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Beyond the ureter the duct takes a somewhat sudden bend, and passes down-uad reetum wards and medially towards the median plane, beneath the peritoneum of the pelvic i which is floor. Reaching the interval between the base of the bladder in front and the seniorly, the rectum behind, the ducts of opposite sides occupy the angle formed between the vesiculæ seminales (Fig. 1012). As they approach one another each duct becomes bort duct, somewhat tortuous, sacculated, and dilated, and assumes a general resemblance in seretorius, structure to a portion of the seminal vesicle. This dilated part of the ductus Xeral sid deferens is termed the ampulla ductus deferentis. As it turns medially the duct o dding lies a short distance behind the ureter, and immediately in front of the free edge of an acu sa the peritoneal fold (sacro-genital) which bounds the recto-vesical or recto-genital e ejacula DOSpouch of the peritoneum. Just above the base of the prostate the ductus deferens

2-tial side of becomes once more a narrow canal, and in this position it is joined by the duct 2 related of the corresponding seminal vesicle to form the ductus ejaculatorius, which, after a short course downwards, forwards, and medially through the prostate, opens into e when the urethra.

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In some cases the ductus deferens crosses the obliterated umbilical artery before it enters the
cavity of the pelvis minor ; it normally does so in the fætus.

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Seminal vesicle

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Ejaculatory

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Seminal vesicle

Ampulla of ductus

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B

FIG. 1010.
A and B. Drawings illustrating the seminal vesicle and the ampulla of the ductus deferens taken from two

different subjects.
C. The seminal vesicle and ductus deferens have been cut into to show the pitted structure of their walls.

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Ductus Ejaculatorius (O.T. common ejaculatory duct).—The ejaculatory duct is a very slender canal, formed by the union of the ductus deferens with the duct of the corresponding seminal vesicle. It is less than one inch in length, and lies very close to its fellow of the opposite side as it passes through the prostate behind its median lobe. The ducts open by slit-like apertures into the first part of the urethra, one on each side of the utriculus prostaticus. They are well seen in sections through the upper part of the prostate (Fig. 1011).

The mucous membrane of the duct is thrown into numerous complicated folds, and in connexion with it are a number of remarkable minute diverticula, which are enclosed within the muscular coat of the duct.

Vesiculæ Seminales.—The seminal vesicles are a pair of hollow sacculated structures placed in front of the rectum and behind the bladder (Fig. 1012). Each vesicle is usually about two inches in length, and has its long axis directed downwards, medially, and somewhat forwards. The superior extremity of the vesicle, which is partly covered by peritoneum, is large and rounded, and lies at a considerable distance from the median plane, behind the inferior end of the ureter. The peritoneum of the recto-vesical or recto-genital pouch separates the upper end of the seminal vesicle from the rectum; below the peritoneal cavity the vesicle

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ctum are more intimately related. The vesicle tapers towards its inferior

ich is placed close to the median plane and immediately above the prostate. rly, the vesicle beconstricted to form duct, the ductus cius, which joins the side of the corre

Internal urethral orifice

Trigonun vesica g ductus deferens

Ureter Ureter cute angle to form

-Ductus deferens culatory duct. The side of each vesicle

vesicle ed to the ductus s, and the lateral hen the bladder is Rectwn lies close to the pelvic floor. The 1 vesicle often

a more vertical when the bladder is Fig. 1011. HORIZONTAL SECTION

RECTUM ed; a more horizontal URINARY BLADDER AT THE LEVEL AT

THE URETERS PIERCE THE BLADDER WALL. 2 when the bladder

From a specimen in the Surgical Museum, Trinity College, Dublin. Its superior end imes found to be curved backwards against the side of the rectum. In

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DISSECTION TO DISPLAY THE POSTERIOR ASPECT OF THE VESICULÆ SEMINALES, THE AMPULLE The Ductus DEFERENTES, AND THE PROSTATE. The coccyx and portions of the levatores ani : been removed, also a considerable portion of the rectum.

ses the seminal vesicles are much smaller than usual, and may be less e inch in length. Frequently they are asymmetrical as regards size and

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THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS.

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We have here to describe (1) the testes or essential reproductive glands of the Epididymis male, together with their (2) coverings and (3) ducts, (4) the prostate, (5) the bulbo-fi the post urethral glands, (6) the external genital organs, and (7) the male urethra.

of the LAKE The reproductive glands of the male, or testes, are a pair of nearly symmetrical epididy Ini oval-shaped bodies situated in the scrotum. The duct of each gland, at first of the tes much twisted and intertwined, forms a structure known as the epididymis, which rective tis is applied against the posterior and lateral part of the testis. From the epi. is terme didymis the excretory duct, or ductus deferens, passes upwards towards the inferior : by the ser part of the anterior abdominal wall, which it pierces very obliquely, to enter the way, I abdominal cavity. Here each ductus deferens is covered by the peritoneum, and sterior part almost at once crossing the pelvic brim, enters the pelvis. The duct now runs onsring of the side wall of the pelvis towards the base of the bladder, where it comes into Kymidis relation with a branched tubular structure termed the vesicula seminalis. Joined by the duct of the vesicula seminalis, the ductus deferens forms a short canal called the ejaculatory duct, which terminates by opening into the prostatic part of the urethra. The prostate, a partly glandular, partly muscular structure, Vinate surrounding the first part of the urethra, and also a pair of small glandular bodies 1 suis called the bulbo-urethral glands, are accessory organs connected with the male lyrais

reproductive system. The
ducts of the bulbo-urethral Jer's duct in
glands and those of the pro-
state, like the ejaculatory ducts, didymis. T
open into the urethra, which
thus serves not only as a pas-
sage for urine, but also for the wed is line
generative products. The es- mbles in a
ternal genitals are the penis and peritoneur

scrotum.
Spermatic
cord

THE TESTIS.
Head of
epididymis

The male
reproductive Yards to

CH Appendix

Tunica of testis

vaginalis glands, the testes, are a pair of Band The

somewhat oval, slightly flat-is tracert
tened bodies of a whitish colour, tel of the

measuring about an inch and s paticus
Margo half in length, one inch from rwards in
of testis before backwards, and rather ca vagi

less in thickness. Each testis e testis,
is placed within the cavity of Josterior wa I
the scrotum in such a manner er the tes
that its long axis is directed
upwards, slightly forwards, and zbrane
laterally, and usually the left
gland occupies a lower level the tublea
than the right. The testis thing the

(Fig. 1003) has two somewhat Fig. 1003.-RIGHT TESTIS AND EPIDIDYMIS, EXPOSED BY THE flattened surfaces, one of which tion. Betw REMOVAL OF THE ANTERIOR WALL OF THE SCROTUM.

called the facies lateralis, ar lateral surface, looks backwards as well as laterally; the other, the facies medialispidymis, the or medial surface, looks forwards as well as medially, and is usually the more the margo anterior, is the more convex and free; while the other, the margo posteriors from the v flattened. The two surfaces are separated by two rounded borders, one of which. is less rounded, and by it the organ is suspended within the scrotum. epididymis and the lowest portion of the funiculus spermaticus, or spermatic cord, are

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to the posterior border of the testis. Each border ends above in the extremity, and below in the inferior extremity of the testis. Owing to an -y of the long axis of the gland, the superior extremity of the testis lies on anterior and lateral plane than the inferior extremity. didymis.—The epididymis is a somewhat crescentic structure, which is curved he posterior border of the testis and overlaps to some extent the posterior the lateral surface of that organ. The superior, somewhat swollen part of lidymis, is called the caput epididymidis or head, and overhangs the superior he testis, to which it is directly connected by numerous emerging ducts, by ive tissue, and by the serous covering of the organ. The inferior and smaller ermed the cauda epididymidis or tail, and is attached by loose areolar tissue che serous covering to the inferior end of the testis. The intermediate part, y, or corpus epididymidis, is applied against, but is separated from, the

part of the lateral surface of the testis by an involution of the serous of the organ, which forms an intervening pocket termed the sinus epis (O.T. digital fossa). main mass of the epididymis is composed of an irregularly twisted canal, us epididymidis, which forms the first part of the duct of the testis. te sessile, or pedunculated, bodies are often found attached to the head of the is or to the superior end of the testis. These are called appendices of the is and testis (O.T. hydatids of Morgagni), and have a developmental interest. ate body which lies on the superior end of the testis represents the free end of duct in the embryo and the fimbriated end of the uterine tube of the female ; it

sessile. Above the head of the epididymis, and in front of the lower part of natic cord, there may also be present a small rudimentary body called the mis. This is rarely seen in the adult, and is best marked in young children. ca Vaginalis.—The cavity within which the testis and epididymis are s lined by a smooth serous membrane — the tunica vaginalis — which s in appearance and structure oneum, from which it is origined. The cavity is considerably Lobules of

- Spermatic cord han the contained structures,

epididymis nds not only down to a lower in the testis, but also reaches to a higher level than the

Efferent

dnctules The sac, or cavity, tapers as

Appendix ced upwards, and above the

Body of testis

epididymis the testis the funiculus sper

Sinus of or spermatic cord bulges

epididymis into its posterior part. The aginalis lines the cavity for is, and is reflected from the wall of the scrotal chamber testis and epididymis, giving ng to each. The part of the le lining the cavity is called la parietalis or parietal portion inica vaginalis, while the part the testis and epididymis i

1004.-LEFT TESTIS AND EPIDIDYMIS. he lamina visceralis or vise Between the lateral si

mnica vaginalis has been removed in order to

tuli efferentes and lobuli epididymidis. cestis and the body is, the visceral part of

s dips in and lines a narrow alled the sinus epididyr

sa). The entrance to the sinus 1 above and below by

of the tunica vaginalis, which the testis to the heari

dymis. These folds are s superior and inferior

lidymis. In three posit f the testis receives

e tunica vaginalis

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where the globus major is attached, inferiorly where the cauda epididymidis is in lobale of contact, and posteriorly where the blood-vessels and nerves enter the organ from audidymis the funiculus spermaticus or spermatic cord.

which constitt Structure of the Testis and Epididymis.—Beneath the serous tunica vaginalis tubidymis

. the testis is invested by an external coat, composed of dense white inelastic fibrous sud to begin tissue called the tunica albuginea, from the deep surface of which a number of tuous cous slender fibrous bands or septa dip into the gland. These—the septula testis—imperfectly divide the organ into a number of wedge-shaped parts called lobuli testis

mis me (Fig. 1005). All the septa end posteriorly in a mass of fibrous tissue which is

of one o Tunica albuginea

directly continuous with the tunica al- cta. Septula testis

buginea, and which projects forwards into Minute
the testis along its posterior border. This bed by a
structure receives the name of mediastinum

z duetus de: testis, or corpus Highmori, and is traversed

nner Seza by an exceedingly complicated network of ser strat IZDO fine canals, into which the minute tubules na The which compose the substance proper of the Bach thicker testis open. The mediastinum is also pierced by the arteries, veins, and lymph vessels of

Vessels aa the testis. These vessels enter the posterior border of the organ, and traversing the

. auch oft be mediastinum, spread out on the fibrous septa which radiate towards all parts of the deep

surface of the tunica albuginea. In this way Ductus deferens Body of epididymis a delicate network of vessels (tunica vasculosa) Testicular artery Mediastinum testis

is formed on the deep surface of the tunica FIG. 1005.-TRANSVERSE SECTION OF THE TESTIS AND EPIDIDYMIS.

albuginea and on the sides of the septa.

The mediastinum, the septa, and the tunica albuginea form a framework enclosing a number of imperfectly isolated spaces which are filled by a loosely packed substance of a light brown colour called the parenchyma testis.

The parenchyma is composed of enormous numbers of much-convoluted seminiferous tubules, called tubuli seminiferi contorti, and completely fills up the intervals between the septa. The minute tubules look like fine threads to the unaided eye, and are but loosely held together by a small amount of connective tissue. Usually three or four tubules are found in each lobule of the gland, and the total number in the testis has been estimated at about 600. The seminiferous tubules, after a course of about two feet in length, pass towards the mediastinum testis and unite at acute angles, to form a smaller number of slender tubes which run a straight

These latter are called tubuli seminiferi recti, and open into a complicated network of fine canals situated in the substance of the mediastinum, called the rete

Ć I testis. The tubules are much more twisted and convoluted in the cortical part of the gland, near the tunica vaginalis, than in the region of the mediastinum, and often give off side branches which, according to some observers, may effect anastomoses between the tubules. It appears doubtful, however, if the semini

The Deres ferous tubules of the testis do really anastomose.

Microscopic sections show that the walls of the seminiferous tubules are composed of a basement membrane and of an epithelial lining, formed of several layers of cells. Certain cells of this epithelium are, in the adult, constantly undergoing transformation

et of the duc into spermatozoa, and the appearance of the tubules in section varies much, according to age and to the greater or less activity of the epithelial cells.

The secretion of the seminiferous tubules is carried through the tubuli seminiferi recti into the rete testis, and leaves the latter, to reach the canal of the epididymis, through from fifteen to twenty minute tubules called ductuli efferentes testis or efferent ductules. These latter pierce the tunica albuginea and enter the caput epididymidis where it is in direct contact with the superior extremity of the testis. Each efferent ductule is at first straight, but soon becomes much convoluted, and forms a little conical mass of twisted tubule, called

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