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e of the epididymis (O.T. conus vasculosus). Within the head of the
mis the little canals finally open into the single much-convoluted tube
onstitutes the chief bulk of the epididymis, and is called the duct of the
nis. This canal, which is not less than 19 or 20 feet in length, may be
begin in the head of the epididymis, and to end, after an extraordinarily
i course, at the tail by becoming the ductus deferens (Fig. 1006).
ost cases one or more slender convoluted diverticula from the duct of the epi-
may be found near its lower end. These receive the name of ductuli aberrantes,

of them which is very constantly present often measures a foot or more in
ute Structure.—The duct of the epididymis and the efferent ductules are
a ciliated epithelium, the cilia of which maintain a constant current towards
is deferens. The duct of the epididymis possesses a muscular coat composed of

stratum of transversely and an atum of longitudinally directed The wall, at first thin, becomes

Funiculus icker as the ductus epididymidis

spermaticus

Ductus

--deferens es the ductus deferens.

[graphic]

Is and Nerves of the Testis. — The pplied by the internal spermatic artery, fthe aorta. This slender vessel, after

ructus ferens

Head of epididymis

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Pampiniform
plexus

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Septulum
testis

mis

FIG. 1006. to illustrate the structure of the testis

Duct of epididymis and epididymis.

Fig. 1007.-LEFT TESTIS AND EPIDIDYMIS VIEWED pididymis. v.e. Ductuli efferentes testis.

FROM BEHIND, showing the ductus epididymidis epididymis. v.r. Tubuli seminiferi recti.

and the first part of the ductus deferens.
3.
rse, reaches the posterior border of the testis, where it breaks up into branches
r the mediastinum testis, and are distributed along the septa and on the deep surface
a albuginea.
es issuing from the posterior border of the testis form a dense plexus, called the plexus
nis, which finally pours its blood through the spermatic vein, on the right side, into the
a cava; on the left side the spermatic vein joins the left renal vein.
ves for the testis accompany the internal spermatic artery, an ved through
and renal plexuses from the tenth thoracic segment of the spinal medulla. The
es from the epididymis appear to reach the spinal medulla through the posterior

eleventh and twelfth thoracic and first lumbar nerves. The arteries and nerves of
ommunicate with those on the lower part of the ductus deferens, namely, with the
e ductus deferens and with twigs from the hypogastric plexus.
ph-vessels of the testis pass upwards in the spermatic funiculus, and end in the
ph-glands.

are

DUCTUS DEFERENS. ctus deferens (O.T. vas deferens) is the direct continuation of the duct lidymis. Beginning at the inferior extremity of the epididymis, it ends, urse of nearly 18 inches, by opening as the ejaculatory duct into the r first part of the urethra. The duct in parts of its course is somewhat , and the actual distance traversed by it is not more than 12 inches. he first instance outside the abdominal cavity, the ductus deferens ascends

superior iliace

within the scrotum towards the lower part of the anterior abdominal wall, which it
reaches not far from the median plane. During this part of its course the duct,
together with the vessels and nerves of the testis, is surrounded by a number of
loose coverings derived from certain layers of the abdominal wall, and the cord-like
structure so formed is termed the funiculus spermaticus or spermatic cord. The
ductus deferens, together with the accompanying vessels and nerves, now passes
through the abdominal wall in an oblique passage, to which the name canalis
inguinalis is applied. Within the abdomen the duct lies immediately beneath the
peritoneum, and soon crossing over the pelvic brim, it enters the pelvis minor, on
the side wall of which it proceeds backwards towards the base of the bladder. Here,
near the median plane, the ductus deferens is joined by the duct of the correspond-

Median umbilical ligament (urachus) Urinary bladder
Plica vesicalis transversa

Paravesical peritoneal fossa
Trigonum femorale

Obliterated umbilical artery

Inferior iliac vessels

epigastric artery

the cord ente siamen is a o the abdor structures of of the ingu que as wkward coed tend sterally ZP the interde inguis

[graphic]

External

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Internal spermatic artery
Ductus deferens

Ureter
Recto-vesical pouch

External iliac artery
Intervertebral fi bro-cartilage

Hypogastric artery
Rectum

Sucro.genital fold
Fig. 1008.—VIEW OF THE Male PelviS SEEN FROM ABOVE AND BEHIND. The course

of the ductus deferens is well seen.

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ing vesicula seminalis, and the ejaculatory duct, thus formed, having traversed the prostate, opens into the urethra.

At first the ductus deferens, like the canal from which it takes its origin, is very tortuous, but soon increasing in thickness, the duct becomes less twisted, and passes upwards along the medial side of the epididymis, behind the testis, to enter the spermatic funiculus (Fig. 1007). Its course is now almost vertically upwards towards the pubic tubercle, near which, crossing the medial part of the inguinal ligament [Pouparti], the duct enters the inguinal canal by the subcutaneous inguinal ring (Fig. 1017). Of the structures composing the funiculus spermaticus the duct is the most posterior, and it can be readily distinguished, even in the undissected subject, by its hard firm feel, when it is taken between the finger and thumb. In the inguinal canal the ductus deferens is directed laterally, upwards, and a little backwards to the abdominal inguinal ring, where, at a point half an inch above the inguinal ligament, and midway between the symphysis pubis and the anterior

с прvards, sepatic tuber in this part of vesels, and the Setteen these etis minor the Stially, in the itoneum, thr 12. Surse the d the umbilica 2d4; the uret

rior iliac spine, it enters the abdomen. The distance between the point where cord enters the inguinal canal to the point where it leaves it to enter the men is about one and a half inches. While passing from the subcutaneous he abdominal inguinal ring · the ductus deferens, together with the other tures of the funiculus spermaticus, rests upon the upper grooved surface e inguinal ligament, and is placed behind the aponeurosis of the external ne and some of the lower fibres of the internal oblique muscle. From before wards the duct rests, in the first instance, upon the falx aponeurotica or conI tendon of the internal oblique and transversus abdominis muscles, and farther lly upon the fascia transversalis. Above the funiculus are some arching fibres internal oblique muscle which enter the falx. As the ductus deferens leaves guinal canal by the abdominal inguinal ring, it turns round the inferior

Branches of hypogastric artery Right ureter
Obturator artery

Nerve cord from hypogastric plexus

[graphic]

ferior estric rtery

Eacro-genital fold terated umbilical - (lig. umbilicale) Plica vesicalis transversa

Vesical arteries

Ductus deferen's Paravesical peritoneal fossa Fig. 1009.-MEDIAN SECTION OF THE PELVIS IN AN ADULT MALE. all intestine and colon which lay within the pelvis have been lifted out in order to give a view

of the side wall of the pelvic cavity.

rtery on its lateral and posterior aspect. Completely changing the its course, the duct now runs for a short distance backwards, medially, s, beneath the peritoneum, to a point one and a half to two inches from bercle, where it crosses the ilio-pectineal line and enters the pelvis minor. of its course the duct usually lies at first in front of the external iliac then in the floor of a little triangular fossa, the trigonum femorale, se vessels and the pelvic brim (Fig. 1009). On the side wall of the the ductus deferens is continued backwards, and a little downwards and the direction of the ischial spine, and lies immediately external to the through which it can usually be seen shining. In the pelvic part of e ductus deferens crosses on the medial side of (1) the obliterated part ical artery, (2) the obturator nerve and vessels, (3) the vesical vessels, reter (Fig. 1009).

Beyond the ureter the duct takes a somewhat sudden bend, and passes downwards and medially towards the median plane, beneath the peritoneum of the pelvic floor. Reaching the interval between the base of the bladder in front and the rectum behind, the ducts of opposite sides occupy the angle formed between the vesiculæ seminales (Fig. 1012). As they approach one another each duct becomes somewhat tortuous, sacculated, and dilated, and assumes a general resemblance in structure to a portion of the seminal vesicle. This dilated part of the ductus deferens is termed the ampulla ductus deferentis. As it turns medially the duct lies a short distance behind the ureter, and immediately in front of the free edge of the peritoneal fold (sacro-genital) which bounds the recto-vesical or recto-genital pouch of the peritoneum. Just above the base of the prostate the ductus deferens becomes once more a narrow canal, and in this position it is joined by the duct of the corresponding seminal vesicle to form the ductus ejaculatorius, which, after a short course downwards, forwards, and medially through the prostate, opens into the urethra.

In some cases the ductus deferens crosses the obliterated umbilical artery before it enters the cavity of the pelvis minor; it normally does so in the fætus.

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Seminal

vesicle Ampulla of ductus deferens

Seminal
vesicle
-Dnetas
deferens

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Ejaculatory

duet Ejaculatory

С
duct
Seminal vesicle

Ampulla of ductus

deferens

Ejaculatory dnet
A

B

FIG. 1010.
A and B. Drawings illustrating the seminal vesicle and the ampulla of the ductus deferens taken from two

different subjects.
C. The seminal vesicle and ductus deferens have been cut into to show the pitted structure of their walls.

Ductus Ejaculatorius (O.T. common ejaculatory duct).—The ejaculatory duct is a very slender canal, formed by the union of the ductus deferens with the duct of the corresponding seminal vesicle. It is less than one inch in length, and lies very close to its fellow of the opposite side as it passes through the prostate behind its median lobe. The ducts open by slit-like apertures into the first part of the urethra, one on each side of the utriculus prostaticus. They are well seen in sections through the upper part of the prostate (Fig. 1011).

The mucous membrane of the duct is thrown into numerous complicated folds, and in connexion with it are a number of remarkable minute diverticula, which are enclosed within the muscular coat of the duct.

Vesiculæ Seminales.—The seminal vesicles are a pair of hollow sacculated structures placed in front of the rectum and behind the bladder (Fig. 1012). Each vesicle is usually about two inches in length, and has its long axis directed downwards, medially, and somewhat forwards. The superior extremity of the vesicle, which is partly covered by peritoneum, is large and rounded, and lies at a considerable distance from the median plane, behind the inferior end of the ureter. The peritoneum of the recto-vesical or recto-genital pouch separates the upper end of the seminal vesicle from the rectum; below the peritoneal cavity the vesicle

02-DINE ( THE Dra

e boca re

e cases th - 0ne inch

Internal urethral orifice

Ureter

Seminal
vesicle

ctum are more intimately related. The vesicle tapers towards its inferior hich is placed close to the median plane and immediately above the prostate. prly, the vesicle beconstricted to form t duct, the ductus rius, which joins the side of the corre

-Trigonum vesica ng ductus deferens

Ureter acute angle to form culatory duct. The

-Ductus deferens side of each vesicle ted to the ductus ns, and the lateral hen the bladder is

lies close to the - pelvic floor. The al vesicle often ES a more vertical when the bladder is Fig. 1011. HORIZONTAL SECTION

RECTUM Led; a more horizontal URINARY BLADDER AT THE LEVEL AT

THE URETERS PIERCE THE BLADDER WALL. on when the bladder

From a specimen in the Surgical Museum, Trinity College, Dublin. y. Its superior end times found to be curved backwards against the side of the rectum. In

[graphic]

Rectum

AND

THROUGH THE

WHICH

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2.- DISSECTION TO DISPLAY THE POSTERIOR ASPECT OF THE VESICULE SEMINALES, THE AMPULLE ' THE Ductus DEFERENTES, AND THE PROSTATE. The coccyx and portions of the levatores ani ve been removed, also a considerable portion of the rectum.

ases the seminal vesicles are much smaller than usual, and may be less ne inch in length. Frequently they are asymmetrical as regards size and

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