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whole family. No man unversed in the intricacies of English law would for one moment suspect that it would deal differently with the two yearly sums and the two estates in the event of an intestacy. Is not the occurrence of cases such as these an anomaly which calls for remedy? It may be asked what necessity there is for this rule to be abolished since every landowner by making his will may leave his estates as he pleased and thus prevent it from taking effect. To this query I would reply-You cannot but admit that primogeniture is strengthened and encouraged by the sanction which our law of inheritance gives, and is rendered more easy by the existing power of entail. Custom to a very material degree governs human actions. A man cannot, unless influenced from without, feel that he is in duty bound to leave all his landed property to his eldest son; such a course can only be justified by custom and conventionality. The State has to embody in its legislative enactments what ought to be considered as man's right intentions and natural inclinations. When, therefore it enunciates so wicked and mischievous a principle as is here discussed, it tends to perpetuate this custom and gives to primogeniture the sanction of social morality. In the language of John Bright-"The difference an abolition of the law would make is that it would take the tremendous sanction of the law from the side of evil and put it on the side of good."

In addition to this we must not lose sight of the fact that although the rule of primogeniture is not binding upon testators, to whom our law gives the power of leaving their property as they like, yet any landowner may exercise this power in such a way as altogether to deprive his successors of it, namely, by tying up or entailing his estates on one particular line of descendants. It will readily be seen hat as a general rule, when an estate is entailed, not only must it continuously pass from father to son in the prescribed manner, but it is also prevented from being brought into the market and sold; since each successive possessor, having only a life interest in the property, cannot dispose of it for a longer period than his own life. The estate, with the joint consent of father and eldest son, can be dealt with when that son comes of age; but of course when this happens the eldest son has a direct interest in preventing the sale of an estate which is settled upon him, and it is consequently re-settled. The fresh restraint upon the power of sale is generally added just before the time when the old one would become null and void, and the land Bileable.


Why then do our aristocracy and landowners so tenaciously adhere to this law, and so steadfastly refuse to consent to any to any modification of it? The theory of our Constitution is based upon the supposition that it is desirable that one of the governing powers of this country should be an hereditary aristocracy, and it is assumed that an hereditary aristocracy cannot be maintained unless they are extensive owners of land. And as a matter of fact, the House of Lords at this minute possess at the very least one-third of the whole area of Great Britain. Our law consequently endeavours to promote the idea that it is very undesirable for land to be subdivided. Even granting that the House of Lords be a necessary part of the State, its continuance can only be secured by its members being some of the most intelligent and able men of this realm. It would long eie this have sunk into oblivion, had it not been constantly strengthened by distinguished members of the Commons House. Englishmen will never submit to be governed by any set of men because they happen to possess wealth and station by right of birth.

It has been urged in favour of primogeniture, that it incites the younger sons to be industrious by leaving them to make their own fortunes. This argument was powerfully put by Dr. S. Johnson thus-"It makes but one fool in a family." So a defender of the aristocratical principles gives it as his opinion that a large inheritance is generally fatal to mental activity and strength. Aud as a matter of fact, it does occasionally occur that the eldest son is an idiot or lunatic. When this happens, the aid of the Court of Chancery has to be called in and very great expense incurred that an order or judgment may be obtained giving leave to others to take possession of those estates which the eldest son has not the capacity to use or enjoy. The argument in question will also tell in favour of dividing the possessions of the eldest son amongst the whole family, and thus getting rid even of the one fool. It is, however, urged that the effect of primogeni

ture in stimulating industry depends not so much on the poverty of the younger children as on the contrast between that poverty and the wealth of their elder brother. This argument would apply with equal force to talent and virtue. And besides this, surely those people who have earned for themselves large fortunes will afford, by their example, a much more powerful stimulus than the sight of a man who has inherited one.

It is argued, too, that the custom of dividing inheritances equally or nearly so amongst children causes land to be cut up into portions too small to admit of being cultivated advantageously. This argument is old, yet ever new; and has over and over again been refuted by various writers. Subdivision of the land is not necessarily involved in division of the inheritance, for the land may be held by the co-heirs in partnership, or may become the property of one of them, the shares of the others being charged upon it by mortgage or otherwise; or the whole may be sold and the proceeds divided. When the division would lessen the productive power of the land it is the direct interest of the co-heirs to adopt one of these courses; and, in fact, the experience of France, Belgium, and other countries has shown that no ill effects arise from subdivision.


A natural and evil effect of primogeniture is that it makes the landlords a comparatively poor class of men. The object of the institution is to keep land together in large masses, which it effects; but the owner of the land is not necessarily or usually the possessor of all the income derived from it. It is often heavily burdened with his debts, and generally charged with provisions for other children. Frequently estates are so encumbered with charges for wives, children, and servants, that many a landowner whose broad acres make his friends Feeve to be very rich and able to keep up great style is, in reality, a person who cannot afford to properly maintain his estate. The landlord, who is overwhelmed with debt, holds fast to his land, although only for the benefit of his creditors; and to keep up the fame of his family will not sell a part even to set free the remainder. Consequently the majority of landed estates are deeply mortgaged, aud, as a natural result the landowners, instead of having expital to spare for improvements, require all the increased value of the land to enable them to keep up the appearance their station demands. To prevent this wholesale mortgaging entails were had recourse to, so that each owner, having only a life interest, could not impose burdens ou his successor. Further evils arose from these, for though the owner could not ruin his successor, he could ruin himself; and certainly he would not improve the property even if he were rich enough to do so, for the whole benefit would accrue to his eldest son, while he could not even charge his estate on behalf of his other children. Besides being himself disabled from improving the land, neither could he sell it to anyone who would, for entails and settlements, prevent alienaation. Formerly an entailed estate could not even be leased for a term of years, but recent Acts of Parliament have made some modification in this respect. Entails, recollect, seldom expire, although by our law the power of entail is limited. Large properties are very rarely, if ever, free from settlement. follows therefore that primogeniture tends to keep land from being sold, which would otherwise undoubtedly come into the market.


It will be admitted that land ought to be cultivated with the greatest possible efficiency, because thereby the products of the soil will be the more abundant; but the custom of primogeniture-entails-prevent this. For example, suppose

a nobleman is tenant for life (the property being of course en'ailed) of an estate worth £10,000 a year, and he has many children. Assume also that this man has certain lands which it will be most profitable to irrigate; £10,000 expended for this purpose may double the produce obtained. Although the owner may fully appreciate how advantageous this outlay would be, yet he will not feel justified in making it, as by so doing he improves the property of his eldest son, and lessens the amount he can leave to his younger children. Plainly therefore this custom is detrimental to the welfare of the nation. I may also incidentally mention as evil consequences that the influence and control of the father over his eldest son is considerably lessened by the knowledge that the latter must come into the estate, and persons are often kept in responsible positions who are utterly unworthy of them.

Further, while such a number of interests are allowed to be created in land, the title must be always complicated and lawyer's deeds greatly lengthened; so much so that when one of these large estates does come into the market, the burdens on it are so numerous that the purchaser of a small plot has to pay for the conveyance of it nearly as much as its price. The abolition of entails would render the acquisition of land more easy by reducing the cost of conveyancing, and whatever facilitates the sale of land tends to make it more productive; whatever hinders its sale diminishes its usefulness by rendering it unproductive. The best system of landed property is one by which land can be rendered an object of commerce, and as easily transferable as personal or movable property. It may be said that in spite of our law, land constantly brought into the market and sold, and those who care to possess it can buy it. True, tut the price of land is artificially raised above its agricultural value, so that small farmers cannot purchase. The desire to possess land is inherent in man, and its possessing generally gives position and influence. Thus the price of land is forced up beyoud what those who desire to own it for the purpose of farming alone can afford to give.


At a recent meeting of the Haywards Heath Agricultu ral Society, Mr. Charles Lennox Peel, Clerk to the Privy Council, gave the following explanation of the law as to the prevention of Cattle disease :

I am happy to be able to tell you that the health of our animals in the United King lom during the past year has been exceptionally good. When I had the pleasure of addressing some of you at the Cuckfield agricultural show last year the new Act which deals with the contagious diseases of animals had not come into operation. I was only able to speak then of our intentions and our hopes. I am now speaking after twel e months' experience of the working of the Act, and I am bunna to say that the result is not unsatisfactory. I am aware that a year is too short a time to enable us to pronounce a definitive opinion on the permanent effect which the new legislation will have in the extinction of the diseases from which this country has suffered so severely during the last few years. will put it therefore no higher than this-that concurrently As a with the adoption of the new regulations affecting foreign or home-bred stock, there has been a marked improvement in the health of our flocks and herds. There has been no serious outbreak of disease in the United Kingdom, and the regulations are working smoothly and well.

sult of this land is seldom cultivated by its owner, most generally by tenants from year to year, who evidently cannot afford to lay out capital to effect improvements on land which is not their own. It more land is brought into the market, more opportunity will be given to the small farmers, whose numbers will proportionately increase. There is little doubt that under small farming our agricultural products would be largely augmented. Dairy farms, poultry farms, and market gardens are in great request, and just at the present period of agricultural depression the small farmers are the only ones who can make a profit.


In conclusion, although I contend that our present law should be abolished, and that no distinction should be made between the distribution of real and personal property on the death of its owner without having made a will, yet I do not wish to see the French custom of compulsory division adopted in its stead. It would certainly be undesirable to create in children a right to their parents' property which could not be defeated, however incapable some members of the family might show themselves to be. I would not put a single fetter upon the right of a man to leave his property as he likes, except in so far as to prevent the creation of entails and settlements. To effect this I would suggest that Parliament should enact that a testator should have no power to determine the parties to succeed to his estates after the death of all persons who happen to be living at his decease, although with perfect freedom of disposition amongst such persons. Farther, as a necessary corollary, that no one should by deed of settlement or other instrument be able to regulate the succession to the property thereby dealt with amongst any persous unborn at his decease. Finally, that in the case of a man dying without a will and leaving neither widow nor children, lus other relations in the descending or ascending line, no estates should become the property of the Government and that no right to inherit should be recognised in collateral relations. I believe that some such alterations as these introduced into our system of land tenure would rid us of the evils we have been enumerating, whilst they would greatly increase the number of landed proprietors throughout the kingdom,and at the same time largely add to the products of our soil; and that primogeniture, when no longer receiving the sanction of our law, would operate with continually decreasing effect.

ROUGH ON THE YANKEE.-A gentleman, coming from New York lately, was a fellow-passenger with a Yankee Who never by any chance, except when he was eating or sleeping, had a cigar out of his mouth. "I have seen a good many smokers," said the gentleman to this individual, "but I never saw such an incurable chimney as you are." "Yes," was the reply; "I am fond of my Havana. I can't live Without my Havana, and I have left instructions that one is to be put into my coffiu when I die." "And," interjeted another Yankee of the party, "I guess you won't have to go far for a light, anyhow,"

Icbserve, from letters and articles in the agricultural ad other newspapers, that some little alarm has been caused by a reported outbreak of cattle plague in Russian Poland, and two gentlemen who have paid great attention to these matters, and whose opinions are worthy of every consideration-I refer to Mr. Odams and Mr. Waller-have suggested some doubts as .o whether the precautions taken by the Privy Council are suthcient to protect us against the importation of disease. It may be interesting to you to hear what those precautions are. Under the new Act all foreign animals arriving in this country must be slaughtered at the port of landing, but power is given to the Privy Council to prohibit importation altogether from any dangerous country, and to exempt from the obligation of saughter at the port of landing animals coming from any count y which can satisfy the Privy Council that they are gener uly free from disease, and that their laws are such as to give reasonable security against the importation and spread of disease in that country.

The countries which have so satisfied the Privy Council may be counted on the fingers of one hand. They are Sweden (including Norway), Denmark, Spain, Portugal and Canada. Animals arriving from any of these countries must be landed at certain specified ports, and if after a detention of twelve hours and two inspections by officers of the Privy Council they are found to be healthy, they are no longer treated as foreign animals.

The importation of all animals is absolutely prohibited from countries likely to send us rinderpest, and this applies to Russia, Austria, Turkey, Greece, Italy, and Roumania, the importation of cattle from Germany and Belgium being prohibited from the same cruse. From every other country in the word all animals arriving in this country must be landed at certain defined and isolated wharves, and under no possible circun stances are they allowed to leave those wharves alive. When these regulations were first suggested we were told that thr adoption would cause such a disturbance in the cattle trade s would seriously interfere with the supply of food to this country.

Now this was a very serious consideration. On the one hand it was obviously useless to impose restrictions upon our home stock for the purpose of stamping out these diseases of foreign origin, unless we could effectually prevent their r introduction from abroad; whilst on the other hand, as we clearly are unable at present to produce as much meat as is required for the consumption of this country, it was essential that no difficulty should be placed in the way of obtaining whit was required from elsewhere. The Government made every inquiry into this matter, and from all the information they could obtain from the best informed quarters. They arrived at the conclusion that the trade would in all probability soon accommodate itself to the altered circumstances, and that it was more than likely that the certainty of the new system wou'd prove preferable to the uncertainty which prevailed under the old.

I am happy to believe that this anticipation will prove

correct. During the first ten months of the present year I find that 1,097,388 animals have been imported into this country from abroad against 1,049,304 animals during the corresponding period of 1878, showing an increase of 48,084, whilst it is a curious fact that on looking at the list of countries which have sent us fewer cattle than usual, I find at the head of it Denmark, with a falling off of 9,000 cattle during the first six months of this year-Denmark being a country whose animals have never been subject to slaughter at our ports-hus proving conclusively that the deficiency was due to the accidental circumstance of a better market having been found elsewhere, and not to any regulations imposed by this country.

And now, gentlemen, I should like to say a few words about our home regulations, which affect you individually more than those to which I have referred. And here may say that there is one complaint with regard to our regulations with which I entirely sympathise-I mean that in consequence of the number of Orders,, it is almost impossible for anyone without an infinity of trouble to find out what the law really is. I have assisted at the preparation, and have been present at the passing, of all these Orders, and yet I should be sorry to undertake to give an offhand answer to any abstruse question which might be raised. I will explain to you, however, why it was necessary that this number of Orders should exist at first. The Act laid down certain broad principles upon which foreign and home-bred animals were to be treated, leaving the Privy the details to be carried into effect by Orders Council.

We began by passing two Orders, one relating to foreign and the other to home animals, and as various points and difficulties have arisen, which it was impossible to foresee, fresh Orders have become necessary, amending or explaining the original Orders, until they have grown into a bulky volume. I am happy to tell you that the time has now arrived when we believe that these Orders may be consolidated, and I hope that before the end of the year an Order may be passed which will revoke all existing Orders, and which will contain in itself all the provisions now in force, both as regards foreign and home animals. But whilst admit ing that the Orders are somewhat perplexing, I must add that the leading principles of the regu lations contained in them are simple enough. The great feature is that disease, when it breaks out, should be isolated and stamped out at the centre of infection. As a first step towards this end, it is the first duty of every owner of a diseased animal to give notice of the fact to a constable. It is not only his duty, but his interest, because by doing so he obviates any risk of getting into trouble for not complying with the law; and if the disease proves to be one for which slaughter is prescribed, he thereby becomes entitled to the full amount of compensation which under the new Act the local authority are bound to pay, viz. three-quarters of the value for a diseased animal, and full value for any healthy animal they may deem it expedient to slaughter.

The whole duty of man (regarded as the owner of a diseased animal) has therefore been performed when he has notified the fact to the nearest policeman. The responsibility is then transferred from his shoulders to those of the local authority who are bound to inquire into the case, and to deal with it according to the requirements of the law. And here I may observe how important it is that the local authority should avail themselves of the best veterinary advice they can procure. I may illustrate th's by a case of a county (Northumberland) where this Act has been most rigidly and successfully enforced. It is stated in the report of the executive committee for 1879, that during the year forty-eight cases of pleuro-pneumonia were reported to them. All these cases were examined by the eminent veterinary inspector of the local authority, and the result was that only three out of the forty-eight proved to be cases of contagious pleuro-pneumonia, with whieh alone the Act deals. The lives of ferty-five animals were thus spared to the owners, and the pockets of the ratepayers were saved an *xpenditure of some 2500 or £600, which might have been paid in compensation under a less rigorous inspection. The local authority having satisfied themselves of the existence of the disease, and having ordered the slaughter of the animals in cases where slaughter is prescribed, are bound to declare the and I place where the disease existed "an infected place; ay remark that it is desirable that the limits of that place should not be more extended than is abolutely necessary for

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safety. The restrictions in an infected place are very severe
- movement into or out of it is practically forbidden, and it is
desirable that no greater amount of inconvenience than is
la cases of
necessary should be inflicted on the owner.
pleuro-pneumonia, for instance, it will generally be sufficient
to declare the shed or stall or yard in which the disease
exists "an infected place." In foot-and-mouth disease a
should be remembered
larger limit may be necessary, but
that the Privy Council is always ready, when necessary, to
declare" an infected area" round the infected place, the re-
strictions within such area being less severe than those within an
infected "place," but still sufficient for the security of the
neighbouring farms and premises.

There is another provision to which we attach great impor
tance-I mean the system of travelling inspection. We have s
small but very active staff of gentlemen, whose whole lives are
apent in travelling about the country, dropping down upon
railway stations, cattle ships, fairs, markets, and sale yards,
for the purpose of seeing that the orders relating to cleansing
and disinfecting are carried into effect. Sometimes a prosecu
tion follows, and though I am sorry when any of our friends
sure you who are interested in the
get into trouble, I am
rearing and breeding and sale of cattle, will understand how
essential it is that in places where animals are here to-day and
away to-morrow, when you have no means of knowing whence
they come or whither they go, every precaution should be
taken to prevent the possibility of their leaving behind them
the seeds of disease to be communicated to their successors.

And now, gentlemen, I have done. I believe the matters to which I have referred have a direct bearing on the pros perity of such shows and sales as those of to-day. I have only to say, in conclusion, that the Government are engaged in an earnest and honest attempt to extirpate those diseases of animals which have caused such loss to this country, and if they succeed, as I hope and believe they may, they will have earned the gratitude not only of the agriculturists, but every class of the community.

BULGARIA AS A FIELD FOR SETTLERS.- Mr. H. Barkley publishes in the Times some intelligence from Bulgaria which might make a third-rate English squire's mouth water. He has recently been offered 3,000 acres of deep alluvial soit able to grow anything, and within two miles of a port on the Danube, for £6,000. As a farther inducement to purchasers, a farmhouse, exteusive farm buildings, two steam thrashing machines, a steam mill, 1,200 sheep, 100 oxen and cows, and a drove of horses, are thrown in. Large oak woods cover a part of the land, which, I am informed, might be cut and sold, to cover the entire cost of the estate." There are many such estates in the market, and labour is cheap and good, while deer, wi'd boar, partridges, black game, and all kinds of water fowl, abound. There is a prospect for a young squire, with £10,000, good health, plenty of energy, and no hope of doing anything in this overstocked country! He will, however, we imagine, go to New Zealand, and leave Bulgaria to the painstaking German, who will enter it, as he does Poland, civilise it, and become ss hated as the Enghshmen in Ludia or in West Ireland.-Spectator.

A MULE WILLING TO GO.-A bad little boy in Portland lit a pack of shooting-crackers, and threw them into the street to " go of." One of Ike Bateman's mules came along and swallowed them before they "went off." The mule walked about fifteen feet and stopped. Things wasn't acting just right inside. He began to taste the smoke of fire crackers. He laid his left ear round against his ribs and heard something. It was them crackers having fun. The mule picked out about three and a halt miles of straight road and started. A negro met him about a mile the other side of the Alms House, going south, white with perspiration, with streams of smoke shooting out of his nostrils, mouth, and ears, while his tail stuck straight up, and a stream of blue and green smoke about ten feet long followed in the rear. afterwards found his mule sticking half way through a farmhouse near Paddy's Run still smoking. The man got his Ike hauled his family out and put 'em up in a lot of trees. mule home when he got cool enough, on a dray.

Ike soon



A correspondent of the New York Tribune recently "interviewed" Colonel Albert D. Shaw, the United States Consul in Manchester, and furnishes to that journal an account of an interesting conversation with regard to the cotton trade of Lancashire, the markets for American cotton in Eng'and, the effect of American competition, the outlook for English manufacturers, the condition of English operatives, the Lancashire strikes, the prospects of emigration, and the sale of American products in England. The correspondent describes Colonel Shaw as "a New Yorker who keeps his eyes open,' and as having made a thorough study of the subject; and the public are therefore assured that his conclusions may be accepted as those of a trained observer."

Replying to the first question, whether there has been any improvement during the past year in the cotton trade of LanBashire, Colonel Shaw said: "I think not, on the whole; it has been a gloomy time for manufacturers. The margin between the cost of the raw material and the selling price of cotton goods has been so small that the expenses have absorbed the profits in a great majority of cases. Few mills have realised an adequate return on the capital invested, and probably 30 per cent, of them have lost money, and some of them largely, on the year's operations. Many mills have been shut down, more are working on short time, and a still greater number have reduced the wages of their operatives. These facts prove that trade is bad, exceptionally so, or these expedients aud stoppages would not follow."

"Is there any considerable market," the interviewer asked, "for American cottons in this part of England ?" "Not at present," said Mr. Shaw. "American cottons of fine quality and finish were sent over here two or three years ago and met with a ready and favourable sale. Naturally, this created alarm in this stronghold of English cotton manufactures, but reductions in wages and in the price of cottons, coupled with the prejudices and reciprocal relations of the Manchester trade generally, so lowered the price of cotton goods that American importations ceased to secure a remunerative market. The experiment, however, opened the eyes of manufacturers here to the wonderful development of American manufactures, and taught them that dangerous rivals were coming forward to compete with them for the home as well as for the foreign markets."

"Do English manufacturers feel the effects of competition from outsiders?" Undoubtedly they do," was the answer. "English manufacturers have striven nobly to meet the discouraging phases of their trade-caused by a lack of orders and the low price of their goods-hoping for a better market and resorting to every promising expedient to cheapen the cost of production. But many of their former large foreign purchasers are supplying their needs from home productions largely, and the increased facilities for the manufacture of staple goods in Germany, in France, in the United States, and even in Canada, are now so great that English manufacturers find themselves heavily handicapped in the race for supremacy. The fact is that foreign competition lies at the bottom of their present troubles. True, comparatively a small per centage of foreign manufactured goods is sold in England, but the danger is, always, that unless rock-bottom prices are accepted for English manufactures, the American, the Freach, and the German products will at once take their place. So, in reality, the cheap and excellent quality of foreign manufactures forces down the profits of English manufacturers, and in many ca-es renders it impossible for them to live. Besides, in the East, and in far away centres, American manufacturers are rapidly gaining in favour, and herein lies also a dangerous competition with English products. Many believe that the cotton manufacturers of this district are passing through a crisis unequalled, all in all, in the history of this industry. Rival competitors in other lands are bidding keenly for enlarged markets; and English manufacturers, while still able to command a large per centage of the foreign trade in the East, and to hold their markets at home, are yet forced to accept small profits to accomplish this. So that while manufacturers here in the great majority of cases are able to produce goods at less first cost than their outside rivals, they are forced to put up with inadequate and unhealthy profits

to hold their own at present in the open markets of the world. Besides, the failure of crops in Eugland makes the home trade poor, and so all around the circle there is a concentrated pressure brought to bear on English manufacturers."

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"What is your opinion, Mr. Shaw, of the future prospects of manufactures in England ?" Well, sir, your question is a hard one to answer. Knowing as I do the almost limitless resources of the United States in raw materials, I naturally incline to the opinion that American enterprise, backed by adequate cheap capital, will be equal to the future, and that our raw materials, so wonderfully distributed over our vast continent, will be manufactured cheapest near the place of production. The genius of American inventors, and the growing skill of American operators, coupled with cheap lands and cheap food, certainly place us in a favourable position for winning the race in the international contest for the controlling position in manufactures. In England there is untold wealth, and the climate is specially favourable for the manufacture of certain classes of goods. Had it not been for the present wet season, the loss and distress in Lancashire would have been far greater. In working up cotton a damp atmosphere greatly facilitates and economises the process. As high as 10 or 20 per cent is thus saved. All cotton manufacturers understand this matter perfectly. The trade policy of rival nations is what cuts into the very vitals of English manufactures. Protection lops off the limbs of England's commerce, and it is this that is leaving the trunk shorn of its branches. Shut out as England is from even her own colonies by a tariff which encourages native industries, the supply thus curtails the demand for manufactures; and, in the sum total, the various losses thus brought about are more serious to English manufacture than is generally known."


"How do English operatives in the cotton mills compare with our Americ in operatives ?" was the next question. my opinion," said Mr. Shaw, "the average English operative is not equal to the average American operative, either physieally or intellectually. Here, whole families work in the mills-father, mother, and children, and I notice a lack of physical strength in the workpeople as they leave the factory. They look sallow, and appear haggard and weary. There is a kind of languor and a lack of buoyancy of spirits among them, quite in contrast to our American operatives in this particular. Then, again, beer drinking and smoking are very common among them, and an enormous amount of money is spent in this way. Beer is the great curse of the poorer classes in England. It deadens the moral and physical forces, and at the same time robs them of much of their hard earnings. Really, sir, this drink question is a serious one at present, for the money wasted on beer would bring gladness and comfort to thousands of homes now made desolate by and through its use."

"Do English operatives live as well, and is their social position equal to those of American operatives?" "Oh, no; there is a wide difference in these respects. In England, once an operative, as a rule, always an operative. In the United States it is an operative to-day, and something else later on. Not so in England. Class prejudices and customs press heavily upon operatives. The spirit of change, the ambition to seek other fields and pastures new is not general among this class, so far as my observations extend in England. They are content to toil on, satisfied to let others do the planning, so long as there is work in the mill, and no ambitions disturb them. It is a great privilege to get work there, and in it are centred all their hopes for the future. In this circle they expect to revolve as long as they live. Few have any aspirations beyond this, and few have any prospect of getting on outside of a factory. This is the beginning and end of their hopes or expectations. The contrast in the condition of operatives in England and in the United States-in dress, in education, in living, and in the prospects for the future of their families, is most marked indeed. American operatives in their social position, in their school privileges, and in the future possibilities open before them, are a hundred fold better off than are operatives of this country. Of this you can satisfy yourself in half an hour by looking about this city. America presents a future to operatives outside of the factory. England does not; and in this radical difference lies the grand advantage our operatives enjoy."

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Have there been many strikes in this district latterly

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"Yes; several. It is a bad business this of striking among operatives here. It causes much loss and suffering, both to the operatives and the manufacturers. The dull trade of the past year has been so serious that the workpeople have shown a disposition to work under reductions which earlier would have led to a strike. The fact is that manufacturers are not in a position now to be intimidated by operatives. It is hard work, under the best management, to keep mills in motion, and so reductions must come, or the spindles and looms must stop. It is a question of low wages and work, or no work or wages."

"What is the feeling in this section about emigration ?" "There can be no doubt but that a very large emigration will soon take place, and now is the time for discreet efforts to be made to direct this tide to our shores. Agents are already here working in the interest of Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, and, as may be readily inferred, they do not strengthen any predilections in favour of emigrating to the United States." "What particular class have emigration in view ?" "All classes, almost. No end of operatives would at once start for America if they were assured of work and fair wages. The farmers by thousands have become convinced that it will be better for them to emigrate where land is cheap and the climate is more promising for grain raising than it is in England. Many have already gone to Canada and to Aust alia and New Zealand who, rightly influenced by a full presentation of the advantages the United States offer for them to settle there, would have chosen to come to us, Among intending emigrants are strong, capable, and industrious people -in many cases with from £1,000 to £10,000 of capital-the right sort of men to develop a new country, socially, morally, and generally. Those interested cannot too soon wake up to the importance of promptly establishing agencies in proper places in England to furnish needed and reliable information as to the attractions of various sections of the United States."

"What plan appears best to you, so far as American emi gration agents are concerned ?" "In my judgment the selection of men well acquainted with English habits-and, if possible, with a wide circle of friends in England-would be wise. One agent might do for two or more States, as the climate and conditions might seem unfavourable or the reverse in any one, and thus a general bureau for furnishing trust. worthy data could be kept up. Agents interested in the sale of particular lands are not wanted. These do not generally succeed, for their interests do not always favour those of intending emigrants."

"How are American fresh meats, butter, and cheese regarded by English consumers?” "Very favourably indeed. The increase in the supply has been enormous within the past two years, and as a result the price of English-grown meat has fallen from 2 to 8 cents a pound. At first there was a great prejudice against American fresh meat; but this is largely dying out, owing to the excellent quality and condition of the supply furnished. What is needed now are better methods for placing our meat on sale over here. As it is, the English dealer gets the best of the bargain. If exporters of our live stock could arrange to have retail markets in the principal cities and towns in England, where good meats could be had at a fair price, it would not take long to establish a much more lucrative trade than it is at present. Now retail dealers and middlemen reap the richest harvest in handling our meats. And so with our butter and cheese. I think if proper attention was paid to this matter that leading dealers in America could form connections with influential houses in England, and so directly supply their meats, butter, cheese, &c., to the trade here, and thus avoid expensive middlemen and irresponsible agents in this country. This would require close attention and study, but it is a point well worthy of the careful investigation of our American exporters."

"Then you believe that a better system of placing American farm products on sale in England would greatly benefit our farmers ?" "Most certainly I do. There can be no question at all about this. Look at the facts: At present a consignment of butter, cheese, apples, meats, &c., is received, say, at Liverpool. The dealer to whom it is consigned offers it for sale in lots at auction. Notice is given, and on a specified day it is sold to the highest bidder. Mind, there is no guarantee specially given, as a rule. There are the articles,

and purchasers must take their chance. A pressure of business, or rain, or one thing or another, prevents intending buyers from being present, so the prices realised are often very low. It is a sort of torced sale, and knowing this many take advantage of the plan, and even combine together often to secure lots very cheap. The practical effect of this system of sales is to lower the price of consignments made in this way. If, on the other hand, shipments were made to responsible houses interested in the produce, where sales would be made under their guarantee as to quality and condition, a great improvement would follow. No one can doubt this who has investigated this subject carefully. I have known 50 packages of American butter to be sold at auction at Liverpool at 16 cents a pound, 40 packages of which a week later were resold by the purchasers for 28 cents a pound, and the price of butter had not advanced in the general market in the meantime. This dealer sent the butter to his warehouse, carefully assorted it, branded it with his firm's name, and made a handsome profit simply because he became responsible for the quality of the same. This illustrates exactly what I mean by imdroved methods of selling American farm products in England, for what is true in this one instance holds good in general as regards our trade. The best articles only should be sent over here, and then the best methods should be employed to dispose of them after they arrive. What is needed is a good knowledge of the tastes and prejudices of the English people, and then to carefully prepare our products to suit them. With branch houses in the chief centres in Great Britain, through which orders could come for needed supplies, direct shipments wonid save profits now paid to middlemen, storage, cartage, &c., a sum total in many cases equal to a good percentage on a shipment, as now managed, and at the same time secure a higher price for the goods when sold. aware that this is not a new idea by any means, but, nevertheless, it is important to fariners especially, because their interests are sacrificed by the bad methods now in force" in disposing of their hard-earned products in English markets."

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Is there much interest manifested here in regard to the consular reports made to the Department of State at Washington ?" 'Yes; a great deal, and merchants and manufacturers in this country are pressing for similar reports from English Consuls. It is held that such reports are of great value, and the information furnished has the advantage of being impartial. The recent publication of a review of labour in Europe by the State Department at Washington has been widely criticised and highly commended by the English press. I think more attention is now being given to the study of the needs of foreign trade than formerly in this country. The zeal of American representatives in the Consular service in gathering all the available data as to wages, strikes, cost of living, markets, &c., is regarded as indicative of a comprehensive and valuable system of gathering facts for the benefit of the nation, and their importance is not underrated in England."

TOO MANY SNAKE BITES.-During the haying season an honest old farmer out on the Gratiot-road, employed three young men from the city to help cut and store his timothy. None of them liked work half as well as whisky, and a conspiracy was the result. About noon one day one of the trio fell down in the field, shouting and kicking, and the other two ran to the farmer with wild eyes and called out that their conpanion had been bitten by a rattlesnake and must have whisky, The farmer rushed to the house and brought out a quart, and the three harvesters got a big drink all around on the sly, while the "bitten " one had a lay-off of haif a day. The next forenoon a second one was bitten, and again the farmer ru hed for his bottle. It was a nice little job for the boys, and on the third day the third one put in his claim for bite and yelled for the whisky bottle. The farmer took the matter very coolly this time, and after making particular enquiries as to the size of the snake, location of the bite, the sensation, and so forth, he slowly continued:-" Day before yesterday James was bitten and drank a quart of good whisky. Yesterday John was bitten and drank a quart more. To-day you've got

a bite, and the best thing you can do is to smell their breaths, and lay in the shade while the rest of us eat dinner!" The man got well in tea minutes, and not another rattlesnake was seen during the season.

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