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perfect, as for instance the brain and spinal medulla, it requires only a closer study to reveal many points of difference between the right and left halves.

The line on the front of the body along which the median plane reaches the surface is termed the anterior median line; whilst the corresponding line behind is called the posterior median line.

It is convenient to employ other terms to indicate other imaginary planes of section through the body. The term, sagittal, therefore, is used to denote any plane which cuts through the body along a path which is parallel to the median plane (SS); and the term coronal or frontal is given to any vertical plane which passes through the body in a path which cuts the median plane at right angles (C C'). The term horizontal, as applied to a plane of section, requires no explanation.

Any structure which lies nearer to the median plane than another is said to be medial to it; and any structure placed further from the median plane than another is said to lie lateral to it. Thus in Fig. 1, A is lateral to B; whilst B is medial to A.

The terms internal and external are applied to the walls of hollow cavities or organs; thus, the ribs possess external surfaces, that is, surfaces away from the cavity of the thorax, and internal surfaces adjacent to the cavity.

The terms anterior and ventral are synonymous, and are used to indicate a structure (D) which lies nearer to the front or ventral surface of the body than another structure (E) which is placed nearer to the back or dorsal surface of the body, and which is thus said to be posterior or dorsal. In some respects it would be well to discard the terms "anterior" and "posterior" in favour of "ventral" and "dorsal," seeing that the former are only applicable to man in the erect attitude, and cannot be applied to an animal in the prone or quadrupedal position. They are, however, so deeply ingrained into the descriptive language of the human anatomist that they cannot be entirely discarded. A similar objection may be raised to the terms superior and inferior, which are employed to indicate the relative levels at which two structures lie with reference to the upper and lower ends of the body. The equivalent terms of cephalic or cranial and preaxial are, therefore, sometimes used in place of "superior," and caudal and postaxial in place of "inferior."

The terms proximal and distal should be applied only in the description of the limbs. They denote relative nearness to or distance from the root of the limb. Thus, the hand is distal to the forearm, whilst the arm or brachium is proximal to the forearm.

OLD TERMINOLOGY. Posterior radial carpal Dorsal interosseous arteries

Radialis indicis

Superficial palmar arch Deep palmar arch

Posterior interosseous artery

Posterior interosseous recurrent artery Anterior

interosseous

artery

Posterior ulnar carpal Anterior ulnar carpal Palmar digital arteries

hypo

Collateral digital arteries Intestinal branches of sup. mesenteric Middle capsular artery Internal iliac artery Obliterated gastric Internal pudic artery Deep epigastric artery Cremasteric artery Superficial and deep external pudic arteries Internal artery External

circumflex

circumflex

artery Anastomotica magna Superior external articular artery Superior internal articular artery Azygos articular tery Inferior external articular artery Inferior internal articular artery External malleolar artery

Internal malleolar artery Peroneal artery

Anterior peroneal artery Posterior peroneal artery

ar

Anterior pillar of fauces

Gland of Nuhn Wharton's duct Socia parotidis Stenson's duct

Posterior pillar of fauces

B. N. A. TERMINOLOGY. Ramus carpeus dorsalis Aa. metacarpeæ dorsales

A. volaris indicis. radialis

Arcus volaris superficialis

Arcus volaris profundus

A. interossea dorsalis

A. interossea recurrens

A. interossea volaris

Ramus carpeus dorsalis
Ramus carpeus volaris
Aa. digitales volares

communes

Aa. digitales volares
propriæ
Arteriæ intestinales

A. suprarenalis media
A. hypogastrica
A. umbilicalis

A. pudenda interna
A. epigastrica inferior
A. spermatica externa
Aa. pudendæ externæ

A. circumflexa femoris
medialis

A. circumflexa femoris
lateralis

A. genu suprema
A. genu

superior

lateralis

A. genu superior medialis

A. genu media

A. genu inferior lateralis

A. genu inferior me-
dialis

A. malleolaris an-
terior lateralis
A. malleolaris all-
terior medialis

A. peronæa

Ramus perforans

A. malleolaris posterior lateralis

Arcus tinus

Arcus pharyngo-pala

tinus

Gl. lingualis anterior
Ductus submaxillaris
Gl. parotis accessoria
Ductus parotideus
(Stenonis)

Digestive Apparatus.

glosso-pala

| B.N. A. TERMINOLOGY.
A. malleolaris pos-
terior medialis
Rami calcanei later-
ales

Rami calcanei me-
diales

A. plantaris medialis

A. plantaris lateralis

Aa. metatarsæ
tares

plan

Aa. digitales plan

tares

V. cordis magna
V. obliqua atrii
sinistri
Lig. venæ
sinistræ
Vv. cordis minimæ
Sinus transversus
Confluens sinuum
Plexus basilaris
Sinus sagittalis su-
perior

Sinus sagittalis inferior

Sinus spheno-parietalis
V. cerebri internæ
V. cerebri magna
V. terminalis

V. basalis

V. transversa scapulæ
V. thoraco-acromialis

THE VISCERA.

Vv. transversæ colli

V. thoracalis lateralis
V. azygos

V. hemiazygos

cavæ

Cisterna chyli

V. hemiazygos acces

soria

V. hypogastrica
V. epigastrica inferior
V. saphena magna

V. saphena parva

Tela submucosa
Plica circulares
Gl. intestinales
Valvula coli
Columnæ rectales

Veins.

Dentes præmolares
Dens serotinus
Papillæ vallatæ

Recessus pharyngeus

OLD TERMINOLOGY. Internal malleolar artery

External calcanean artery

Internal calcanean

artery Internal tery

plantar ar

External plantar ar

tery
Digital branches

Collateral
branches

digital

Great cardiac vein
Oblique vein of Mar-
shall
Vestigial fold of Mar-
shall

Veins of Thebesius
Lateral sinus
Torcular Herophili
Basilar sinus

Superior longitudinal

sinus

Inferior longitudinal

sinus

Sinus alæ parvæ
Veins of Galen
Vena magna Galeni
Vein of the corpus
striatum
Basilar vein
Suprascapular vein.

Acromio thoracic
vein
Transversalis
veins

colli

Long thoracic vein
Vena azygos major
Vena azygos minor
inferior

Lymphatics.

Vena azygos minor
superior
Internal iliac vein
Deep epigastric vein
Internal saphenous

vein
External
vein

saphenous

Receptaculum chyli

Bicuspid teeth
Wisdom tooth
Circumvallate pa-

pillæ

Lateral recess of
pharynx

Pharyngeal aponeurosis
Valvulæ conniventes
Crypts of Lieberkuhn
Ileo-cæcal valve
Columns of Morgagni

OLD TERMINOLOGY. Valves of Houston Valve of Heister Peyer's patches

Jejunum

Ileum

Malpighian corpuscles

Adam's apple

Superior thyroid notch

Aryteno epiglottidean muscle Internal thyro-arytenoid muscle Thyro epiglottidean muscle Laryngeal sac

True vocal cord False vocal cord Superior thyro arytenoid ligament Inferior thyro - arytenoid ligament Glottis vera Glottis spuria Thyroid cartilage Thyro hyoid membrane

Cartilage of Santorini

Cushion of epiglottis

Glottis vocalis

Glottis respiratoria

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Cricothyroid mem

brane

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B. N. A. TERMINOLOGY. Glomus caroticum

Nose

Concha nasalis suprema (Santorini) Concha nasalis superior

Concha nasalis media

Concha nasalis inferior

Urogenital

Corpuscula renis Paradidymis Appendix testis

Ductus deferens
Gl. urethrales
Glandula bulbo - ure-
thralis (Cowperi)
Folliculi

oophori

vesiculosi

Cumulus oophorus
Tuba uterina
Epoophoron
Appendices vesiculosi

Ductus epoophori longitudinalis

Orificium internum uteri

Orificium externum Processus vaginalis Glandula vestibularis major

Bursa omentalis Foramen epiploicum Lig. phrenico - colicum Excavatio recto

uterina (cavum Douglasi) Lig. gastro-lienale

Canalis semicircularis lateralis

Ductus reuniens
Ductus cochlearis
Recessus sphæricus
Recessus ellipticus
Paries jugularis
Paries labyrinthica

Fenestra vestibuli Fenestra cochleæ Paries mastoidea

Antrum tympani

cum

Paries carotica
Processus lateralis

Processus anterior

B.N.A. TERMINOLOGY.
Plicæ transversales recti
Valvula spiralis
Noduli lymphatici
aggregati (Peyeri)
Intestinum jejunum
Intestinum ileum
Noduli lymphatici
licnales (Malpighii)

Larynx

Prominentia laryngea Incisura thyreoidea superior

M. ary-epiglotticus

M. vocalis

Respiratory Apparatus.

M. thyreo epiglotticus

Appendix ventriculi

laryngis

Plica vocalis

Plica ventricularis Ligamentum ventriculare

Ligamentum vocale

Glottis

Rima vestibuli

Cartilago thyreoidea Membrana hyothyreoidea Cartilago corniculata (Santorini) Tuberculum epiglotticum

Pars intermembranacea (rimæ glottidis) Pars intercartilaginea

(rimæ glottidis) Conus elasticus (membranæ elasticæ laryngis)

Glandula thyreoidea

Selera
Lamina elastica an-
terior (Bowmani)
Lamina elastica pos-
terior (Descemeti)
Spatia anguli iridis
Angulus iridis
Zonula ciliaris

Septum orbitale
Fascia bulbi
Commissura palpe.
brarum lateralis
Commissura palpe-
brarum medialis
Tarsus superior
Tarsus inferior
Lig. palpebrale mediale

Raphe palpebralis
lateralis

The Eye.

Thyroid gland

Sclerotic coat
Bowman's membrane

Descemet's membrane

Spaces of Fontana
Irido-corneal junction
Zonule of Zinn
Palpebral ligament
Capsule of Tenon
External canthus

Internal canthus

Superior tarsal plate
Inferior tarsal plate
Internal tarsal liga-
ment

External tarsal liga

ment

THE SENSE ORGANS.

Tarsal glands

OLD TERMINOLOGY.

Intercarotid gland or body

Highest turbinate bone

Superior turbinate bone

Middle turbinate bone

Inferior turbinate bone

Peritoneum.

Apparatus.

Malpighian corpuscles
Organ of Giraldés
Hydatid of Morgagni
(male)

Vas deferens

Glands of Littré

Cowper's gland

Graafian follicles

Discus proligerus
Fallopian tube
Parovarium

Hydatids of Morgagni
(female)
Gärtner's duct

Internal os (of uterus)

External os
Canal of Nuck
Bartholin's gland

The Ear.

Lesser peritoneal sac
Foramen of Winslow
Costo-colic ligament
Pouch of Douglas

Gastro-splenic omentum

Meibomian glands

External
canal

semicircular

Canalis reuniens
Membranous cochlea
Fovea hemispherica
Fovea hemi-elliptica
Floor of tympanum
Inner wall

Fenestra ovalis
Fenestra rotunda

Posterior wall

Mastoid antrum

Anterior wall
Processus brevis
malleus)
Processus gracilis

(of

OLD TERMINOLOGY. Posterior radial carpal Dorsal interosseous arteries Radialis indicis

Superficial palmar arch

Deep palmar arch

interosseous

Posterior artery

Posterior interosseous recurrent artery Anterior interosseous

artery

Posterior ulnar carpal Anterior ulnar carpal Palmar digital arteries

Collateral digital ar

teries

Intestinal branches of sup. mesenteric Middle capsular artery Internal iliac artery Obliterated hypogastric

Internal pudic artery Deep epigastric artery Cremasteric artery Superficial and deep external pudic arteries Internal artery External

circumflex

circumflex

artery Anastomotica magna Superior external articular artery Superior internal articular artery Azygos articular tery Inferior external articular artery Inferior internal articular artery External malleolar

ar

B. N. A. TERMINOLOGY. Ramus carpeus dorsalis Aa. metacarpeæ dor

sales

A. volaris indicis
radialis
Arcus volaris
ficialis

super

Arcus volaris profundus

A. interossea dorsalis

A. interossea recurrens

A. interossea volaris

Ramus carpeus dorsalis
Ramus carpeus volaris
Aa. digitales volares

communes

Aa. digitales volares
propriæ
Arteriæ intestinales

A. suprarenalis media
A. hypogastrica
A. umbilicalis

A. pudenda interna
A. epigastrica inferior
A. spermatica externa
Aa. pudendæ externæ

A. circumflexa femoris
medialis

A. circumflexa femoris lateralis

A. genu suprema

A. genu

superior

lateralis

A. genu superior medialis

A. genu media

A. genu inferior lateralis

A. genu inferior me-
dialis

A. malleolaris an-
terior lateralis
A. malleolaris an-
terior medialis

A. peronæa

Ramus perforans

A. malleolaris posterior lateralis

Arcus tinus

Arcus pharyngo-pala

tinus

Gl. lingualis anterior
Ductus submaxillaris
Gl. parotis accessoria
Ductus parotideus
(Stenonis)

Digestive Apparatus.

glosso-pala

artery

Internal malleolar ar-
tery
Peroneal artery

Anterior peroneal
artery
Posterior peroneal
artery

Gland of Nuhn
Wharton's duct
Socia parotidis
Stenson's duct

Anterior pillar of
fauces
Posterior pillar of

fauces

B.N.A. TERMINOLOGY.
A. malleolaris pos-
terior medialis
Rami calcanei later-
ales

Rami calcanei me-
diales

A. plantaris medialis

A. plantaris lateralis

Aa. metatarsæ plan

tares

Aa. digitales plan

tares

V. cordis magna
V.

obliqua atrii
sinistri
Lig. venæ
sinistræ
Vv. cordis minimæ
Sinus transversus
Confluens sinuum
Plexus basilaris
Sinus

sagittalis su

perior
Sinus sagittalis inferior

cavæ

Sinus spheno-parietalis
V. cerebri internæ
V. cerebri magna
V. terminalis

THE VISCERA.

V. basalis

V. transversa scapulæ
V. thoraco-acromialis

Vv. transversæ colli

V. thoracalis lateralis
V. azygos

V. hemiazygos

Cisterna chyli

V. hemiazygos acces-
soria
V. hypogastrica
V. epigastrica inferior
V. saphena magna

V. saphena parva

Veins.

Dentes præmolares
Dens serotinus
Papillæ vallatæ

Recessus pharyngeus

Tela submucosa
Plicæ circulares
Gl. intestinales
Valvula coli
Columnæ rectales

OLD TERMINOLOGY. Internal malleolar artery

External calcanean artery

Internal calcanean

artery Internal tery

plantar ar

External plantar ar

tery
Digital branches

Collateral
branches

digital

Great cardiac vein

Oblique vein of Marshall

Vestigial fold of Mar-
shall

Veins of Thebesius
Lateral sinus
Torcular Herophili
Basilar sinus

Superior longitudinal

sinus

Inferior longitudinal

sinus

Sinus alæ parvæ
Veins of Galen

Vena magna Galeni
Vein of the corpus
striatum
Basilar vein
Suprascapular vein

Acromio thoracic
vein
Transversalis colli
veins

Lymphatics.

Long thoracic vein
Vena azygos major
Vena azygos minor
inferior

Vena azygos minor
superior

Internal iliac vein
Deep epigastric vein
Internal saphenous

vein
External saphenous

vein

Receptaculum chyli

Bicuspid teeth
Wisdom tooth
Circumvallate
pillæ
Lateral
pharynx
Pharyngeal aponeurosis
Valvulæ conniventes
Crypts of Lieberkuhn
Ileo-cæcal valve
Columns of Morgagni

recess

paof

B.N.A. TERMINOLOGY. Plicæ transversales recti Valvula spiralis Noduli lymphatici aggregati (Peyeri) Intestinum jejunum Intestinum ileum Noduli lymphatici lienales (Malpighii)

Larynx

Prominentia laryngea

Incisura thyreoidea superior M. ary-epiglotticus

M. vocalis

M. thyreo epiglotticus

Appendix ventriculi

laryngis

Respiratory Apparatus.

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OLD TERMINOLOGY. Valves of Houston Valve of Heister Peyer's patches

Jejunum Ileum

Raphe palpebralis lateralis

Malpighian corpuscles

Adam's apple

Superior thyroid notch

The Eye.

Aryteno epiglottidean muscle Internal thyro-arytenoid muscle

Thyro epiglottidean muscle Laryngeal sac

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True vocal cord
False vocal cord
Superior thyro⚫ ary-
tenoid ligament
Inferior thyro - ary-
tenoid ligament
Glottis vera
Glottis spuria

Thyroid cartilage Thyro hyoid membrane

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B. N. A. TERMINOLOGY. Glomus caroticum

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Nose

Concha

nasalis prema (Santorini) Concha nasalis superior

Concha nasalis media

Concha nasalis inferior

Urogenital

Corpuscula renis Paradidymis Appendix testis

su

THE SENSE ORGANS.

Tarsal glands

Ductus deferens
Gl. urethrales
Glandula bulbo-ure-
thralis (Cowperi)
Folliculi

oophori

vesiculosi

Cumulus oophorus
Tuba uterina
Epoophoron
Appendices vesiculosi

Ductus epoophori longitudinalis

Orificium internum uteri

Orificium externum Processus vaginalis Glandula vestibularis major

Bursa omentalis Foramen epiploicum Lig. phrenico - colicum Excavatio recto

uterina (cavum Douglasi) Lig. gastro-lienale

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Peritoneum.

The Ear.

Cartilage of Santorini

Cushion of epiglottis

Glottis vocalis

Glottis respiratoria

Cricothyroid membrane

Thyroid gland

Sclerotic coat
Bowman's membrane

Descemet's membrane

Spaces of Fontana
Irido-corneal junction
Zonule of Zinn
Palpebral ligament
Capsule of Tenon
External canthus

Internal canthus

Superior tarsal plate
Inferior tarsal plate
Internal tarsal liga-
ment

External tarsal liga

ment

OLD TERMINOLOGY.

Intercarotid gland or
body

Highest turbinate
bone
Superior turbinate
bone
Middle
bone

turbinate

Inferior turbinate bone

Apparatus.

Malpighian corpuscles
Organ of Giraldés

Hydatid of Morgagni
(male)

Vas deferens

Glands of Littré

Cowper's gland

Graafian follicles

Discus proligerus
Fallopian tube
Parovarium

Hydatids of Morgagni

(female) Gärtner's duct

Internal os (of uterus)

External os
Canal of Nuck
Bartholin's gland

Lesser peritoneal sac
Foramen of Winslow
Costo-colic ligament
Pouch of Douglas

Gastro-splenic omentum

Meibomian glands

External
canal

semicircular

Canalis reuniens
Membranous cochlea
Fovea hemispherica
Fovea hemi-elliptica
Floor of tympanum
Inner wall

Fenestra ovalis
Fenestra rotunda

Posterior wall

Mastoid antrum

Anterior wall

Processus brevis (of malleus)

Processus gracilis

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