be seen, what remaineth, but that all public persons, and whosoever is interested in the divisions of the Church, understand and consider what account they owe, for the souls that must needs miscarry by the divisions which they maintain, when they need not? For how shall he be clear, that professes not a desire of condescending to all that which truth. will allow on either side, for the advantage of peace on both sides? And seeing neither side can make peace without the consent of both, but either may have truth alone; what remaineth, but that all reformation be confined within those bounds, which the faith and the law of the Catholic Church fixeth?—The true sense of the Scripture is not to be had, but out of the records of antiquity; especially of God's ancient people first, and then of the Christian Church. The obligation of that sense upon the Church at this time, is not to be measured against the Primitive practice of the whole Church. The reformation of the Church is nothing but the restoring of that which may appear to have been in force. It is, therefore, necessary that both sides, professing the Reformation, should agree upon the true ground of Reformation; and so upon the rule which that ground will maintain and evidence; that is, to submit all that is in question to the visible practice of the primitive times, before those abuses were brought in, which the Reformation pretendeth to restore. There is the same ground to believe that there is, for the common Christianity, namely, the Scriptures interpreted by the perpetual practice of God's Church.-And seeing the abating of the first form under Edward VI. hath wrought no effect, but to

give them that desired it an appetite to root up the whole; what thanks can we render to GOD for escaping so great a danger, but by sticking firm to a rule that will stick firm to us, and carry us through any dispute in religion, and land us in the haven of a quiet conscience, what troubles soever we may pass through, in maintaining that the Reformation of the Church will never be according to the rule which it ought to follow, till it cleave to the Catholic Church of CHRIST in this particular?-p. 50, 51. 98. 159

Ibid.-The due way of composing the Differences on foot, preserving the Church.

The chief ground that I suppose here, because I have proved it at large, is the meaning of that Article of our Creed, which professeth one Catholic Church. For either it signifies nothing, or it signifies that God hath founded one visible Church, that is, that He hath obliged all Churches (and all Christians of whom all Churches consist) to hold visible communion with the whole Church in the visible offices of God's public service. And therefore I am satisfied, that the differences upon which we are divided, cannot be justly settled upon any terms, which any part of the whole Church shall have just cause to refuse, as inconsistent with the unity of the whole Church. For in that case we must needs become schismatics, by settling ourselves upon such laws, under which any Church may refuse to communicate with us, because it is bound to communicate with the whole Church.--p. 225.

TAYLOR, BISHOP.-Dissuasive from Popery.

It was the challenge of St. Austin to the Donatists, who (as the Church of Rome does at this day) enclosed the Catholic Church within their own circuits: "Ye say that CHRIST is heir of no lands, but where Donatus is co-heir. Read this to us out of the law and the Prophets, out of the Psalms, out of the Gospel itself, or out of the letters of the Apostles: read it thence, and we be. lieve it"-plainly directing us to the fountains of our faith, the Old and New Testament, the words of CHRIST, and the words of the Apostles. For nothing else can be the fountain of our faith: whatsoever came in after these, "foris est," it belongs not unto CHRIST.

To these we also add, not as authors or finishers, but as helpers of our faith, and heirs of the doctrine apostolical, the sentiments and catholic doctrine of the Church of Gon, in the ages next after the Apostles. Not that we think them or ourselves bound to every private opinion, even of a primitive bishop and martyr; but that

we all acknowledge that the whole Church of GOD kept the faith entire, and transmitted faithfully to the after-ages the whole faith, Túrov day, "the form of doctrine, and sound words, which was at first delivered to the saints," and was defective in nothing that belonged unto salvation; and we believe that those ages sent millions of saints to the bosom of CHRIST, and sealed the true faith with their lives and with their deaths, and by both gave testimony unto JESUS, and had from Him the testimony of His SPIRIT.

And this method of procedure we now choose, not only because to them that know well how to use it, to the sober and moderate, the peaceable and the wise, it is the best, the most certain, visible and tangible, most humble and satisfactory; but also because the Church of Rome does, with greatest noises, pretend her conformity to antiquity. Indeed, the present Roman doctrines, which are in difference, were invisible and unheard of in the first and best antiquity, and with how ill success their quotations are out of the Fathers of the three first ages, every inquiring man may easily discern. But the noises, therefore, which they make, are from the writings of the succeeding ages; where secular interest did more prevail, and the writings of the Fathers were vast and voluminous, full of controversy and ambiguous senses, fitted to their own times and questions, full of proper opinions, and such variety of sayings, that both sides, eternally and inconfutably, shall bring sayings for themselves respectively. Now although things being thus, it will be impossible for them to conclude from the sayings of a number of Fathers, that their doctrine, which they would prove thence, was the catholic doctrine of the Church: because any number that is less than all, does not prove a catholic consent; yet the clear sayings of one or two of these Fathers, truly alleged by us to the contrary, will certainly prove that what many of them (suppose it) do affirm, and which but two or three as good Catholics as the other do deny, was not then matter of faith, or a doctrine of the Church; for if it had, these had been accounted heretics, and not have remained in the communion of the Church. But although for the reasonableness of the thing, we have thought fit to take notice of it; yet we shall have no need to make use of it, since, not only in the prime and purest antiquity, we are indubitably more than conquerors, but even in the succeeding ages, we have the advantage both 'numero, pondere, et mensura,'-in number, weight, and measure.

We do easily ackowledge, that to dispute these questions from the sayings of the Fathers, is not the readiest way to make an end of them; but, therefore, we do wholly rely upon Scriptures, as the foundation and final resort of all our persuasions, and from thence can never be confuted; but we also admit the Fathers as admirable helps for the understanding of the Scriptures, and as

good testimony of the doctrine delivered from their forefathers down to them, of what the Church esteemed the way of salvation; and therefore, if we find any doctrine now taught, which was not placed in their way of salvation, we reject it, as being no part of the Christian faith, and which ought not to be imposed upon consciences. They were 'wise unto salvation' and 'fully instructed to every good work;' and therefore, the faith, which they professed and derived from Scripture, we profess also; and in the same faith, we hope to be saved even as they. But for the new doctors, we understand thein not, we know them not; our faith is the same from the beginning, and cannot become new.

But because we shall make it to appear, that they do greatly innovate in all their points of controversy with us, and show nothing but shadows instead of substances, and little images of things instead of solid arguments; we shall take from them their armour in which they trusted, and choose this sword of Goliath to combat their errors; for non est alter talis: it is not easy to find a better than the word of God, expounded by the prime and best antiquity. -Part i. book i. § i. Works. vol. x. p. 129.


Things that have been generally in the Church of CHRIST are generally conceived to have been derived from apostolical tradition, without any special mandate left in Scripture for the doing of them. Praying directly towards the East is conceived to be of that condition; why may we not conclude the like of setting up the altar along the wall? Many things come into our minds by a successional tradition, for which we cannot find an express command, which yet we ought to entertain, er vi Catholica consuetudinis: of which traditions there are many, which still retain their force among us in England. This Church (the LORD be thanked for it) hath stood more firm for apostolical traditions, than any other whatsoever of the Reformation.-Antid. Lincoln, p. 87.*

COMMISSIONERS OF A. D. 1662.-Appointed to review the Book of Common Prayer.

Ancient Liturgies in the Church, St. Chrysostom's, St. Basil's, St. James's and others, and such things as are found in them all consistent with Catholic and Primitive doctrine, may well be presumed to have been from the first, especially since we find no original of these Liturgies from General Councils-Reply to Presbyterians, § 16.

* As extracted in "the Canterburians' self-conviction," 1640. p. 63.


As our religion is Catholic, it holdeth fast that 'faith which was once delivered to the saints,' and since preserved in the Church; and therefore I expound such verities, in opposition to the heretics arising in all ages, especially against the Photinians, who of all the rest have most perverted the articles of our Creed, and found out followers in these latter ages, who have erected a new body of divinity in opposition to the Catholic theology. Against these I proceed upon such principles as they themselves allow, that is, upon the word of God delivered in the Old and New Testament, alleged according to the true sense, and applied by right reason: not urging the authority of the Church which they reject, but only giving in the margin the sense of the primitive Fathers, for the satisfaction of such as have any respect left for antiquity, and are persuaded that CHRIST had a true Church on the earth before these times.-Preface.


It can indeed no wise be safe to follow any such leaders (whatever pretences to special illumination they hold forth, whatever specious guises of sanctity they bear) who in their doctrine or practice deflect from the great beaten roads of holy Scripture, primitive tradition, and Catholic practice, roving in by-paths suggested to them by their private fancies and humours, their pas sions and lusts, their interests and advantages: there have in all ages such counterfeit guides started up, having debauched some few heedless persons, having erected some agaduvaywyas or petty combinations against the regularly settled corporations; but never with any durable success or countenance of Divine Providence; but like prodigious meteors, having caused a little gazing, and some disturbance, their sects have soon been dissipated, and have quite vanished away: the authors and abettors of them being either buried in oblivion, or recorded with ignominy; like that Theudas in the speech of Gamaliel, who " rose up boasting himself to be somebody; to whom a number of men about four hundred joined themselves; who were slain, and all as many as obeyed him were scattered and brought to nought."- Works, vol. iii. p. 206.

BULL, BISHOP AND DOCTOR.-Apol. pro Harm. i. 6.

GOD knows the secrets of my heart; so far am I from the itch of originality in Theological Doctrines, ... that whatever are sanctioned by the consent of Catholic Fathers and ancient

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