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perfect, as for instance the brain and spinal medulla, it requires only a closer study to reveal many points of difference between the right and left halves.

The line on the front of the body along which the median plane reaches the surface is termed the anterior median line ; whilst the corresponding line behind is called the posterior median line.

It is convenient to employ other terms to indicate other imaginary planes of section through the body. The term sagittal, therefore, is used to denote any plane which cuts through the body along a path which is parallel to the median plane (SS); and the term coronal or frontal is given to any vertical plane which passes through the body in a path which cuts the median plane at right angles (C C'). The term horizontal, as applied to a plane of section, requires no explanation.

Any structure which lies nearer to the median plane than another is said to be medial to it; and any structure placed further from the median plane than another is said to lie lateral to it. Thus in Fig. 1, A is lateral to B; whilst B is medial to A.

The terms internal and external are applied to the walls of hollow cavities or organs; thus, the ribs possess external surfaces, that is, surfaces away from the cavity of the thorax, and internal surfaces adjacent to the cavity.

The terms anterior and ventral are synonymous, and are used to indicate a structure (D) which lies nearer to the front or ventral surface of the body than another structure (E) which is placed nearer to the back or dorsal surface of the body, and which is thus said to be posterior or dorsal. In some respects it would be well to discard the terms “anterior" and "posterior" in favour of “ventral” and “dorsal,” seeing that the former are only applicable to man in the erect attitude, and cannot be applied to an animal in the prone or quadrupedal position. They are, however, so deeply ingrained into the descriptive language of the human anatomist that they cannot be entirely discarded. A similar objection may be raised to the terms superior and inferior, which are employed to indicate the relative levels at which two structures lie with reference to the upper and lower ends of the body. The equivalent terms of cephalic or cranial and preaxial are, therefore, sometimes used in place of “superior," and caudal and postaxial in place of " inferior.”

The terms proximal and distal should be applied only in the description of the limbs. They denote relative nearness to or distance from the root of the limb. Thus, the hand is distal to the forearm, whilst the arm or brachium is proximal to the forearm.

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Posterior interosseous

artery
Posterior interosseous

recurrent artery
Anterior interosseous

artery
Posterior ulnar carpal
Anterior ulnar carpal
Palmar digital arteries

Collateral

branches

digital

A. interossea volaris

Ramus carpeus dorsalis
Ramus carpeus volaris
Aa. digitales volares

communes
Aa. digitales volares

propriæ Arteriæ intestinales

venæ

C&V

A. suprarenalis media
A. hypogastrica
A. umbilicalis

SU

A. pudenda interna
A. epigastrica inferior
A. spermatica externa
Aa. pudendæ externæ

A. circumflexa femoris

medialis A. circumflexa femoris

lateralis A. genu suprema A. genu superior

lateralis A. genu superior me.

dialis A. genu media

Collateral digital ar

teries
Intestinal branches of

sup. mesenteric
Middle capsular artery
Internal iliac artery
Obliterated hypo.

gastric
Internal pudic artery
Deep epigastric artery
Cremasteric artery
Superficial and deep

external pudicar

teries
Internal circumflex

artery
External circumflex

artery
Anastomotica magna
Superior external

articular artery Superior internal

articular artery
Azygos articular

tery
Inferior external arti-

cular artery
Inferior internal arti.

cular artery
External malleolar

artery
Internal malleolar ar-

tery
Peroneal artery

Anterior peroneal

artery
Posterior peroneal

Veins.
V. cordis magna

Great cardiac vein
V. obliqua atrii Oblique vein of Mar-
sinistri

shall Lig.

Vestigial fold of Marsinistræ

shall
Vv. cordis minima Veius of Thebesius
Sinus transversus

Lateral sinus
Confluens sinuum

Torcular Herophili
Plexus basilaris

Basilar sinus Sinus sagittalis Superior longitudinal perior

sinus Sinus sagittalis inferior Inferior longitudinal

sinus
Sinus spheno-parietalis

Sinus alæ parvæ
V. cerebri internæ

Veins of Galen
V. cerebri magna

Vena magna Galeni
V. terminalis

Vein of the corpus

striatum
V. basalis

Basilar vein
V. transversa scapulæ Suprascapular vein
V. thoraco-acromialis Acromio · thoracic

vein
Vy. transversa colli Transversalis colli

veins V. thoracalis lateralis Long thoracic vein

Vena azygos major V. hemiazygos

Vena azygos minor

inferior
V. bemiazygos acces- Vena azygos

minor soria

superior V. hypogastrica

Internal iliac vein V. epigastrica inferior Deep epigastric vein V. saphena magna

Internal saphenous

vein V. saphena parva

External saphenous

vein

V. azygos

ar

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Lymphatics.

artery

A. malleolaris pos.

terior lateralis

Receptaculum chyli

Cisterna chyli

recess

THE VISCERA.
Digestive Apparatus.

Dentes præmolares

Dens serotinus Arcus glosso-pala- Anterior pillar of Papillæ vallatæ tinus

fauces Arcus pharyngo-pala- Posterior pillar of Recessus pharyngeus tinus

fauces Gl. lingualis anterior Gland of Nuhn

| Tela submucosa Ductus submaxillaris Wharton's duct

Plicæ circulares Gl. parotis accessoria Socia parotidis

Gl. intestinales Ductus parotideus Stenson's duct

Valvula coli (Stenonis)

Columnæ rectales

Bicuspid teeth
Wisdom tooth
Circumvallate pa

pillæ
Lateral

of pharynx Pharyngeal aponeurosis Valvulae conniventes Crypts of Lieberkuhn Ileo-cæcal valve Columns of Morgagni

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B.N.A. TERMINOLOGY. OLD TERMINOLOGY. Plicæ transversales recti Valves of Houston Valvula spiralis

Valve of Heister Voduli lymphatici Peyer's patches

aggregati (Peyeri) Intestinum jejunum Jejunum Intestinum ileum

Ileum Moduli lymphatici Malpighian corlicnales (Malpighii) puscles

Respiratory Apparatus. Larynx

Prominentia laryngea Adam's apple Incisura thyreoidea Superior thyroid superior

notch M. ary-epiglotticus Aryteno - epiglot

tidean muscle JI, vocalis

Internal thyro-ary.

tenoid muscle M. thyreo - epiglot- Thyro - epiglottidean ticus

muscle Appendix ventriculi Laryngeal sac

laryngis Plica rocalis

True vocal cord Plica ventricularis

False vocal cord Ligamentum ventri- Superior thyro - ary. culare

tenoid ligament Ligamentum vocale

Inferior thyro - ary

tenoid ligament Glottis

Glottis vera Rima vestibuli

Glottis spuria Cartilago thyreoidea Thyroid cartilage Membrana hyo. Thyro - hyoid memthyreoidea

brane Cartilago corniculata Cartilage of Santorini

(Santorini) Tuberculum epiglot- Cushion of epiglottis

ticum Pars intermembran- Glottis vocalis

acea (rimæglottidis) Pars intercartilaginea Glottis respiratoria

(rimæ glottidis) Conus elasticus (mem- Crico - thyroid mem

brane elastica brane

laryngis) Glandula thyreoidea Thyroid gland

Urogenital Apparatus. Corpuscula renis

Malpighian corpuscles Paradidymis

Organ of Giraldés Appendix testis

Hydatid of Morgagni

(male) Ductus deferens

Vas deferens Gl. urethrales

Glands of Littré Glandula

bulbo-ure- Cowper's gland thralis (Cowperi) Folliculi oophori Graafian follicles

vesiculosi Cumulus oophorus Discus proligerus Tuba uterina

Fallopian tube Epoophoron

Parovarium Appendices vesiculosi Hydatids of Morgagni

(female) Ductus e poophori Gärtner's duct

longitudinalis Orificium internum Internal os (of uterus)

uteri Orificium externum External os Processus vaginalis Canal of Nuck Glandula vestibularis Bartholin's gland major

Peritoneum. Bursa omentalis

Lesser peritoneal sac Foramen epiploicum Foramen of Winslow Lig. phrenico - colicum Costo-colic ligament Excavatio recto- Pouch of Douglas

uterina (cavum

Douglasi) Lig: gastro-lienale Gastro-splenic omentum

THE SENSE ORGANS.

| Tarsal glands

an.

The Eye. Sclera

Sclerotic coat Lamina elastica

Bowman's membrane terior (Bowmani) lamina elastica pos

Descemet's membrane terior (Descemeti) Spatia angnli iridis Spaces of Fontana Angulus iridis

Irido-corneal junction Zonula ciliaris

Zonule of Zinn Septum orbitale

Palpebral ligament Fascia bulbi

Capsule of Tenon Commissura palpe. External canthus

brarum lateralis Commissura palpe.

Internal canthus brarum medialis Tarsus superior

Superior tarsal plate Tarsas inferior

Meibomian glands

The Ear.

Inferior tarsal plate
Lig. palpebrale mediale Internal tarsal liga-

ment
Raphe palpebralis External tarsal liga-
lateralis

ment

Canalis semicircularis

lateralis
Ductus reuniens
Ductus cochlearis
Recessus sphæricus
Recessus ellipticus
Paries jugularis
Paries labyrinthica

Fenestra vestibuli

Fenestra cochleæ
Paries mastoidea

Antrum tympani.

cum
Paries carotica
Processus lateralis

External semicircular

canal
Canalis reuniens
Membranous cochlea
Fovea hemispherica
Fovea hemi-elliptica
Floor of tympanum
Inner wall

Fenestra ovalis

Fenestra rotunda Posterior wall

Mastoid antrum

Anterior wall
Processus brevis

malleus)
Processus gracilis

(of

| Processus anterior

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Posterior interosseous

artery
Posterior interosseous

recurrent artery
Anterior interosseous

artery
Posterior ulnar carpal
Anterior ulnar carpal
Palmar digital arteries

Collateral

branches

digital

A. interosgea volaris

V. cordis magna

Ramus carpeus dorsalis
Ramus carpeus volaris
Aa. digitales volares

communes
Aa. digitales volares

propriæ Arteriæ intestinales

Ven

ca v е

A. suprarenalis media
A. hypogastrica
A. umbilicalis

SU

A. pudenda interna
A. epigastrica inferior
A. spermatica externa
Aa, pudendæ externa

A. circumflexa femoris

medialis A. circumflexa femoris

lateralis A. genu suprema A.

genu superior lateralis A. genu superior me.

ialis A. genu media

Veins.

Great cardiac vein V. obliqua atrii Oblique vein of Marsinistri

shall Lig.

Vestigial fold of Marsinistræ

shall
Vv. cordis minimæ Veins of Thebesius
Sinus transversus

Lateral sinus
Confluens sinuum

Torcular Herophili
Plexus basilaris

Basilar sinus Sinus sagittalis Superior longitudinal perior

sinus Sinus sagittalis inferior Inferior longitudinal

sinus
Sinus spheno-parietalis

Sinus alæ parvæ
V. cerebri internæ

Veins of Galen
V. cerebri magna

Vena magna Galeni
V. terminalis

Vein of

the corpus

striatum
V. basalis

Basilar vein
V. transversa scapulæ Suprascapular vein
V. thoraco-acromialis Acromio thoracic

vein
Vv. transversæ colli Transversalis colli

veins V. thoracalis lateralis Long thoracic vein

Vena azygos major V. hemiazygos

Vena azygos minor

inferior
V. bemiazygos acces- Vena azygos

minor soria

superior
V. hypogastrica

Internal iliac vein
V. epigastrica inferior Deep epigastric vein
V. saphena magna

Internal saphenous

vein V. saphena parva

Collateral digital ar

teries
Intestinal branches of

sup. mesenteric
Middle capsular artery
Internal iliac artery
Obliterated hypo-

gastric
Internal pudic artery
Deep epigastric artery
Cremasteric artery
Superficial and deep

external pudicar

teries
Internal circumflex

artery
External circumflex

artery
Anastomotica magna
Superior external

articular artery Superior internal

articular artery
Azygos articular

tery
Inferior external arti-

cular artery
Inferior internal arti-

cular artery
External malleolar

artery
Internal malleolar ar-

ar

V. azygos

A. genu inferior later

alis A. genu inferior me.

dialis A. malleolaris an

terior lateralis A. malleolaris

all

External saphenous

vein

tery Peroneal artery

Anterior peroneal

artery
Posterior peroneal

artery

terior medialis A. peronæa

Ramus perforans

A. malleolaris pos

terior lateralis

Lymphatics.

Receptaculum chyli

Cisterna chyli

THE VISCERA.
Digestive Apparatus.

Dentes præmolares

Dens serotinus Arcus glosso-pala- Anterior pillar of Papillæ vallatæ tinus

fauces Arcus pharyngo-pala- Posterior pillar of Recessus pharyngeus tinus

fauces Gl. lingualis anterior Gland of Nuhn

Tela submucosa Ductus submaxillaris Wharton's duct

Plicæ circulares (Gl. parotis accessoria Socia parotidis

Gl. intestinales Ductus parotideus Stenson's duct

Valvula coli (Stenonis)

Columne rectales

Bicuspid teeth
Wisdom tooth
Circumvallate pa-

pillæ
Lateral recess of

pharynx
Pharyngeal aponeurosis
Valvulae conniventes
Crypts of Lieberkuhn
Ileo-cæcal valve
Columns of Morgagni

B.N.A. TERMINOLOGY. OLD TERMINOLOGY.
Plicæ transversales recti Valves of Houston
Valvula spiralis

Valvo of Heister
Noduli lymphatici Peyer's patches

aggregati (Peyeri) Intestinum jejunum Jejunum Intestinum ileum

Ileum Noduli lymphatici Malpighian corlicnales (Malpighii)

puscles Respiratory Apparatus. Larynx

Prominentia laryngea Adam's apple Incisura thyreoidea Superior thyroid superior

notch M. ary-epiglotticus Aryteno. epiglot

tidean muscle M. vocalis

Internal thyro-ary.

tenoid muscle M. thyreo - epiglot- Thyro - epiglottidean ticus

muscle Appendix ventriculi Laryngeal sac

laryngis Plica vocalis

True vocal cord Plica ventricularis False vocal cord Ligamentum ventri. Superior thyro • aryculare

tenoid ligament Ligamentum vocale

Inferior thyro - ary.

tenoid ligament Glottis

Glottis vera Rima vestibuli

Glottis spuria Cartilago thyreoidea Thyroid cartilage Membrana hyo. Thyro - hyoid memthyreoidea

brane Cartilago corniculata Cartilage of Santorini

(Santorini) Tuberculum epiglot- Cushion of epiglottis

ticum Pars intermembran- Glottis vocalis

acea (rimæ glottidis) Pars intercartilaginea Glottis respiratoria

(rimæ glottidis) Conus elasticus(mem- Crico - thyroid mem

branæ elasticæ brane

laryngis) Glandula thyreoidea Thyroid gland

THE SENSE ORGANS.

an

The Eye. Sclera

Sclerotic coat Lamina elastica

Bowman's membrane terior (Bowmani) Lamina elastica pos

B. N.A. TERMINOLOGY.

Glomus caroticum

OLD TERMINOLOGY.
Intercarotid gland or

body

Nose
Concha nasalis su-

prema (Santorini)
Concha nasalis su-

perior
Concha nasalis media

Highest turbinate

bone Superior turbinate

bone Middle turbinate

bone Inferior turbinate

bone

Concha nasalis in

ferior

Urogenital Apparatus. Corpuscula renis Malpighian corpuscles Paradidymis

Organ of Giraldés Appendix testis

Hydatid of Morgagni

(male)
Ductus deferens

Vas deferens
Gl. urethrales

Glands of Littré
Glandula
bulbo-ure-

Cowper's gland
thralis (Cowperi)
Folliculi oophori Graafian follicles

vesiculosi
Cumulus oophorus Discus proligerus
Tuba uterina

Fallopian tube
Epoophoron

Parovarium
Appendices vesiculosi Hydatids of Morgagni

(female) Ductus epoophori Gärtner's duct

longitudinalis
Orificium internum Internal os (of uterus)

uteri
Orificium externum External os
Processus vaginalis Canal of Nuck
Glandula vestibularis Bartholin's gland
major

Peritoneum.
Bursa omentalis

Lesser peritoneal sac | Foramen epiploicum Foramen of Winslow

Lig. phrenico - colicum Costo-colic ligament
Excavatio recto- Pouch of Douglas

uterina (cavum

Douglasi)
Lig. gastro-lienale Gastro-splenic omentuin

1

Tarsal glands

Meibomian glands

The Ear.

Descemet's membrane
terior (Descemeti)
Spatia anguli iridis Spaces of Fontana
Angulus iridis

Irido-corneal junction
Zonula ciliaris

Zonule of Zinn Septum orbitale

Palpebral ligament Fascia bulbi

Capsule of Tenon Commissura palpe- External canthus

brarum lateralis Commissura palpe

Internal canthus brarum medialis Tarsus superior

Superior tarsal plate Tarsus inferior

Inferior tarsal plate Liz palpebrale mediale Internal tarsal

ment Raphe palpebralis External tarsal ligalateralis

ment

Canalis semicircularis

lateralis
Ductus reuniens
Ductus cochlearis
Recessus sphæricus
Recessus ellipticus
Paries jugularis
Paries labyrinthica

Fenestra vestibui

Fenestra cochleæ
Paries mastoidea

Antrum tympani.

cum
Paries carotica
Processus lateralis

External semicircular

canal
Canalis reuniens
Membranous cochlea
Fovea hemispherica
Fovea hemi-elliptica
Floor of tympanum
Inner wall

Fenestra ovalis

Fenestra rotunda Posterior wall

Mastoid antrumi

liga

Anterior wall
Processus

brevis (of
malleus)
Processus gracilis

Processus anterior

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