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The Cerebral Commissures and the

The Sulci and Gyri of the Cerebral

Septum Pellucidum

628

Hemispheres.

653

The Corpus Callosum

629 The Acoustic Area and Fibre Tracts

657

The Lateral Ventricle

632 The Visual Area and Fibre Tracts 658

Basal Ganglia of the Cerebral Hemi-

The Parietal Region of the Brain 662

sphere

637 The Frontal Region .

665

Intimate Structure of Cerebral Hemi:

Weight of the Brain .

667

sphere

644 Meninges of the Encephalon and Spinal

The Cerebral Cortex.

644

Medulla

667

The Neopallium

645 Dura Mater

667

The White Matter of the Cerebrai

Arachnoidea

670

Hemispheres

647

Pia Mater

673

THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.

Professor A. MELVILLE PATERSON.

SPINAL NERVES

677

Common Peroneal Nerve

730

Development of the Peripheral Nerves 679 Deep Peroneal Nerve

730

Development of the Sympathetic System 681 Superficial Peroneal Nerve

731

Development of the Cerebral Nerves 682 Tibial Nerve

732

The Spinal Nerves.

685 Medial Plantar Nerve

734

Posterior Rami of the Spinal Nerves 687 Lateral Plantar Nerve

734
Posterior Rami of the Cervical Nerves. 688 Pudendal Plexus

735
Posterior Rami of the Thoracic Nerves. 690 Pudendal Nerve

738
Posterior Rami of the Lumbar Nerves 690 Morphology of the Pudendal Plexus

740
Posterior Rami of the Sacral and Coccy-

Morphology of the Limb-plexuses. 741

geal Nerves.

691 Distribution of Spinal Nerves to Muscles

Morphology of the Posterior Rami 691

and Skin of Limbs

744

Anterior Rami of the Spinal Nerves 692 Variations in Position of the limbi

Cervical Nerves

692

plexuses

752

Cervical Plexus

694 Significance of the Limb-plexuses

753

Phrenic Nerve .

699 SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

7753

Morphology of the Cervical Plexus 700 Cervical Part of Sympathetic Trunk 756

Brachial Plexus

700 Superior Cervical Ganglion

756

Branches of Brachial Plexus

701 Middle Cervical Ganglion

759

Anterior Thoracic Nerves

703 Inferior Cervical Ganglion

759

Musculo-cutaneous Nerve

704 Thoracic Part of Sympathetic Trunk 759

Median Nerve

705 Abdominal Part of Sympathetic Trunk 761

Ulnar Nerve

708 Pelvic Part of Sympathetic Trunk 762

Medial Cutaneous Nerve of the Fore-

Sympathetic Plexuses

763

709 Coeliac and Pelvic Plexuses

763

Medial Cutaneous Nerve of the

CEREBRAL NERVES

767

Arm

710

Olfactory Nerves

767

Axillary Nerve:

710

Optic Nerve

768

Radial Nerve

710 Oculo-motor Nerve

769

Superficial Ramus of Radial Nerve

712 Trochlear Nerve

770

Deep Ramus of Radial Nerve

712 Trigeminal Nerve

771

Subscapular Nerves

713

Abducens Nerve

781

Thoracic Nerves

713 Facial Nerve

781

Lumbo-sacral Plexus

718 Acoustic Nerve.

784

Lumbar Plexus

719 Glossopharyngeal Nerve

785

Obturator Nerve

722

Vagus Nerve

786

Femoral Nerve .

724

Thoracic Plexuses of .

789

Sacral Plexus

727

Accessory Nerve

791

Sciatic Nerve

28 Hypoglossal Nerve

791

The Nerves of Distribution from the

Development of Cerebral Nerves

795

Sacral Plexus

728 Morphology of Cerebral Nerves

796

ORGANS OF SENSE AND THE INTEGUMENT.

Professor ROBERT HOWDEN.

OLFACTORY ORGAN

799 External Ear.

827

Cartilages of Nose

800 Auricle

827

Nasal Cavity

801 External Acoustic Meatus

830

ORGAN OF SIGHT

806 Tympanic Cavity :

832

Bulb of the Eye

806 Tympanic Antrum and Mastoid Air

Sclera

807

cells

836

Cornea

808 Auditory Tube

837

Vascular and Pigmented Tunic

810 Auditory Ossicles

838

Retina

814

Internal Ear .

843

Refracting Media of Eyeball :

819 Osseous Labyrinth.

843

Eyelids

821 Membranous Labyrinth.

846

Lacrimal Apparatus

824 Development of Labyrinth

853

Development of the Eye

825 ORGANS OF TASTE.

854

AUDITORY ORGAN .

827 THE INTEGUMENT OR SKIN

856

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THE VASCULAR SYSTEM.

Structure of Blood-vessels

THE HEART

The Chambers of the Heart

Structure of the Heart

Pericardium

ARTERIES

Pulmonary Artery.

The Systemic Arteries

Aorta

Thoracic Aorta

Abdominal Aorta

Branches of the Ascending Aorta ·

Coronary Arteries

Branches of the Arch of the Aorta

Innominate Artery

The Arteries of the Head and Neck

Common Carotid Arteries

External Carotid Artery

Branches of Externa Carotid Artery

Internal Carotid Artery

Branches of Internal Carotid Artery

Vertebral Artery

Arteries

of the Upper Extremity

Subclavian Arteries

Branches of the Subclavian Artery

Axillary Artery

Branches of the Axillary Artery

Brachial Artery

Branches of Brachial Artery

Radial Artery

Ulnar Artery

The Arterial Arches of the Wrist and

Hand

Branches of Descending Thoracic Aorta

Visceral Branches of the Descending

Thoracic Aorta

Parietal Branches of the Descending

Thoracic Aorta

Branches of Abdominal Aorta

The Paired Visceral Branches of the

Abdominal Aorta

The Unpaired or Single Viscerai

Branches of the Abdominal Aorta

Parietal Branches of the Abdominal

Aorta

Common Iliac Arteries

Hypogastric Artery

Branches of the Posterior Division

Branches of the Anterior Division

Visceral Branches

Parietal Branches of the Anterior

Division

The Arteries of the Lower Extremity

The External Iliac Artery

The Femoral Artery

Popliteal Artery

Posterior Tibial Artery

Plantar Arteries

Anterior Tibial Artery

THE VEINS

The Pulmonary Veins

Systemic Veins

Coronary Sinus and Veins of Heart
Superior Vena Cava and its Tribu-

taries

Professor ARTHUR ROBINSOX.

868

Innominate Veins

962

870 Veins of the Head and Neck.

964

873 The Veins of the Scalp

967

878 Veins of the Orbit, Nose, and Infra-

880

temporal Region.

968

882 Venous Sinuses and Veins of the

882 Cranium, and its Contents

969

884 Diploic and Meningeal Veins

969

884 Veins of the Brain

970

884 Sinuses of the Dura Mater

972

885 Veins of the Spinal Medulla

977

887 Veins of the Superior Extremity

977

887 Deep Veins of the Upper Extremity 977

888 Axislary Vein

977

888 The Superficial Veins of the Superior

888

Extremity

978

888 Inferior Vena Čava and its Tributaries

980

891 Common Iliac Veins

983

891 Veins of the Lower Extremity

985

900 Deep Veins of the Lower Extremity 986

902 Superficial Veins of the Lower Extre-

905

mity

990

909 The Portal System.

988

909 Mesenteric and Splenic Veins

992

910 THE LYMPH VASCULAR SYSTEM

993

914 The Terminal Lymph Vessels

996

916

Lymph Glands of the Head

998

917 Lymph Glands of the Neck

1000

918 Lymph Vessels of the Head and Neck : 1003

919 Lymph Glands of the Superior Extre-

921

mity

1006

Lymph Vessels of the Superior Extre-

923 mity

1009

924 The Lymph Glands of the Thorax 1010

The Lymph Vessels of the Thorax 1013

925 Lymph Glands and Vessels of the In-

ferior Extremity

1013

925 Lymph Vessels of the Inferior Extremity 1014

927 Lymph Glands of the Pelvis and Ab-

domen

1015

927 Lymph Vessels of the Pelvic Viscera

1017

i Lymph Glands of the Abdomen

1019

928

DEVELOPMENT OF THE BLOOD-VASCULAR

SYSTEM.

1025

933

The Primitive Aortæ' and Primitive

935

Heart

1025

936 The Primitive Veins

1026

938 Development of Heart, of first part of

939

Aorta, and of Pulmonary Artery. 1031

939 Division of Heart into its different

Chambers, and Division of Aortic

940

Bulb

1033

944 The Aortic Arches-Formation of

944

Chief Arteries

1027

946 Primitive Dorsal Aortæ- Formation

951

of Descending Aorta

1028

952

Branches of Primitive Dorsal Aortæ

1029

954 Arteries of Limbs

1031

955 Development of the Veins

1035

958 The Vitelline and Umbilical Veins. 1036

958 Formation of the Portal System 1036

959 The Anterior Cardinal Veins

1038

959 The Posterior Cardinal Veins, the

Subcardinal Veins, and the Inferior

960

Vena Cava .

1040

960 Veins of Limbs.

1042

.

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Azygos Veins

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PAGE

MORPHOLOGY OF THE VASCULAR System 1042 The Branches of the Aorta

1050

The Segmental Arteries and their

The Arteries of the Head and Neck. 1053

Anastomoses.

1042 The Arteries of the Upper Limb 1054

Aorta, Pulmonary Artery, and other

The Iliac Arteries and their Branches 1055

Chief Stem Vessels

1046 The Arteries of the Lower Limb 1056

The Limb Arteries .

1047 Abnormalities of Veins.

1057

Morphology of the Veins.

1047 The Superior Vena Cava .

1057

ABNORMALITIES AND VARIATIONS OF

The Veins of the Upper Extremity 1058

THE VASCULAR SYSTEM

1049 The Inferior Vena Cava

1058

Abnormalities of the Heart

1050 The Veins of the Lower Extremity 1059

Abnormalities of Arteries

1050 | Abnormalities of the Lymph Vessels 1059

THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.

Professor RICHARD J. A. BERRY.

The Organs of Respiration and Voice 1061 | Bronchi .

1082

The Larynx

1061 Thoracic Cavity

1083

Cartilages of the Larynx

1062 Pleuræ

1084

Articulations, Ligaments, and Mem-

Mediastina

1089

branes of the Larynx

1065 The Lungs

1091

Cavity of the Larynx

1068

Root of the Lung

1096

Muscles of the Larynx

1072 Structure of the Lungs

1098

Trachea.

1078 Developmentof the Respiratory Apparatus 1099

THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.

Professor David WATERSTON.

Digestive System, General Arrangement of 1103 Intestines

1177

Mouth

1106 Structure of Intestines

1178

Palate and Isthmus Faucium

1110 Duodenum

1182

Teeth

1113 Liver

1187

Permanent Teeth

1115 Structure of Liver

1198

Deciduous Teeth

1121 Vessels of Liver

1199

Structure of the Teeth

1122 Gall-Bladder and Bile Passages

1201

Tongue

1124 Pancreas.

1203

Glands

1131

Jejunum and Ileum

1208

Salivary Glands

1133

Large Intestine

1210

The Pharynx .

1140 Cæcum and Vermiform Process

1213

The Palatine Tonsils

1145 Colon

1219

The Esophagus

1150 Rectum

1224

Structure of the Esophagus

1153 Anal Canal

1228

The Abdominal Cavity :

1155 Peritoneum

1234

Subdivisions of the Abdominal Development of Digestive System. 1244

Cavity

1158 Development of the Teeth

1244

The Peritoneum

1160 Morphology of Teeth

1248

Stomach.

1163 Development of the Pharynx

1248

Relations and Connexions of

of the Esophagus, Stomach, and

Stomach

1169

Intestines

1249

Position of Stoinach.

1172 of the Peritoneum

1252

Structure of the Stomach

1174 of the Liver and Pancreas

1254

THE URINO-GENITAL SYSTEM.

Professor A. FRANCIS Dixon.

The URINARY ORGANS .

1257 ; Ovary

1310

The Kidneys .

1257

Uterine Tubes

1314

The Ureters

1265 Uterus

1316

The Urinary Bladder

1271 Vagina

1321

The Urethra (Female)

1284 Female External Genital Organs

1324

THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS 1286 Larger Vestibular Glands

1327

The Testis

1286 Development of the Urino-genital

The Deferent Duct

1289

Organs.

1327

Descent of the Testis

1295 The Wolffian Duct and Embryonic

Spermatic Funiculus

1296 Secretory Organ

1329

Scrotum.

1297 The Ureter and Permanent Kidney 1331

Penis

1298 The Urethra

1332

Prostate.

1301

Sexnal Glınds and Generative Ducts 1333

Bulbo-urethral Glands

1304 External Genital Organs .

1335

The Male Urethra

1304 The Mammary Glands

1336

THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS . 1310 Development of the Mamma

1339

THE DUCTLESS GLANDS.

Professor A. CAMPBELL GEDDES.

The Chromaphil and Cortical Systems 1341 The Thymus

1350

The Suprarenal Glands

1343 Ductless Glands associated with the

Ductless Glands of Entodermal Origin 1347 1 Vascular System

1352

The Thyreoid Gland

1347

1352

The Parathyreoid Glands

1348 Glomus Coccygeum

1353

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A GLOSSARY

OF THE

INTERNATIONAL (B.N.A.)

ANATOMICAL TERMINOLOGY

GENERAL TERMS.

TERMS INDICATING SITUATION AND DIRECTION.

Longitudinal

Longitudinalis
Verticalis

Referring to the long axis of the body. sReferring to the position of the long axis of the body in the

Vertical

Anterior
Posterior
Ventral

Anterior
Posterior
Ventral
Dorsal
Cranial

Dorsal
Cranial

Caudal
Superior
Inferior
Proximalis
Distalis

Caudal
Superior
Inferior
Proximall
Distal

Sagittalis

Sagittal

Frontalis

Frontal

erect posture. Referring to the front and back of the body or the limbs. Referring to the anterior and posterior aspects, respectively, of

the body, and to the flexor and extensor aspects of the

limbs, respectively. Referring to position nearer the head or the tail end of the long

axis. Used only in reference to parts of the head, neck,

or trunk. Cephalic is sometimes used instead of cranial. Į Used in reference to the head, neck, and trunk. Equivalent to

cranial and caudal respectively. | Used only in reference to the limbs. Proximal, nearer the

attached end. Distal, nearer the free end. Used in reference to planes parallel with the sagittal suture of

the skull, i.e. vertical antero-posterior planes. Used in reference to planes parallel with the coronal suture of

the skull, i.e. vertical transverse planes. Used in reference to planes at right angles to vertical planes. s Referring to the median vertical antero-posterior plane of the

body. sReferring to structures relatively nearer to or further away from

the median plane. Referring to structures situated between more medial and more

lateral structures. Referring to structures nearer to and further away from the

surface. Referring, with few exceptions, to the walls of cavities and hollow organs.

Not to be used as synonymous with medial and lateral. Used in reference to the medial and lateral borders, respectively,

of the forearm and hand. Used in reference to the medial and lateral borders, respectively, of the leg and foot.

Horizontalis

Horizontal

Medianus

Median

Medialis
Lateralis

Medial
Lateral |

Intermedius
Superficialis
Profundus
Externus

Intermediate
Superficial
Deep
External

1

Internus
Ulnaris
Radialis
Tibial
Fibular

Internal
Ulnar 1
Radial
Tibial
Fibular

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