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The villi are also said to be shorter and broader in the jejunum, more slender and filiform in the ileum (Rauber).

The terminal portion of the ileum, after crossing the margin of the superior aperture of the pelvis minor, runs upwards, and also slightly backwards and to the right, in close contact with the cæcum, until the ileo-cæcal orifice is reached.

Diverticulum Ilei (O.T. Meckel's Diverticulum).- This is a short finger-like protrusion which is found springing from the lower part of the ileum in a little over 2 per cent. of the bodies examined. It is usually about 2 inches long, and of the same width as the intestine from which it comes off. Most commonly it is found about 24 feet from the valvula coli, and opposite the original termination of the superior mesenteric artery. As a rule, its end is free; but occasionally it is adherent either to the abdominal wall, the adjacent viscera, or the mesentery, and in such cases it may be the cause of strangulation of the intestine.

The diverticulum is due to the persistence of the proximal portion of the vitelline (or vitellol shape it may be cylindrical, conical, or cord-like, and it may present secondary diverticula near its tip. It arises most frequently from the free border of the intestine, but it sometimes comes off from the side. It runs at right angles to the gut most commonly, but it may assume any direction, and it is often provided with a mesentery. In 3302 bodies specially examined with reference to its existence, it was present in 73, or 2-2 per cent., and it appeared to be more common in the male than in the female. In 59 out of the 73 cases its position with reference to the end of the ileum was examined : its average distance from the ileo-cæcal valve was 32 inches measured along the gut, the greatest distance being 12 feet, and the smallest 6 inches. In 52 specimens the average length was 2:1 inches, the longest being 5] inches, the shortest inch. The diameter usually equals that of the intestine from which it springs; but occasionally it is cord-like, and pervious only for a short way; on the other hand, it may attain a diameter of 34 inches.

Vessels and Nerves of the Jejunum and Ileum.— The arteries for both the jejunum and ileum—the jejunal and ileal-come from the superior mesenteric, and are contained between the two layers of the mesentery. After breaking up and forming three tiers of arches, the terminal branches (Fig. 772, p. 931) reach the intestine, where they bifurcate, giving a branch to each side of the gut. These fatter run transversely round the intestines, at first under the peritoneal coat; soon, however, they pierce the muscular coat and form a plexus in the submucosa, from which numerous branches pass to the mucous membrane, where some form plexuses around the intestinal glands whilst others pass to the villi. The veins are similarly disposed, and the blood from the whole of the small intestine beyond the duodenum is returned by the superior mesenteric vein, which joins with the splenic to form the portal vein.

The lymph vessels of the small intestine (known as lacteals) begin in the villi, and also as lymph sinuses surrounding the bases of the solitary nodules ; a large plexus is formed in the submucosa, a second between the two layers of the muscular coat, and a third beneath the peritoneum. The vessels from all these pass up in the mesentery, being connected on the way with the numerous (from 40 to 150) mesenteric glands, and finally unite to form the truncus intestinalis, which opens into the cisterna chyli.

The nerves come from the cæliac plexus, through the superior mesenteric plexus, which accompanies the superior mesenteric artery between the layers of the mesentery, and thu: reaches the intestine. Some of the fibres are derived ultimately from the right vagus. The nerve-fibres are non-medullated, and form, as in other parts of the canal, two gangliated plexuses—the myenteric in the muscular coat, and the submucosal in the submucosa.

Structure. The tunica serosa is complete in all parts of the jejunum and ileum. The tunica muscularis is thicker in the jejunum, and grows gradually thinner as it is traced down along the ileum. The tela submucosa contains the bases of the solitary nodules (Fig. 929), but otherwise calls for no special remark. The tunica mucosa is thicker and redder above in the jejunum, thinner and paler in the ileum. It is covered throughout by villi intestinales, which are shorter and broader in the jejunum, longer and narrower in the ileum. In its whole extent it is closely set with intestinal glands, and numerous solitary nodules are seen projecting on its surface. Aggregated lymph nodules are particularly large and numerous in the ileum ; they are fewer, smaller, and usually circular in the jejunum. Finally, the mucous membrane forms plicæ circulares, which are much more prominent in the jejunum; they are smaller and fewer in the superior part of the ileum, and usually disappear a little below its middle.

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The ileum is succeeded by the intestinum crassum (large intestine), which begins on the right side, some 24 inches below the ileo-cæcal junction, and comprises the following parts :

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1. Cæcum.—The cæcum is a wide, short cul-de-sac, consisting of the portion of he large bowel below the valvula coli. It lies in the right iliac region, and from ts medial and posterior part a worm-shaped outgrowth, the vermiform process, is rolonged (Fig. 951).

2. Colon Ascendens. — The ascending colon ascends vertically in the right umbar region as far as the inferior surface of the liver : here the gut bends to he left, forming the flexura coli dextra (O.T. hepatic flexure), and then passes transersely across the abdomen, towards the spleen, as the transverse colon.

3. Colon Transversum.—The transverse colon, a loop of intestine which passes cross the abdominal cavity in an irregular looped manner. It ends at the nferior extremity of the spleen. There it turns downward, forming the flexura oli sinistra (O.T. splenic flexure), and passes into the descending colon.


Haustra (Sacculations)

Tænia coli

Appendices epiploica

Fig. 950.–LARGE INTESTINE. piece of transverse colon from a child two years old. The three chief characteristics of the large intestine

sacculations, tæniæ, and appendices epiploicæ-are shown.

4. Colon Descendens. The descending colon runs down on the left side, from he splenic flexure to the rectum.

It is usually divided into the following parts :(a) Descending colon, which extends down to the crest of the ilium. (b) The iliac colon extends from the crest of the ilium to the superior aperture

of the pelvis, where it is succeeded by the pelvic colon. (c) The pelvic colon is a large loop of intestine which is usually found in the

pelvis. The iliac and pelvic portions of the colon taken together are

sometimes described as the colon sigmoideum. 5. Intestinum Rectum.-The rectum, the terminal part of the large bowel, ucceeds the pelvic colon, and ends in the anal canal, which opens on the surface t the anal orifice.

In its course the large bowel is arranged in an arched manner around the mall intestine, which lies within the concavity of the curve (Fig. 912).

In length, the great intestine is equal to about one-fifth of the whole intestinal anal, and usually measures between 5 and 5! feet (180 to 195 cm.). Its breadth

greatest at the cæcum, and from this with the exception of a dilation at the ectum—it gradually decreases to the anus. At the cæcum it measures, when istended, about 3 inches (75 mm.) in diameter; beyond this it gradually iminishes, and measures only 14 inches (37 mm.) or less in the descending and liac divisions of the colon.

The large intestine, with the exception of the rectum and vermiform process, nay be easily distinguished from the regularly cylindrical small intestine by (a) he presence of three longitudinal bands—the tæniæ coli-running along its surface Fig. 950); (b) by the fact that its walls are sacculated; and (c) by the presence f numerois little peritoneal processes, known as appendices epiploicæ, projecting rom its serous coat. In addition, the larger intestine is usually wider than the inall, but reliance cannot be placed on this character, for the jejunum is oftenndeed, generally-wider than the empty and contracted descending colon.

Tæniæ Coli.—In the large bowel, unlike the small, the longitudinal fibres of he muscular coat do not form a complete layer, continuous all round the tube,

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but, on the contrary, are broken up (Fig. 950) into three bands, known as the tæniæ coli. These bands, which are about 4 inch (6 mm.) wide, begin at the base of the vermiform process, and run along the surface of the gut at nearly equal distances from one another until the rectum is reached. There they spread out and form a layer of longitudinal muscular fibres, which is continuous all round the tube (see p. 1229). The bands are about one-sixth shorter than the intestine to which they belong; consequently, in order to accommodate the bowel to the length of the tæniæ, the gut is tucked up, giving rise to a sacculated condition (Fig. 950). Three rows of pouches or saccules are thus produced, along the length of the tubé, between the tæniæ. If the taniæ are dissected off, the sacculations largely disappear, the intestine becomes cylindrical, and at the same time about one-sixth longer.

The appendices epiploicæ (Fig. 950) are little processes or pouches of peritoneum, generally more or less distended with fat, except in emaciated subjects, which project from the serous coat along the whole length of the large intestine, with the exception of the rectum proper.

When the interior of a piece of distended and dried large intestine is examined, its saccules appear as rounded pouches, haustra, separated by crescentic folds, plicæ semilunares coli, corresponding to the creases on the exterior separating the saccules from one another.

The position of the three tæniæ on the intestines is as follows :-On the ascending, descending, and iliac colons one tænia lies on the anterior aspect of the gut, and two on the posterior aspect, namely, one to the lateral side (postero-lateral), the other to the medial side (postero-medial). It is chiefly along the first of these (the anterior) that the appendices epiploicæ are found. On the transverse colon their arrangement is different, but is rendered exactly similar by turning the great omentum, with the colon, up over the thorax. On the transverse colon in the natural position, the anterior tænia of the ascending and descending colons becomes the posterior (or postero-inferior) termed tænia libera, the postero-lateral becomes anterior or tænia omentalis, and the postero-medial becomes superior in position and is termed tænia mesocolica. The anterior and postero-lateral tæniæ of the isiac colon pass below on to the front of the pelvic colon and rectum.

In formalin-hardened bodies portions of the large intestine, but particularly of the descending and sigmoid colons, are often found fixed in what appears to be a state of contraction, when they are reduced to a diameter of about for f of an inch (16 to 19 mm.). Under similar conditions parts of the small intestine are found correspondingly reduced.

The appendices epiploicæ, although generally said to be absent in the fætus, can be distinctly seen as early as the seventh month, but at this time they contain no fat.

Structure of the Large Intestine.—The tunica serosa is complete on the vermiform process, cæcum, transverse colon, and pelvic colon; incomplete on the ascending, descending, and iliac divisions of the colon and on the rectum. It will be described in detail with each of these portions of the intestine.

The tunica mucosa is of a pale, or yellowish, ash colour in the colon, but becomes much redder in the rectum. Unlike that of the small intestine, its surface is smooth, owing to the absence of villi, but it is closely studded with the orifices of numerous large intestinal glands. Solitary lymph nodules are also numerous, particularly in the vermiform process (Fig. 955).

Vessels and Nerves.-The cæcum and vermiform process receive their blood from the ileo-colic artery ; the ascending colon from the right colic artery; and the transverse colon from the middle colic artery, which lies in the transverse mesocolon. These are all branches of the superior mesenteric. The descending colon is supplied by the left colic, and the iliac and pelvic colons by the sigmoid arteries, branches of the inferior mesenteric. The rectum derives its blood from the three hæmorrhoidal arteries, which will be described with that division of the gut.

The veins correspond largely to the arteries, and join the inferior and superior mesenteric vessels, which send their blood into the portal vein.

The lymph vessels of the large intestine arise from plexuses in the submucous and subperitoneal coats, as in other parts of the alimentary canal.

The deeper vessels escape chiefly along the entering blood vessels, those from the lateral aspects passing behind the intestine.

The vessels pass medially to a series of glands lying along the medial border of the intestine (“paracolic" glands (Jamieson)); thence they pass along the lines of the main arteries, passing then to glands disposed at intervals about these vessels (intermediate and main glands). The lymph vessels from the lower half of the descending colon, and from the iliac and pelvic colons, join the left lymph trunk of the lumbar glands. Those of the rectum and cæcum will be described later.

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Nerves. — The nerves come from the superior mesenteric plexus, an offshoot of the celiac xus

, and from the inferior mesenteric, a derivative of the aortic plexus. The arrangement is ilar to that of the nerves of the small intestine.


'ntestinum Cæcum. —After leaving the pelvic cavity, as already described, the
'nal portion of the small intestine passes upwards, backwards, and to the

and opens, by the ileoorifice, into the large in? some 2 inches from its end. The portion of the

Colon ascendens zut which lies below the f this orifice is known as

A. ileocolica stinum cæcum. In shape 51) it is a wide, asymor lop-sided cul-de-sac, 1 with the tæniæ and ons usually found in the estine. Its lower end ant. sup. is directed downwards ally, and usually rests ht psoas major muscle, A. iliaca le brim of the pelvis ; 3 opposite end is wards and laterally,

Vesica urinaria nued into the ascend




trical form is due to the ateral and medial por- Fig. 951.—THE CÆCUM AND VERMIFORM PROCESS FROM THE FRONT. an undergo an unequal

the child. The medial (or medial and posterior) section lags behind, whilst the al and anterior) ditision grows much more rapidly, and, projecting downwards, rm the inferior end or fundus of the cæcum. As a result the original extremity

the vermiform process springing from it, is hidden away behind and to the
e fundus.
he distended cæcum usually measures about 24 inches (60 mm.);
th is usually more, and averages about 3 inches (75 mm.).
- It is usually situated almost entirely within the right iliac 1
domen, immediately above the lateral half or third of the inguinal
its inferior end projects medially in front of the psoas major and
gastrium (Fig. 951). On the other hand, it is sometimes found
ght lumbar region (owing to the persistence of the fætal position), or
pelvic brim and dipping into the pelvic cavity to a varying extent.
majority of cases the cæcum is completely covered with peri-
spects, and lies quite free in the abdominal cavity.
namely, about 6 or 7 per cent. of bodies, the posterior surface
esult of adhesions) is not completely covered, but over
ction of its extent is bound down to the posterior abdominal

steriorly, the cæcum rests on the ilio-psoas muscle; generally, too,
process and the femoral nerve. Anteriorly, it usually lies in
omentum and anterior abdominal wall ; but when the cæcum
1 intestine intervenes. Its lateral side is placed immediately
If or third of the inguinal ligament (Fig. 951), whilst the medial
ation of the ileum lying in contact with it. On the medial
t, but more on the former than the latter, the small intestine

On the same aspect, and usually from 1 to 1} inches (25 to
in, the vermiform process comes off.

In a


orifice of





Lower segment

Orifice of vermiform


The interior of the cæcum corresponds in general appearance to that of the large intestine; but it presents two special features on the posterior part of its medial wall, namely, the ileo-cæcal orifice, guarded by the valvula coli (O.T. ileocæcal valve), and below that the small opening of the processus vermiformis, both

of which call for further notice.

Valvula Coli (O.T. Ileo - cæcal

Valve).—Where the ileum enters the Upper segment

large intestine, the end of the small gut

is, as it were, thrust through the wall of lleo-caecal orifice

the large bowel, carrying with it certain

layers of that wall, which project into Lower segment

the cæcum in the form of two folds, Frenulum

lying respectively above and below its of valve Bristle

orifice, and constituting the two segpassed

ments of the valve (Fig. 952). The through

condition may be compared to a partial vermiform

inversion or telescoping of the small into the large intestine: it must be added that the peritoneum and longi

tudinal muscular fibres of the bowel Upper

take no part in this infolding; on the contrary, they are stretched tightly across the crease produced on the exterior by the inversion, and thus serve to preserve the fold and the formation of the valve.

As seen from the interior, in specimens which have been distended and dried (Fig. 953), the valve is made up of two crescentic segments—a superior, labium superius, in a more or less horizontal plane, forming the superior

margin of the aperture; and an inferior, Upper

labium inferius, which is larger, placed in segment

an oblique plane, and sloping upwards and inwards (i.e., towards the cavity of

the cæcum. Between the two segsegment

ments is situated the slit-shaped opening, which runs in an almost anteroposterior direction, with a rounded anterior and a pointed posterior extremity (Fig. 952). At each end of the orifice

the two segments of the valve meet, Fig. 952. — THREE FORMS OF ValvuLA COLI, from

bodies hardened by intra-vascular injections of unite, and are then prolonged around formalin.

the wall of the cavity as two prominent The hardening was not so complete in the case of the folds the frenula valvulæ coli. It is

highest of the three valves represented.. In each thought that when the cæcum is disa bristle is passed through the orifice of the vermi- tended, and its circumference thereby form process.

increased, these frenula are put on the stretch, and, pulling upon the two segments of the valve, they bring them into apposition, and effect the closure of the orifice.

The position of the valvula coli, in the average condition, may be indicated on the surface of the body by the point of intersection of the intertubercular and vertical lateral lines. A point 1 to 14 inches (2.5 to 3.7 cm.) lower down would correspond to the orifice of the vermiform process.

In bodies hardened in situ with formalin, the valve and orifice present an entirely different appearance (see Fig. 952, in which three different forms of hardened valves are shown), suggesting, much more closely than in the dried state, the appearance of telescoping or inversion mentioned above. In them also the two segments of the valve are much thicker and shorter, but they can




Orifice of vermiform


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