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Bony Landmarks of the Cranium.—At the root of the nose is the frontonasal suture (nasion); a little above it is the glabella, a slight prominence which connects the superciliary arches. About 1 in. below the posterior pole of the

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MENINGES, AND CORTEX CEREBRI (modified from Cunningham). cranium, and 2 in. above the spine of the epistropheus, is the external occipital protuberance (inion). In the child the protuberance is not developed; its position may be defined by taking a point at the junction of the upper and middle thirds of a line extending from the posterior pole of the skull to the spine of the epistropheus. About a third of the distance from the nasion to the inion is the bregma or junction of the coronal and sagittal sutures; with the head in the natural erect posture the bregma corresponds to the middle of a line carried across the vertex between the pre-auricular points of the zygomatic arches.

At birth the position of the bregma is occupied by the fonticulus frontalis, a rhomboidal membranous area which generally becomes ossified at about the eighteenth month. The size and date of closure of the fontanelle, as well as its tension and pulsation, are all points to be carefully noted in the clinical examination of children.

The lambda, or junction of the sagittal and lambdoidal sutures, situated 21 in. above the inion, can generally be felt through the scalp; a line drawn from it to the posterior border of

the root of the mastoid process corresponds to the lambdoidal In the adult the parieto-occipital fissure of the brain lies opposite, or a few millimetres in front of, the lambda ; in the child, however, the fissure may be as much as 1 in. in front of it.

Crossing the supra-orbital margin close to its medial angle, a finger's-breadth from the medial line, are the supra-trochlear nerve and the frontal branch of the ophthalmic artery; the latter nourishes the flap in the operation of rhinoplasty. At the junction of the medial and intermediate thirds of the supra-orbital margin, 1 in. from the medial line, is the supra-orbital notch or foramen, the guide to the supra-orbital vessels and nerves. A little above the level of the lateral canthus of the eyelid is the fronto - zygomatic suture, immediately above which is the zygomatic process of the frontal bone. At the posterior end of the suture the zygomatico-temporal branch of the orbital nerve pierces the temporal fascia to reach the scalp. Half an inch above the suture is the lower margin of the cerebral hemisphere; while half an inch below the suture is a small tubercle on the posterior border

e zygomatic bone; a line drawn from this tubercle to the lambda gives the line e superior temporal sulcus and of the inferior cornu of the lateral ventricle. "he zygomatic arch, an important landmark, is horizontal when the head is in atural position, and is on the same level as the inferior margin of the orbit and nion; its superior border is at, or not infrequently a little above, the level of ower lateral margin of the hemisphere. The superior border of the zygoma may aced backwards immediately above the tragus and the external acoustic meatus come continuous with the ridge.formed by the supra-mastoid portion of the oral crest. The part of the posterior root of the zygoma which lies immely in front of the superior end of the tragus constitutes a valuable landmark

may with advantage be termed the pre-auricular point of the zygoma, while by erm post-auricular point is understood that point upon the supra-mastoid crest 1 lies immediately behind, and a finger’s-breadth below, the upper attachment e auricle. The temporal vessels and the auriculo-temporal nerve cross the na at the pre-auricular point, and it is there that the pulsations of the temporal

may be felt during the administration of an anæsthetic, or the vessel ressed for the purpose of checking bleeding from the temporal region of the

The termination of the auriculo-temporal nerve in the neighbourhood e parietal tuber is often the seat of a neuralgic pain in irritative conditions

the external acoustic meatus, the latter being supplied by this nerve. wo inches vertically above the pre-auricular point is the inferior end of the el sulcus of Rolando. Two inches vertically above the middle of the zygomatic s the pterion (spheno-parietal suture), a point which cannot be felt, but which ertheless of topographical importance, as it overlies the lateral point (the point

the lateral fissure of the brain breaks up into its three branches) and the or branch of the middle meningeal artery. e frontal tuber (better marked in the child) overlies the middle frontal con

The parietal tuber, which varies considerably in the definiteness with it can be recognised, overlies the termination of the posterior horizontal f the lateral fissure of the brain, and therefore also the supra-marginal convoluvhich is named by Turner the convolution of the parietal tuber. The part of mporal crest which intervenes between the zygomatic process of the frontal nd the coronal suture lies a little above the level of the inferior frontal sulcus. ighest part of the temporal crest crosses the anterior central gyrus at the on of its middle and lower thirds, that is to say, at the junction of the motor for the arm and face. In the child the temporal muscle, which is relatively smaller than in the adult, reaches only a short distance above the squamous , and, therefore, only as far as the level of the inferior end of the central

of Rolando. thickness of the skull-cap varies at different parts and in different individuals. The able is only half the thickness of the outer table, but both possess the same degree of elas

When the vault is fractured from direct violence, the inner table is more extensively I than the outer table, because the elements of the latter are compressed, while those of the are stretched apart. The weak areas at the base of the skull through which fractures are o extend are: in the anterior cranial fossa, the orbital parts of the frontal bone, and the rm plate of the ethmoid ; in the middle cranial fossa, the region of the glenoid cavity temporal bone, and of the foramen ovale of the sphenoid ; in the posterior fossa, the fossä occipital bone. The strong petrous part of the temporal is weakened by the tympanic aand by the deep jugular fossa. anio-Cerebral Topography. — Of the many methods which have been d for mapping out the relations of the cranial contents to the scalp, that uced by Professor Chiene is, probably, the most useful from a clinical

of view; no figures or angles have to be remembered, and the primary e lines are drawn from bony points which are not variable, whilst the Aary lines are drawn, for the most part, between mid-points of the primary

The method is as follows (Figs. 1067 and 1068): The head being shaved, find in the median line of the skull between the la (G) and the external occipital protuberance (O) the following points :First, the mid-point (M); second, the three-quarter point (T); third, the sevenpoint (S).

“Find also the zygomatic process (E), and the root of the zygoma (preauricular point) (P), immediately above and in front of the external acoustic meatus. Having found these five points, join EP, PS, and ET. Bisect EP and PS at N and R. Join MN and MR.Bisect also AB at C, and draw CD parallel to AM."

The line MA corresponds to the superior and inferior precentral sulci, and may therefore be termed the pre-central line. The origins of the superior and inferior frontal sulci may be indicated by the points of union of the upper and middle anu the middle and lower thirds of the line MA, the lower point being at the level of the temporal crest.

The line ET, termed the oblique or lateral line, intersects the pre-central line at the point A, which overlies the pterion, and corresponds therefore to the lateral point of the lateral cerebral fissure and to the anterior division of the middle meningeal artery. AC overlies the posterior horizontal limb of the lateral fissure of the brain which terminates at the level of the temporal crest, in the inferior part of the triangle HCB. This triangle contains the parietal tuber, and may, therefore, be termed the supra-marginal triangle. The termination of the lateral line, at the three-quarter sagittal point T, overlies the parieto-occipital fissure.

By joining TR, RO, a triangle is mapped out which delimits the surface of the occipital lobe ; the line TR corresponds to the lambdoidal suture, while RO corresponds to, or lies a little above, the tentorium and the upper border of the transverse sinus.

CD, the post-central line, corresponds to the superior post-central sulcus, and lies a little behind the inferior post-central sulcus.

The parallelogram AMDC overlies the Rolandic area, i.e. the anterior central gyrus and the posterior central gyrus, separated by the central sulcus.

The pentagon ABRPN maps out the temporal lobe, with the exception of its apex, which is directed downwards, forwards, and inwards, a finger’s-breadth in front of the point N.

A finger's-breadth below AB is the superior temporal sulcus, the posterior extremity of which turns upwards to terminate at B, the point which indicates, therefore, the position of the angular gyrus.

The central sulcus of Rolando may be mapped out upon the scalp by drawing a line downwards and forwards for a distance of 3} in. from a point half an inch behind the mid-sagittal point M at an angle of 67° to the sagittal line (Hare). This angle may readily be found by Chiene's plan of folding a sheet of paper first to half a right angle and again to a quarter of a right angle (45° + 22.5° = 67.5°). According to Cunningham, the average angle which the fissure makes with the sagittal line is 70.

Krönlein's scheme for projecting the more important cerebral areas on the surface of the cranium is as follows :-A base line, the same as that advocated by Reid, is drawn from the infra-orbital margin backwards through the upper border of the external acoustic meatus to the occipital region, which it strikes a little below the inion, Fig. 1068. A second line is drawn backwards parallel to it from the supraorbital margin. Three vertical lines are now projected between these two parallels: the anterior from the centre of the zygomatic arch (C), the middle from the preauricular point (D), the posterior from the posterior border of the base of the mastoid process (E). The latter is prolonged upwards to the sagittal line on the cranial vault, and the direction of the central sulcus of Rolando is obtained by drawing a line from this point obliquely downwards and forwards to the point where the anterior vertical meets the superior horizontal line (Sylvian point). The inferior extremity of the sulcus corresponds to the point where the middle vertical line, prolonged upwards, meets the Rolandic line. The lateral fissure line is obtained by bisecting the angle formed by the Rolandic line and the superior horizontal line.

The topographical distribution of function in the cerebral cortex is shown in Fig. 1068, in which the areas worked out by Grünbaum and Sherrington in the anthropoid apes have been transferred to the human brain. The above observers have shown that, while the motor area occupies the whole length of the anterior central convolution and of the central sulcus of Rolando (with the exception of its very extremities), it nowhere extends on to the exposed surface of the posterior central convolution; nor does it extend as far down on the medial surface of the hemisphere as the sulcus cinguli. Extirpation of the hand area, for example, is

by severe paralysis of the hand, but the use and power of the hand is
| in a few weeks; ablations, on the other hand, of even large portions of
erior central gyrus do not give rise even to transient paralysis.
ome of the animals experimented on, the motor area was found to extend
eeper part of the posterior wall of the central sulcus of Rolando. Anteriorly
ded into the pre-central sulci as well as into the occasional sulci which cross
rior central gyrus ; indeed the hidden part of the motor area fully equals in


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Shows relations of the motor and sensory areas to the gyri, and to Chiene's lines.

C. Mid-point of AB. nal occipital protuberance (inion).

CD is drawn parallel to AM. point between G and 0.

Z. Post-auricular point. point between M and 0.

VW. Guide to anterior limit of transverse sinus. point between T and 0.

Y. Tympanic antrum. matic process of frontal.

Site at which subarachnoid space may be opened. of zygoma (pre-auricular point).

X?. Site for draining lateral ventricle (Kocher). point of EP.

X3. Site for draining lateral ventricle (Keen).
point of PS.
that contributing to the free surface of the hemisphere. The motor areas
a little in front of the superior and inferior pre-central sulci, which cannot
re be regarded as physiological boundaries.
erence to Fig. 1068 shows that, of the main areas, that for the lower extremity
es the upper third of the motor region, that for the upper extremity the

third, while the face occupies the inferior third. The relative topography
chief subdivisions of these main areas is shown in Fig. 1069. It must be
bered, however, that there exists much overlapping of the adjacent areas.
e body of the lateral ventricle, which is equal in length to the posterior

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