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SEED CORN, ROOTS, AND POTATOES. Our report of the live stock will be found on page 28. The show of seed corn was a very small and a very poor one, as might have been expected. There was not a sample of good grain amongst twenty-nine entries. The wheats were small and badly matured, and the barleys dark indeed, and a wretched colour. Oats were just decent, but the corn was small. The one sample of spring beans was large and soft, and the sample of blue peas very indifferent.

true for the season. Messrs. Sutton and Sous offered a
cup, value five guineas, for the best twelve specimens of
the purple-top swede, which was won very creditably by
Mr. J. W. Hemmings with large and fairly well-grown
swedes from Suttoas' seeds. Colonel Loyd Lindsay's
entry, also from Suttons' seeds, was commended, and very
useful they were. The entries numbered 11. A cup,
value five guineas, was offered by Messrs. Webb and Sons
for the best twelve roots of the Imperial swede, which
was won by Mr. John Perry with small-necked and well-
shaped solid roots. There were 14 entries in this class.
The class for swedes of any variety contained 31 entries,
and the competition was, as usual, very strong. The first
award fell to Mr. John Perry, for clean well-grown

swedes, and the second to Mr. Arthur Sotham for a very
useful lot, not quite so true. It is stated that this is the
eighth year in which roots grown from Webb's seed have
carried off the honours in this class at the Birmingham
show. Common white fleshed turnips formed a class of
The first prize
17 entries; and a capital class it was.
was awarded to Mr. II. Davis, for large clean and solid
roots of selected green globes, from Webb's
seed; and the second prize also fell to Mr.
Davis for very true purple tops grown from Webb's
seed. The Duke of Portland was commended for
two entries, namely, one of Webb's green barrel, and one
of Sutton's white globe-both excellent. Cominon yellow-
prize lot were as good as, if not better than, any entry of
fleshed turnips made bine entries. Mr. W. Kerr's first
roots in the Hall, A smaller but very excellent lot came
from Mr. T. L. Melville Cartwright too late for competi-

Roots were certainly better than could reasonably have been expected, and although some of the largest firms of seedsmen did not put in an appearance, the show of mangels, swedes, and turnips was very creditable both to seedsmen and growers. Messrs. Proctor and Ryland's silver cup, value six guineas, offered by that firm for the best collection of six roots each of long red and globe mangels and swedes, was won by Colonel Loyd Lindsay with an entry of large and useful roots, grown from Messrs. Suttons' seeds. Mr. Richard Webb's collection, also from Messrs. Suttons' seeds, was justly commended, as were those of Sir Paul Hunter and Sir F. Smythe. There were 12 entries for this cup, and amongst them was a good collection, grown from Messrs. Webb's seeds, from Mr. T. Penn, which was not noticed by the judges. Messrs. Morris and Griffin's cup, value six guineas, offered for the best 12 swede turnips and 12 globe mangels, was won by Mr. John Perry, of Condover, with a collection in which the globe mangels were particularly tion, but they were decidedly better than Mr. H. D. good. Messrs Suttons' cup, value five guineas, for the best collection of mangels of three different varieties, namely, long reds, globes, and golden tankard yellow-fleshed, was won by Mr. Richard Webb with roots grown from Messrs. Sutton's seeds. All three sorts were neat and elean, and probably as good as the season has produced anywhere. Colonel Loyd Liudsay's collection was commended, and although the long reds were rather small, the globes were capital. Sir F. Smythe's collection was Very useful in each variety, and was also commended, together with that from Sir Paul Hunter. There were Aine entries for this competition. Messrs. Carter's cup, value five guineas, was offered for the best collection of four different varieties of mangel, namely, long reds, yellow globes, intermediates, and tankard yellow globessix roots of each. This cup was won by Mr. R. Webb, of Beenham, near Reading, with a collection of heavy, Sir Paul Hunter's well-grown roots in all the varieties. collection was a good one, but the intermediates were inall. There were five entries in this competition, Kohl-rabi was tolerably good and true, and the exhibits The class for -eight in number-were all very useful. long red mangels was very well filled, fourteen entries being filled up. Mr. R. Webb's first prize lot were large and well-grown, from Sutton's seeds, and Mr. A. Sotham's second prize lot, grown from Webb's seed, were not far behind. Three other entries were com nended by the udges. The class for six specimens of globe and intermediate varieties of mangel contained fifteen entries, and he quality throughout was better than could have been expected. The first prize fell to Mr. R. Webb for a capital lot of glubes, large and good, grown from Sutton's seeds, and the second prize lot, grown by Mr. John Perry, from Webb's seeds, were solid and good, not quite so even and true, but still they ran the first prize lot very hard. Mr. T. Penn showed a large and useful lot of roots, Webb's Kinver globe, commended by the judges, but they had been trimmed. A very good entry from Mr. J. Perry, of intermediates, grown from Webb's seed, was of excellent quality, but not noticed by the judges. Swedes made a good show, and, as a whole, were exceedingly good and

Adamson's second prize eutry. These excellent roots appear to be better suited to the north than the south, as he above all come from Scotland. The first prize lot of white Belgian carrots were very clean and true, grown by the Duke of Portland from Sutton's seed; and his Grace also took first and second prize for "other varieties" with Webb's Altringham. There were seven entries of ox cabbages, none of them as large as may sometimes be seen, but most of them solid and good. The first prize fell to Mr. John Perry for very compact specimens from Webb's seed, and the second to Mr. J. Greatorex. Messrs. Webb and Sons, of Wordsley, were the only firm of seedsmen who exhibited a stand of roots in the gallery, and the display they were enabled to make was a highly creditable one. Their long red mangels were not so large as usual, but were tolerably true; the intermediates were of nice quality, and the Colonel North mangels were of a very useful character. The swedes were for the most part small in the neck, solid and good, and the white turnips were not far behind their average quality and shape. Messrs. Proctor and Ryland, manure merchants, Birmingham, made their usual display of roots grown with their artificial manures, and amongst them was a collection from Mr. R. Routledge, of Twyford, near Leominster, to which a first prize was awarded. These swedes were of moderate size, well-grown, solid and very useful, weighing at the rate of 28 tons 12 cwt. per acre. There were no better swedes in the Hall. There were other meritorious collections of roots on this stand, which must have been very gratifying to Messrs. Proctor and Ryland. Messrs. Harrison and Sons, of Leicester, showed a small collection of roots and agricultural seeds. Messrs. Morris and Grillin, of Wolverhampton, also showed specimens of roots grown with their artificial manures; and Messrs. Dickson, of Chester, had a stand.

Potatoes found a large and very excellent show, many of the specimens being as true and perfect as can possibly be. For the names of the successful exhibitors in this division we must refer to the prize 1 st.


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IMPLEMENTS AND MACHINERY, There was about the usual display of agricultural implements and machinery. There did not appear to be auy novelties worth mentioning, but there have been considerable improvements made in the constructive detail of several well-known implements and machines, and some of them are now shown in great perfection. Messrs. Underhill, of Newport, Salop, showed vertical engines, double plonghe, a five-tire cultivator, &c. Messrs. Bentall and Co., of Malden, Essex, showed their well-known chaff-cutters, pulpers, turnip cutters, cake nills, and corn crushers, which do not need description. Messrs. Hill and Smith, Brierley Hill Iron Works, Staffordshire, exhibited an assortment of iron hurdles, continuous tubular iron fencing, iron field gates, &c. Messrs. Samuelson and Co., Britannia Works, Banbury, exhibited specimens of some of the machines for which their house is noted; and among these is the "Handy reaper. This machine is of the class known as manual delivery reapers, and has been designed specially to meet the requirements of farmers desiring a strong yet easily managed machine; it is exceedingly light of draught, and for cutting laid or twisted crops it probably cannot be surpassed. The firm also showed one of their patent "P" mowers, constructed on the principles of balance draught and inclined cut, which have now enjoyed a popularity of about ten yeare. The reaping and mowing machines made by this firm are fitted with their patent welded steel and iron fingers, which are excredingly tough and unbreakable in work; they are of an improved form, enabling the machines to cut lover and to pick up laid corn more readily than when fitted with the older forms of fingers. The popularity of Gardner's turnip cutter, shown by this firm, remains unabated after a reputation of about forty years, and the original or "Barbury" make of these machines is known for its superior excellence in material, and also in finish. A very handy root slicer of the disc pattern, having concave knives, admittedly the most suitable shape for easy and efficient work, was also exhibited by Messrs. Samuelson and Co. Messrs Turner, of Ipswich, showed their corn kibblers, cake breakers, oat mills, &, adapted to hand, horse, and steam power. Messrs. Tangye Brothers, of Birmingham, had a collection of vertical engines, steam pumps, pulley blocks, lubricators, &c., &c. Messrs. Handyside, Andrews, and Co., Britannia Works, Derby, had stand specimen a of their one horse delivery "Derby" reaper, and also of their one and two


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safety corn or grist mill, with shaker feed arrangementan excellent implement-a three-horse-power vertical engine and boiler, root pulpers, harrows, &c., &c. Messrs. Barford and Perkins showed their well-known and very excellent steam-cultivating machinery; Messrs. Barrows and Stuart, Banbury, vertical and portable engines; the Atlas Engine Co. (Limited), Birmingham, their four horse-power horizontal high-pressure engine, a fourteen horse-power "Atlas" vertical engine, their "Colonial " horizontal engine, and some excellent fittings; Mr. E. Humphries, Pershore, a portable steam engine, and a finishing thrashing machine. The Bristol Waggon Co. (Limited) had their usual specialities on view-namely, carts, floats, seed manure distributors, &c.; Messrs. Marshall, Sons, and Co. (Limited), Gainsborough, portable engine, and finishing thrashing machine; Messrs. Ruston, Proctor, and Co., Lincoln, a 6-horse power portable engine and fiuishing thrashing machine; Messrs. Hornsby and Sons, Grantham, a 7-horse power single cyliader portable steam engine, and a combined thrashing, shaking, dressing, and finishing machine, their Paragon O" mower, their patent hedge cutter, selfraking reapers, turuip cutters-amongst which was a combined slicer, cutter, and pulper ploughs, &c. Messrs. Clayton, Shuttleworth, and C., Lincoln, showed their 6-horse power portable engine, together with a combined thrashing and finishing machine, and various fittings and appliances for thrashing machinery. Messrs. Ransomes, Sims, and Heid, Ipswich, exhibited their Shorse power portable engine and a finishing thrashing machine, together with an assortment of ploughs, haymakers, and horserakes; Mr. J. D Pinfold, of Rugby, a combined engine and boiler, combined stone and grist mill, and drain tile machine; Me-srs. Perkins and C., of Hitchin, harrows, sack lifters, corn and seed screens ; the Maldon Iron Works, Maldon, Essex, chaff cutters, root pulpers, cake mills, horse gearing, &c.; Messrs. I. Pickin and Co., Birmingham, chaff cutters, kibbling mills, and dairy appliances; Messrs. J. Perkius and Sons, Lichfield, double and single ploughs; Messrs. Richmond and Chandler, Manchester, horse gearing, chaff cutters, wick, a corn drill, sheep troughs on wheels, gei eral root pulpers, &c., &c.; Messrs. Glover and Sons, Warpurpose farm cart, &c.; Mr. E. S. Hindley, Bourton, Dorset, a vertical engine which can be used on wheels or gearing, fixture, with gun-metal bearings; Mr. R. Birmingham, mill their Haudley, stones and back-wrights, tools; Mr. G. II Harris, Birmingham, chaff cutters, pulers, con crushers, &c.; Me-srs. John Wright and Co., Birmingham, their "Otto" silent gas engine; Messrs. John Crowley and Co., Sheffield, an assortment of very useful patent safety lever chaff cutters; Messrs. W. and T. Avery, of Birmingham, an assortiment of weighing machines, scales, &c., for agricultural purposes; Messrs. Hughes and Sons, Malton, a patent drum guard for thrashing machines, patent "laid corn" lifters, wheelbarrows, turnip cutters, &c.; Messrs. Woolley, Williams, and Sou, Dudley, malt crushers for hand or steam power; Messrs. Baylis, Jones and Baylis, Wolverhampton, tubular ron hurdles,continuous fencing, &c.; Mr. C. Adams, of Hereford, hurdles of various kinds; Messrs. John Millward and Co, Birmingham, an assortment of weighing machines for agricultural purposes; and Mr. J. Sinclair, Lea leuhall street, London, the Extincteur Engine, disintegrator," for grinding oil cakes, &c.

horse "Enterprise" grass mowers; a Philips's patent "Duplex" harrow, and some very useful combined turnip cutters and slicers, and root pulpers. Messrs. Charles Powis and Co., of 60, Gracechurch-street, London, had on their stand specimens of the vertical engines, boring and sawing machines, &c., &., for which the firm is famous. Messrs. Harrison, McGregor, and Co., of Leigh, Lancashire, showed their "Albion" reapers, mowers, and combined mowers and reapers, chaff-cutters, pulpers, slicers, cake mills, &c. The Albion Iron Works

Co., Rugeley, had a collection of corn and g ist inills, turnip cutters, chaff cutters with bagging arrangement, horse gearing, &c., &c. Messrs. Robey and Co., Lincol“, a 4-horse power vertical engine and boiler, au 8-horse power "Robey" engine, and a 6-horse power portable

engine. Messrs. Howard, of Bedford, exhibited oue of their new patent sheaf-biuding reaping machines, comlete, to bind with wire. This was the only sheaf binder in the Hall. Messrs. Mapplebeck and Lowe, Birmingham, had some excellent milk cans on carriages, also improved corn drills, chaff cutters, turnip cutters, palpers, grinding mills, &c. Messrs. W. N. Nicholson and Son, Newark-on-Trent, had on their stand a patent


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Messrs. Lloyd, Lawrence, and Co., Finsbury, London, showed some American cedar wood barrel churns, and butter makers; Mr. W. Waide, of Leeds, an assortiment of barrel churns; Messrs. T. Bradford and Co., Manchester, a collection of churns; Messrs. Hancock, of

Dudley, a collection of churns, &c.; Messrs. Isaac Brooks and Co., their "Lac Trephcer" calf, pig, and lab feeders, and Messrs. J. M. Bell and Co., Oxfordstreet, London, some box and barrel churas; Messrs. Day, Son, and Hewitt had on their stand cases of their well-known stocck-breeders' chests, and assorted cattle medicines. Mr. Henry Spratt, of Bermondsey-street, London, showed his celebrated dog cakes, game and poultry food, &c. The Driffield and East Riding Pure Linseed Cake Co. (Limited), exhibited their pure linseed and cotton cakes; Messrs. Clark and Sons, Limehouse, London, "buffalo meit" dog biscuits, poultry food, &e.; the Universal Cattle Drink Co., Hackney, London, their drinks, powders, and ointments for horses; and Messrs. Day and Sons of Crewe, their celebrated "Driffield Oils." Messrs. James Gibbs and Co. had a stand on which was an interesting display of the raw material from which their excellent manures are made, such as coprolites of various kinds-Suffolk, Cambridge, Canadian, Spanish, French, Carolina, and Curacoa. There were also cones or pyramids of their several manufactured manures, and on their stand was also to be sea samples of their feeding cakes, and of the absolutely pure linseed cake which they are now manufacturing. Messrs. T. Bowick & Co. of Bedford, the farina with which the public are familiar; Messrs.Spounen and Soos, Gainsborough, their condiment and "milk substitute" for rearing calves; Messrs. W. A. Hope and Sous, Agricultural Hall, London, their condiments, spices, and cattle food; Mr. Joseph Thorley, of King's Cross, London, the well-known Thorley's Food; Messrs. Tipper and Son, of Birmingham, their "Arabian" round feeding cakes," Medicated Powders," &c.; Mr. Thomas Sellors, of Coventry, his " Tonic Cattle Spice," which is largely sold in the neighbourhood; Mr. J. S. Eagles, of Leamington, his "Champion" cattle cake, feeding meal, K.; Messrs. J. Beach and Co., of Dudley, their celebrated farinaceons food and condiments; the Waterloo Mills Co., Hull, their well-known Waterloo" round feeding cakes with samples of the materials of which they are made; and Messrs. P. W. Barr and Co., of Liverpool, their "Old Calabar meals, biscuits, &c., and feeding stuffs of all descriptions. Messrs. Lawrence and Co., St. Mary Axe, London, showed a collection of refrigera. tore, and Mr. C. H. Liddon, of Birmingham, an assortment of sacks, sacking, bagging, and horse cloths. There were also various miscellaneous exhibits, more or less connected with agriculture, and great interest appeared to be taken in this division of the show.

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Twelve swede turnips and 12 globe mangels.-J. Perry. Collection of six mimmoth long red mangel, six globe mangels, and six golden tankard yellow fleshed mangel,R. Webb, Beenhamn.

Collection of six mummoth long red mangels, six prize yellow globe mangels, six champion intermediate


gele, and six tankard yellow fleshed n angels,-R. Webb. Kohl Rabi.-1, and 2, J. Perry.

Long mangel wurzel.-1, R. Webb; 2, A. Sothar, Shabbington, Tu me, Oxon.

Gobe and intermediate varieties of mangel wurzel.-1, R.
Webb; 2, J. Perry.

Twelve specimens of the champion purple top swede.-J. W.
Hemmings, Newbold Mills, Shipston-on-Stour.
Twelve roots of the imperial swele.-J Perry.
Swedes of any variety.-1, J. Perry; 2, A. Sotham.
Common turnips, white flesh.-1, and 2, H. Davis, Ken-
sington, Woodstock, Oxon.

Common turnips, yellow flesh.-1, W. Kerr, Dargavel,
Dumfries; 2, H. D. Adamson, Alford, Aberdeen.
Carrots, white Belgian.-1, the Duke of Portland, Clipstote
Park Farm, Mansfield, Notts; 2, J. J. Maldeo, Hill Farm,
near Biggleswade.

Carrots of any other variety.-1, and 2, the Duke of Portland.

Ox cabbage.-1, J. Perry; 2, J. Greatorex.


Twelve varieties.-1, J. Perry; 2, T. Pickworth, Longhborough; 3, . W. Woods, Clipstone Park Farm, Mansfield.

Eight varieties.—1, J. Perry; 2, II. W. Woods; 3, W. Kerr Six varieties.-1, J. Perry; 2, C. W. Howard; 3, T. Pick. worth.

Two varieties.-1, J. Perry; 2, T. Pickworth; 3, Sir F.
S nythe, Bart, Acton Burnell.

Ash leaf Kidneys.-1, Sir F. Say the; 2, F. Taylor, Sturding-
ton; 3, W. Vales, Needham hail, near Wisbech.
Lapstone Kidneys.-1, W. Kerr, Dargavel; 2, J. Choyce,
A herstone; 3, Sir F. Suy the.

Regents or Dalmahoys. -H. W. Woeds; 2, T. Pickworth; 3, W. Kerr.

Woodstock kidneys.-1, C. W. Howard, Canterbury; 2, J. Schoolmaster.-1, W. Kerr; 2, J. Perry ; 3, C. W. Howard. Perry; 3, Sir F. Smythe. Any white skinned long or kidney not provided for in other classes., T. Pickworth; 2, H. W. Woods; 3, J. Perry. Any coloured skinned long or kidney not provided for in others classe-1, T. Pickworth; 2, J. Perry; 3, W. Kerr.

Any white skinned round variety not provided for in other. classes.-1, W. Kerr; 2, Sir F. Smythe; 3, T. Pickworth. Any coloured skinned round variety not provided for in other classe.1, Sir F. Smythe; 2, W. Kerr, 3, T. Pickworth. Any American variety,-1, Sir F. Sythe; 2, T. Pickworth, 3, J. Perry.


The following letter appeared in the Birminghant Daily Post of Monday last.

SIR,-I was somewhat startled, on arriving here last night to be informed by the representative of the Daily Telegraph that in the afternoon of Friday "Mr. Lythall had taken hint over Bingley Hall." But I was still more startled to find this morning that the Telegraph contained three-fourths of column of matter supplied beforehand." Now, as t is essential to the well-being of every cattle show, be it fit or store, that due secrecy should be kept as to the details of the entries, and as the Daily Telegraph of to-day does coutain matter which should not have been communicated to the public until after the judging had taken place, I would like to know-the public would like to know--ahy such an ionov tion had taken place? If there is to be a Press private view by all means let there be one; but it is meni estly unfair that there should be a Duly Telegraph private view to the exclusion of the journals I and others represent. I enclose my name and address, and neanwhile subscribe myseif,

AN AGRICULTURAL REPORTER The Queen's Hotel, Saturday night.



SIR,-Although my views may be old-fashioned and unpopular, entirely rowing against the stream of current bucolic oratory, I trust you will bear with me while I endeavour to stem the tide of objurgatory rhetoric, which denounces apparently the whole existing economy of British agriculture. I grieve to see ao much "waste power" of public opinion-the tenantry of the kingdom going, or being led astray from attention to real and substantial remedies for their grievances, to fasten upon fancied evils which have no more to do with their predicament, than Tenterden steeple has with Goodwin Sinds. Disinissing other pet "wrongs" for future examination, I address myself to the immediate consideration of a proposed reform in the existing jurisprudence of our territorial system, which in my apprehension would be fraught with the gravest evils. Hypothec in Scotland means the lien of the landowner upou what the Roman and Scotch law called innata illata, the moveables and crops on the land for rent. It arises the moment occupation begins for the current rent. In England the right of the landowner to distrain, arises only after rent falls due. To call it feudal, is to betray the grossest ignorance. Rent and tenantry are modern and commercial, in contradistinction to military suit and service, and vassalage-to fen duties, fines, and quit rents. The priority of right implied in distress is not confined to land. The innkeeper has it for his bill-the stabularius (stable-keeper) for horses at livery-nautœ (shipowners), for carrying the cargo-caupones (carriers), for their load-wharfingers and warehouse-keepers for merchandise. Preferential rights are given by debtors to creditors, by bills of exchange, mortgages, and bills of sale. A debtor may facilitate the right to recovery in favour of one creditor to the prejudice of the rest, if it

suits him. Taxes, tithes, rates, all are leviable by summary process as preferential claims, precedent to any due to the landowner, and are imprescriptible.

What on earth bas the Law of Distress to do with the present depression? Has it increased rates and taxes, or stimulated foreign competition? Is it accountable for bad weather, poor crops, pleuro-pneumonia ? Has it raised wages, made the peasantry turbulent and inefficient, aggravated the cost of production, reduced prices below a living profit? What is to be thought of the respectability of a public cause the forefront of which is a lond comp'aint that honest creditors have a cheap and summary remedy for the recovery of their debts! Conceive the merchants of London forming themselves into an alliance to abolish imprisonment for debt, or to denounce the legal advantage given to a Promissory Note over a debt by open account! The first rule of the Holyrood Club of Insolvent Debtors, "resolved that all creditors are d-d scoundrels." Has it come to this that the

tenantry of England are chiefly concerned in evading payment of or security for their rent?

We are indeed toll that the Law of Distress, by giving a preferential right to a landlord to levy his debt, induces him to give credit to "meu of straw," to increase facilities for taking farms, and the competition for them, thereby raising rent. So, then, nobody is to till the soil but Ready-money Jacks." Industrious, self-denying, intelligent poverty is to have no chance to have self-denial and providence rewarded by temporary trust in its honesty and skill. The landowner, be he rich or poor, great or small, is to be the only dealer who is to give no credit, to the end that his commodity may be had at any price a man with the cash in his pockets may choose to offer. And this from the men who talk oratorically of peasant proprietors, who for the most part owe their existence to

borrowed money! This, too, in England, whose whole commerce, whose entire banking system, whose whole course of trade is an elaborate machinery of credit! I have at this moment in my view an acquaintance-one of the ablest and most discreet advocates of the Paternoster Creed of the Alliance. He is a great money lender; that is to say, his whole business consists in enabling men who have no present cash to go into the produce market and buy goods in competition with capitalists who can pay cash down. Every bill he discounts raises the price of goods to the prejudice of the buyer who goes into the market with ready money. Should he be prohibited from granting accommodation, so that sugar, tallow, or tea shall become the monopoly only of buyers who can pay on the nail? In my time I have known common ploughmen, by their self-denial, perseverance, and superior intelligence, rise to the state of prosperous farmers. Should their landlords have said, Begone! you are men of straw.' You are thwarting Ready Money Mortiboy in his scheme for renting my land at his own price." I have preserved the record of hundreds of small holders in all the three kingdoms, who, with little else than the digging fork and elbow grease have raised themselves to competency. "The bit o' land has done it all.” Are they to be deprived of the only instrument of credit they can offer to the landowner?

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The case of the farmer is wholly exceptional, and necessitates exceptional treatment. He is entirely depen

dent on wind and weather-on circumstances which no human being can control. Two relatives of my own, farmers, who retired with ample fortunes, assured me that for the first two years of their lease they scarcely got back their seed. They were not men of straw. They had laid out thousands of pounds that brought no return. Where would they have been but for the security of Hypothec? In my time wheat has varied in a few months from 633. to 97s. per qr.

Pressed at the wrong time the tenant might be compelled to throw away his crop. Here we have

had no fewer than five successive bad harvests. The most skilful, competent, wealthy tenants have year after year seen their means, buried in the earth, melting away. But for the security afforded by the Law of Distress they must have been "sold up" long ago, without being afforded the chances of recovery which returning fertility and genial seasons may bring back to them. The landlord forbears, he gives time, credit, because it is his clear interest to do so, as these very years have demonstrated. But rob him of his security, strip the tenant of the credit which the Law of Distress enables him to offer, and what, in these disastrous years, must have been the sole alternative?

Observe this law defends the struggling tenant-the man who has sunk ample means year after year in a venture which withholds a present return, bat will perhaps amply repay the outlay in the future. The landlord can, and does, wait for this. The Law of Distress com


pels the outside creditor to do so likewise, because he cannot distrain until he has paid the landlord out. would he forbear unless this law compelled him to abide the reversion of returning production and better prices ? The whole operations of the farm depend upon seasons and critical barometrical vicissitudes. Give an outside creditor the power to levy a distress where he pleases, and the plough horses or the seed drills would be seized in the falls just when the winter wheat should be sown-the waggons would be distrained in June, and the hay crop left to rain and rot, the grazing cattle sold off, and the summer feed wasted,

The Law of Distress is almost the co-relative of the farmer's trade. It is in some sense the homestead law of England. That it induces people to refuse giving trust is one of those pretexts which have no real foundation in

the general practice of rural life. Besides, does it lye in the mouth of those who complain of the landowner accepting "men of straw" to object that the Law of Distress contracts credit? I have heard agriculturists repeatedly affirm, that the returns of one fine season have more than made up the losses of three bad ones. Is it reasonable that the farmer should be deprived of the protection against the pressure of outside creditors which the Law of Distress extends to him? He is the creature of the "skiey influences." He is the slave, not the ruler of " time and tide." The lean kine and the fat alternate in certain but wholly fortuitous intervals, for which he must wait, but cannot predicate. Here, in your own journal, Mr. Thomas Clark, of Fairbourne, supplies the following practical illustration of the predicament of the tenantry :-"Landlords are at all times safe, as there is plenty on a farm to pay a year's rent, and they have yet the Law of Distress in their favour. An bon. Baronet ia a neighbouring parish to this had a tenant who went to him at a time of severe depression, like the present, and requested that his rent might be lowered. The hon. Baronet replied: My friend, but you have not paid any for four years; how can you expect me to lower it?' The tenant said he could not go on any longer, even if he had hot any rent to pay. The kind-hearted Baronet rejoined, 'Perhaps we can manage to farm it together.' He sent the tenant seed corn, and found capital to pay for labour, and the result was that the change came, and the tenant prospered, paid the back rent with interest, in after years saved a fair sum for the benefit of his family, and died, with a blessing on the head of his kind and liberal-hearted landlord."

"hard cases made bad laws.

It is quite true that there are exceptional evils which occasionally operate in the practice of this principle, but I entirely agree with Mr. Read that the right of distraint should not extend beyond two years' rent. Where it is clear cattle are on land only by agistment, or horses, waggons, implements are only what the law calls, in transitu, they should be free from the operation of the law. I contend only for the expediency of the general principle; and when I consider that the clamour for its abolition is that only of capital against the industry and self-denial that have to struggle with narrow means, and to make intelligence, frugality, and energy cope with and do the work of ready and ample resources, I have little sympathy with the cry of the fat-eared wealth whose real complaint is, that the credit which the Law of Distress extends to "patient merits" prevents the capitalist from renting land at his own price.

I know indeed very well that the man who either himself, or by those from whom he derives his property, has enclosed and reclaimed the fields, made the roads, built all the houses and homesteads, hedged, ditched, drained, manured the land, so as to render it the fitting instrument of production, is beginning to be regarded as a mere tax upon the tenantry-as having neither claim nor right to any consideration, and to have little other destiny than that of being "improved off the face of the earth." There is as yet, indeed, no Parnell, who speaks right out, "Pay no rent, but keep fast hold of the land.' We don't yet hear the cry, "Shoot the landlords!" o' "Give them lead," on this side of the Channel. But the tenantry, by the accredited organs of the agricultural unions, have been invited to make common cause with the labourers against the owners of the land. Within living memory every county in England has been ablaze with incendiary conflagrations of stacks and homesteads. Encourage by loose market-ordinary oratory this sort of spirit, and, depend upon it, the envy that prompts it will

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SIR,-In your remarks on my letter of 21st November in last week's Mark Lane Express, I am sorry to see that you overlook a very important point which I thought I had made sufficiently clear, and by ignoring which it is impossible to apprehend aright the views in regard to freedom of contract advocated by me in that letter.

You say that I have "now clearly shown that we want nothing more than the reversal of the presumption of the law, which, in Scotland at any rate, is in favour of all improvements at the end of the tenancy going to the landlord;" and because the Agricultural Holdings Act, which alters the presumption of the law in England in favour of the tenant, is inoperative, you conclude that merely to alter the presumption of the law is not enough in your part of the kingdom-nor I should say is it enough in ours. But we propose a great deal more than that. What we say is abolish hypothec and distress, remove all other class laws and presumptions of law adverse to tenants, and at the same time let the legislature establish equitable rules to operate in the absence of special contract, giving to each at the close of the tenancy what is his-and where the tenant's property is so not to be separable incorporated with the soil as from it, or removable, let it be paid for by the landlord at valuation; and then, landlord an equal and tenant, having thus been put ou footing in the eye of the law, leave them to make what bargains they please. The right conferred in this way would not, as you seem to suppose, be a mere permissive right, but a legal right which could only be set aside by evils of the existing land laws may, to a very small exspecial contract between the parties themselves. tent be palliated, but can never be removed by the enactment of a compulsory law giving compensation for unexhausted manures and improvements. So long as these laws remain


as they are, any law of this kind likely to be got would be framed on the lines of the Agricultural Holdings Act, which, while conceding the principle of right to compensation, reduces its amount, by the machinery employed, to a trifle not worth contending for. Were these laws, as we propose, put on a sound footing, interference with contract to protect the weak against the strong " which you think necessary, would have no place, for both would then in the eye of the law be weak or strong alike, and I doubt not the "bonnet " lifters would soon learn to lift their heads along with the bonnets.

You express your satisfaction, referring to a leader in the North British Agriculturist, that it maintains its old position in favour of a compulsory measure in spite of Mr. McNeel Caird and the gentlemen who have followed his lead. In order that our views may be still more clearly brought before your English readers, you will perhaps allow me to conclude my letter with a few remarks on the leader to which you refer, and which I have read, I confess, with a certain degree of disappointment, because I think its writer not only fails to do justice to our views, but also because his own appears to me somewhat hazy on the subject; and they are certainly not set forth with that clearness which usually char

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