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κύριε

say,

JOHN IX. X.

him?" 37 And Jesus said unto him, "Thou hast both seen him, and he that talketh with thee is he." 38 And he said, "Lord, I believe!" And he did him reverence. 39 And Jesus said, "For judgment I have come into this world, that they who see not may see; and that they who see may become blind." 40 And those of the Pharisees that were with him heard these things, and said unto him," Are we also blind?" 41 Jesus said unto them, "If ye were blind, ye would not have had sin but now ye 'We see;' your sin therefore remaineth. CH. X. Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that entereth not through the door into the sheepfold, but climbeth up some other way, he is a thief and a robber. But he that entereth in through the door is the shepherd of the sheep. 3 To him the door-keeper openeth; and the sheep hear his voice: and he calleth his own sheep by name, and leadeth them out. And when he bringeth forth his own sheep, he goeth before them, and the sheep follow him: for they know his voice. But a stranger they will not follow, but will flee from him: for they know not the voice of strangers." Jesus spake this parable unto them: but they understood not what things they were which he spake unto them. 7 Jesus therefore said unto them again, "Verily, verily, I say unto you, I am the door of the sheep. All whoever came before me are thieves and robbers: but the sheep did not hear them. I am the door : ownoera if any one enter in through me, he shall be kept safe, and shall go in, and shall come out, and shall find pasture. 10 The thief cometh not, but to steal, and to kill, and to destroy: I have come that the shrep may have life, and that they may have it abundantly. "I am the good shepherd: the good shepherd layeth down his life for the sheep. 12 But he that

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is a hireling, and not the shepherd, whose own the sheep are not, seeth the wolf coming, and leaveth the sheep, and fleeth, and the wolf seizeth them, and scattereth the sheep. 13 Now the hireling fleeth, because he is a hireling, and careth not for the sheep. 14 I am the good shepherd, and know my sheep, and am known by mine, 15 as the Father

• Or, allegory, mapoua.-This word occurs in none of the other Gospels; and in the present sense only in this place. St. John uses it in ch. xvi. 25, 29. It occurs once more in 2 Pet. ii. 22. In this place, and in the Septuagint, it denotes proverb. St. John nowhere uses wapaßoλŋ, parable.

MATT.

MARK

LUKE

JOHN X.

εξουσια

εξουσια
εντολη

knoweth me, and I also know the Father and I lay down my life for the sheep. 16 And other sheep I have, which are not of this fold: them also I must bring, and they will hear my voice, and there shall be one fold, one shepherd. 17 On this account, the Father loveth me, because I lay down my life, that I may receive it again. 18 No one taketh it from

me, but I lay it down of myself. I have authority to lay it down, and I have the prerogative to receive it again. This commission I have received of my Father."*

19 There was again, therefore, a division among the Jews on account of these words. 20 Now many of them said, "He hath a demon, and is mad; why hear ye him?" 21 Others said, "These are not the words of a demoniac. Can a demon open the eyes of the blind?"+

• In these two verses, λaμßavw is rendered both receive and take: decision is unavoidable, as there is no generic word; and it is rendered both ways, even in the cominon version of this passage. The rendering adopted in the 17th verse, and in the corresponding clause of the 18th, (for a justification of which, the reader may be referred to the author's Reply to Archbishop Magee, App. B.), requires a change in the rendering of εovota, in the middle part of ver. 18, since no generic word well suits both clauses: prerogative, i. e. "exclusive or peculiar privilege," seems best to suit the connection; for which import, see Schleusner, no. 10, " prerogativa, diguitas. Joh. i. 12."

+ Here the transactions at the Feast of Tabernacles terminate, and with this verse the chapter should have ended. The remainder of the chapter, with the xith, as far as ver. 55, will be found in Part V.

At each of the three great National Festivals succeeding our Lord's inauguration into the office of Messiah, he had already manifested to the Priests and Rulers of the Jews, the proofs of his divine authority, and had proposed to them his heavenly doctrine. At each he had been rejected by them; and, as respected the Nation at large, their City, and their Temple, the Priests and Rulers had sealed the doom of their destruction.

In the intervals between these Festivals, our Saviour, by occasional miracles, and, after the Pentecost, by teaching in their synagogues, had been preparing the minds of the people of Galilee for that signal manifestation of miraculous power and of heavenly wisdom, which now accompanied his public announcement of the glad tidings of the Kingdom of God. And the announcement itself, and also the circumstances attending it, were singularly calculated to fulfil all the expectations of those who, through the preaching of the Baptist, and the declarations of ancient prophecy, had been anxiously waiting for “the consolation of Israel.”

The signal of Divine Providence for this grand series of miracles and public instruction, was the Imprisonment of the Baptist, which appears to have occurred shortly before the Feast of Tabernacles. This ended the Ministry of the Forerunner. The war in which Herod was engaged with his Father-in-law Aretas, kept the Tetrarch away from the Galilean portion of his dominions. Every thing else was favourable for this short, but most momentous, and incessantly-occupied period. The labours of the husbandmen were come to their annual termination; the weather was settled; the air was temperate; and the circumstances at the Tabernacles, as respected both our Lord himself and the striking ceremonies which anticipated the coming of the Messiah, had necessarily strengthened all the expectations of the people of Galilee, that the time was at hand. Being under a separate government, and remote from the strongest influences of the Chief Priests and Pharisees, the Galileans were more at liberty to listen to the awaken. ing declaration-THE KINGDOM OF HEAVEN DRAWETH NEAR. Even the imprisonment of the Baptist was likely to recall, and to strengthen, the impressions derived from his first proclamation, as the Herald of one mightier than himself,—a proclamation now repeated by the person whom he pointed out to his followers, and who, though he had not yet announced himself as the Messiah, had proved, by powers entirely unknown among the Jews for centuries, that he had a commission from Jehovah, the God of their Fathers.

After his sojourn in the Desert, Jesus had received several disciples of John as his followers, who afterwards became his constant attendants, and subsequently his apostles. These must have been perfectly prepared for any directions he might give them; but till the present period, it is probable that they usually followed their ordinary occupation at the Lake. When now the time was come for the public demonstration of authority and power, our Lord, on arriving in Galilee from the Tabernacles, first called Peter and John and their brothers, to attend his subsequent course. On the following sabbath, when in the synagogue at Capernaum, he restored to sanity, one of those whose minds had been deranged by the exciting expectations of the Messiah, or other causes. The publicity of this act prepared for the wonderful scenes of the evening. The next morning our Lord commenced his First Progress through Galilee, to make known, more extensively, the glad tidings of the kingdom, and to heal the bodily disorders of the people, while he taught them the words of everlasting life.

By considering the Descriptive Survey of this region, given in the Third Dissertation, the reader will follow, with perhaps increased interest, the transactions of this astonishing period. All that it is here necessary to state, is, that the district now traversed by our Lord in his ministry of mercy, though extremely populous, did not extend much more than twenty miles each way.

After a series of miracles at Nain, in the region of Gadara, and in Capernaum, single, but of a very impressive nature, he made a Second Progress. At the commencement of this, he selected the Twelve-from among those, undoubtedly, who had in different ways attended him for a considerable part of his ministry; and, at the close, he specially instructed them for their present and their future duties, and then sent them forth on their mission.

RECORDS OF CHRIST'S MINISTRY.

PART IV.

CHRIST'S PUBLIC PREACHING IN GALILEE IN THE

INTERVAL BETWEEN THE FEAST OF TABERNACLES AND THAT OF DEDICATION-UNTIL THE MISSION OF THE TWELVE.

SECT. I

On hearing of the Imprisonment of the Baptist, Christ begins to proclaim the Approach of the Kingdom of Heaven: He calls Peter, Andrew, James, and John.

MATT. IV.

MARK I.

LUKE

JOHN

Galilee, proclaiming† the glad tidings of the kingdom of God,

12 Now when Jesus heard 14 Now after John was dethat John was delivered up, helivered up, Jesus came into departed into Galilee, 13 and having quitted Nazareth, he came and dwelt at Capernaum, upon the sea coast, in the bor. ders of Zabulon and Nephthalim : 14 so that it was fulfilled which was spoken by Isaiah the prophet, saying, 'The land of Zabulon, and the land of Nephthalim, the one by the way of the sea, the other along the Jordan-Galilee of the Gentiles:* 16 the people that

15

Is. 9; 1, 2.

The territory of Zabulon adjoined the Lake of Galilee, and extended westwards from it: that of Nephthalim lay northwards, by the side of (πɛpav) the Jordan; and this latter formed the chief part of Upper Galilee, or Galilee of the Gentiles. Capernaum was near the confines of these tribes, on the northwestern shore of the Lake.

+ κυρύσσων. This word must have various renderings, according to the connection. Denoting, in its original import, to proclaim as a herald, it came to signify to divulge, to make publicly known, and, in reference to the truths and duties of the Gos pel, to inculcate publicly, to preach. In reference to the first announcement of the "kingdom of heaven," proclaim is the appropriate rendering, as respects both the subject and the mode; but as this word can scarcely be used without an object, when the original is nsed absolutely, it might be rendered to make proclamation. So in Matt. iii. 1. iv. 17. Mark i. 7.

MATT. IV.

sat in darkness hath seen great light; and to those who sat in the region and shadow of death light hath sprung up.'

17 From that time Jesus began to preach; and to say, "Repent ye: for the kingdom of heaven draweth near."

18 Now as he was walking near the sea of Galilee, he saw two brethren, Simon called Peter, and Andrew his brother, casting a net into the sea: for they were fishers. 19 And he saith unto them, "Come after me, and I will make you fishers of men." 20 And straightway they left the nets, and followed him. 21 And having gone for wards thence, he saw other two brethren, James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother, in a vessel with Zebedee their father, mending their nets; and he called them. 22 And straightway they left the vessel and their father, and followed

him.

MARK 1.

15 and saying, "The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God draweth near: repent ye, and believe these glad tidings."

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16 Now as he was walking near the sea of Galilee, he saw Simon and Andrew his brother, casting a net into the sea for they were fishers. 17 And Jesus said unto them, "Come after me, and I will make you to become fishers of men. 18 And straightway they left their nets, and followed him. And having gone forwards thence a little, he saw James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother, who also were in the vessel mending their nets. 20 And straightway he called them: and they left their father Zebedee in the vessel with the hired servants, and went away after him.

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SECT. II.

On the ensuing Sabbath, Christ heals the Demoniac in the Synagogue of Capernaum; then, the Mother of Peter's Wife; and, in the Evening, many others.

MATT. VIII.

Matt. 7; 29. (Sect. iv.)

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21 AND they go into Ca.
pernaum; and straight
way on the sabbath he
entered into the syna-
gogue and taught. " And
they were astonished at his teaching for his
his teaching for he word was with authority.

31 AND he went down
to Capernaum, a city of (See p. 40.)
Galilee, and taught them
on the sabbath. 2 And
they were astonished at

:

:

• Or, to make proclamation. See Note on Mark i. 14, in the preceding page.

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