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sound general principles, but also that it is, at the same time, less cumbrous and more definitely instructive than the terminology previously in use in this country.

One of the recognised functions of a preface is to give the editor the opportunity of expressing his thanks to those who have assisted in the production of the work, and I gladly avail myself of this function.

My thanks are due to all the authors for their courtesy and consideration. To Mr. J. Keogh Murphy, F.R.C.S., for the preparation of an extremely useful glossary and index, and for ever-ready help and many valuable suggestions. To Dr. E. B. Jamieson for assistance in the revision of the text, and for the preparation of specimens from which some of the new illustrations were made.

I am also greatly indebted to Professor Keibel, and to Mr. Gustav Fischer of Jena for permission to copy eight figures from Normentaflen zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Menschen; to Professor Gustav Retzius for permission to figures from his monographs; and to Professors Mall, Felix, and Tandler for permission to utilise the results of their work in the preparation of diagrams.

Most of the new figures in this edition have been drawn by Mr. J. T. Murray with his usual skill and appreciation, and the remainder have been prepared by Mr. Frank Butterworth from designs made by the authors of the articles in which the figures appear.

ARTHUR ROBINSON.

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EDINBURGH, April 1913.

PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION, REVISED.

The whole of the text of this edition has been carefully revised, and alterations which seemed to be necessitated by advancing knowledge have been made.

As in the case of the fourth edition I am greatly indebted to Dr. E. B. Jamieson for his invaluable assistance.

ARTHUR ROBINSON.

October 6. 1914.

PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION, THIRD

IMPRESSION, REVISED.

The whole of the text has again been revised, and mistakes to which attention has been directed have been corrected.

Notes have been appended to some of the sections drawing attention to the bearing of recent observations on statements made in the text.

Parts of the Vascular System have been rewritten, and in that section some of the old figures have been replaced, partly by drawings made by Mr. J. T. Murray from recent dissections, and partly by diagrams illustrating points not well shown by dissections.

I am indebted for the dissections from which the drawings were made to Dr. E. B. Jamieson and Mr. A. R. Maclean.

ARTHUR ROBINSON

June 8, 1917.

PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION.

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The fourth edition of Cunningham's Text-book of Anatomy has lacked during its preparation the able guidance of its original editor, but the various contributors have attempted to maintain the standard of excellence which was Professor Cunningham's ideal.

The deaths of Professor Cunningham, Professor Birmingham, and Professor A. H. Young bave necessitated changes in the authorship of several of the articles.

Every section has been fully revised; some have been partially and others have been completely rewritten.

In the majority of the sections numerous additional illustrations have been added, or the original illustrations have been replaced by new figures better adapted to their purpose, and colour has been largely used, particularly in diagrams.

The sections originally written by Professor Cunningham were the Central Nervous System, the Respiratory System, and the Ductless Glands. The account of the Central Nervous System has been revised and largely rewritten by Professor Elliot Smith of Manchester. The Respiratory System has been revised and partly rewritten by Professor Berry of Melbourne; and the section dealing with the Ductless Glands has been rewritten by Professor A. Campbell Geddes of Dublin.

The description of the Alimentary System, originally written by Professor Birmingham, has been revised and partially rewritten by Professor Waterston of King's College, London.

With regard to the sections dealing with General Embryology and the Vascular System, in the original preparation of which I was associated with my senior colleague and friend, Professor A. H. Young, I have completely rewritten the account of General Embryology, and have revised and partially rewritten the account of the ascular System.

It may be found, where the sections written by various authors overlap one another, that there occur, in this as in previous editions, different accounts of certain phenomena concerning which our knowledge is still in an indefinite stage, and it must be understood that the authors of the various sections are solely responsible for the opinions expressed in their own sections.

The Basle anatomical terminology has been adopted throughout, except in those cases where the results of recent researches have shown that the terms of that nomenclature are incorrect, or where the terms themselves did not conform with the principles of the terminology.

It is scarcely necessary, to-day, to urge reasons for the use of the Basle nomenclature, for it is now generally recognised, not only that it is based on

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sound general principles, but also that it is, at the same time, less cumbrous and more definitely instructive than the terminology previously in use in this country.

One of the recognised functions of a preface is to give the editor the opportunity of expressing his thanks to those who have assisted in the production of the work, and I gladly avail myself of this function.

My thanks are due to all the authors for their courtesy and consideration. To Mr. J. Keogh Murphy, F.R.C.S., for the preparation of an extremely useful glossary and index, and for ever-ready help and many valuable suggestions. To Dr. E. B. Jamieson for assistance in the revision of the text, and for the preparation of specimens from which some of the new illustrations were made.

I am also greatly indebted to Professor Keibel, and to Mr. Gustav Fischer of Jena for permission to copy eight figures from Normentaflen zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Menschen; to Professor Gustav Retzius for permission to use figures from his monographs; and to Professors Mall, Felix, and Tandler for permission to utilise the results of their work in the preparation of diagrams.

Most of the new figures in this edition have been drawn by Mr. J. T. Murray with his usual skill and appreciation, and the remainder have been prepared by Mr. Frank Butterworth from designs made by the authors of the articles in which the figures appear.

ARTHUR ROBINSON.

EDINBURGH, April 1913.

PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION, REVISED.

The whole of the text of this edition has been carefully revised, and alterations which seemed to be necessitated by advancing knowledge have been made.

As in the case of the fourth edition I am greatly indebted to Dr. E. B. Jamieson for his invaluable assistance.

ARTHUR ROBINSON.

October 6. 1914.

PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION, THIRD

IMPRESSION, REVISED.

The whole of the text has again been revised, and mistakes to which attention has Leen directed have been corrected.

Notes have been appended to some of the sections drawing attention to the learing of recent observations on statements made in the text.

Parts of the Vascular System have been rewritten, and in that section some of the old figures have been replaced, partly by drawings made by Mr. J. T. Murray crom recent dissections, and partly by diagrams illustrating points not well shown liy dissections.

I am indebted for the dissections from which the drawings were made to Dr. E. B. Jamieson and Mr. A. R. Maclean.

ARTHUR ROBINSON.

June 8, 1917.

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DEMONSTRATOR OF ANATOMY, UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH, 1874-1882. PROFESSOR OF ANATOMY, ROYAL COLLEGE OF SURGEONS, DUBLIN, 1882–1883.

PROFESSOR OF ANATOMY, TRINITY COLLEGE, DUBLIN, 1883-1903.
PROFESSOR OF ANATOMY, UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH, 1903-1909.

LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS

RICHARD J. A. BERRY, M.D., F.R.C.S. Ed.,

Professor of Anatomy, University of Melbourne.

(The Respiratory System.)

A. FRANCIS DIXON, M.B., D.Sc. (Dubl.),

Professor of Anatomy, Trinity College, Dublin.

(The Uro-genital System.)

A CAMPBELL GEDDES, M.D.,

Professor of Anatomy, University of Montreal.

(The Ductless Glands.)

DAVID HEPBURN, M.B., F.R.S.E.,

Professor of Anatomy, University College, Cardiff.

(Arthrology.)

ROBERT HOWDEN, M.A., M.B.,

Professor of Anatomy, University of Durham.

(The Organs of Sense and the Integument.) A. M. PATERSON, M.D., F.R.C.S.,

Professor of Anatomy, University of Liverpool.

(Myology, The Spinal and Cerebral Nerves, The Sympathetic Nervous System.)

ARTHUR ROBINSON, M.D., F.R.C.S. Ed.,

Professor of Anatomy, University of Edinburgh.

(General Embryology, The Vascular System.)

G. ELLIOT SMITH, M.D., F.R.S.,

Professor of Anatomy, University of Manchester.

(The Central Nervous System.)

HAROLD J. STILES, M.B., F.R.C.S. Ed.,
Surgeon to the Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Edinburgh.

(Surface and Surgical Anatomy.)

ARTHUR THOMSON, LL.D., M.A., M.B., F.R.C.S.,

Professor of Human Anatomy, University of Oxford.

(Osteology.)

DAVID WATERSTON, M.A., M.D., F.R.C.S. Ed.,

Professor of Anatomy, University of St. Andrews.

(The Digestive System.)

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