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PUBLISHED BY THE JOINT COMMITTEE OF HENRY FROWDE AND HODDER & STOUGHTON

AT THE OXFORD PRESS WAREHOUSE, FALCON SQUARE, LONDON, E.c.

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PROFESSOR OF ANATI

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ILLUSTRATED BI

637 OF E

FIRST EDITION 1902
SECOND EDITION 1905
THIRD EDITION 1909

FOURTH EDITION 1913
REVISED FOURTH EDITION 1915

FIFTH EDITION 1918

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PRINTED FOR THE JOINT COMMITTEE OF HENRY FROWDE, HODDER & STOUGHTON, OXFORD PRESS
WAREHOUSE, FALCON SQUARE, LONDON, E.C., BY R. & R. CLARK, LTD., EDINBURGH,

GREAT BRITAIN.

All rights reserved

PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION.

The fourth edition of Cunningham's Text-book of Anatomy has lacked during its preparation the able guidance of its original editor, but the various contributors have attempted to maintain the standard of excellence which was Professor Cunningham's ideal.

The deaths of Professor Cunningham, Professor Birmingham, and Professor A. H. Young have necessitated changes in the authorship of several of the articles.

Every section has been fully revised; some have been partially and others have been completely rewritten.

In the majority of the sections numerous additional illustrations have been added, or the original illustrations have been replaced by new figures better adapted to their purpose, and colour has been largely used, particularly in diagrams.

The sections originally written by Professor Cunningham were the Central Nervous System, the Respiratory System, and the Ductless Glands. The account of the Central Nervous System has been revised and largely rewritten by Professor Elliot Smith of Manchester. The Respiratory System has been revised and partly rewritten by Professor Berry of Melbourne; and the section dealing with the Ductless Glands has been rewritten by Professor A. Campbell Geddes of Dublin.

The description of the Alimentary System, originally written by Professor Birmingham, has been revised and partially rewritten by Professor Waterston of King's College, London.

With regard to the sections dealing with General Embryology and the Vascular System, in the original preparation of which I was associated with my senior colleague and friend, Professor A. H. Young, I have completely rewritten the account of General Embryology, and have revised and partially rewritten the account of the Vascular System.

It may be found, where the sections written by various authors overlap one another, that there occur, in this as in previous editions, different accounts of certain phenomena concerning which our knowledge is still in an indefinite stage, and it must be understood that the authors of the various sections are solely responsible for the opinions expressed in their own sections.

The Basle anatomical terminology has been adopted throughout, except in those cases where the results of recent researches have shown that the terms of that nomenclature are incorrect, or where the terms themselves did not conform with the principles of the terminology.

It is scarcely necessary, to-day, to urge reasons for the use of the Basle nomenclature, for it is now generally recognised, not only that it is based on

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