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Lymph glands (contd.), popliteal, 1014

surgical anatomy of, 1458
posterior auricular, 998

mediastinal, 1012
of posterior triangle, 1394
pre-aortic, 1021
pre-laryngeal, 1001
pre-tracheal, 1001
pubic, 1015
pubo-gluteal, 1017
pulmonary, 1012
rectal, 1016, 1017
retro-peritoneal, 1427
sacral, 1016
sinuses of, 995
sternal, 1010
structure of, 994, 995
sub-aortic, 1017
sub-clavicular, 1009
sub-inguinal deep, 1014

distal group, 1014
proximal group, 1012

superficial, 1013
sub-maxillary, 1000

surgical anatomy of, 1391
sub-mental, 1000

surgical anatomy of, 1391
sub-pectoral group of axillary, 1009
sub-pyloric, 1020
sub-scapular, 1008

surgical anatomy of, 1447
sub-sternomastoid, 1002
of the superior extremity, 1006, 1009
superior hæmorrhoidal, 1016
supra-clavicular, 1003
supra-hyoid, 1002

surgical anatomy of, 1392
supra-mandibular, 999
supra-pancreatic, 1020

left, 1020

right, 1020
supra-umbilical, 1015
of thorax, 1013
trabeculæ of, 995
tracheo-bronchial, 1012
umbilical, 1015
of upper limb, 1006
visceral, of abdomen and pelvis, 1015

of thorax, 1010
nodules, aggregated, 1181

solitary, 1181
spaces, 994

perivascular, 995
trunk, of brain, 1003

broncho-mediastinal, 998
common lumbar, 998
descending, 997
intestinal, 997
jugular, 998
lumbar, 997
retro-aortic, 998
right jugular, 998

subclavian, 998
vessels, 993

of abdomen, 1017, 1022
of abdominal viscera, 1822

wall, 1015
abnormalities of, 1059
of anterior wall of abulomen, 1015
of anus, 1019
of arm, 1006
of blood-vessels, 870

Lymph vessels (contd.), of bones, 87

of breast, 1010
of buttock, 1014
capillary, 1042
central, of hand, 1009
cerebral, 1003
of cheeks, 1005
deep, 1015
of ductus deferens, 1018
of ear, 1004
endothelium of, 994
of external acoustic meatus, 1004

genitals, 1015
extra-cranial, 1003
of eyeball, 1004
of eyelids and conjunctiva, 1004
follicles, 995
of foot, 1014, 1015
of forearm, 1009
of gums, 1005
of hand, 1009
of head and neck, 1003, 1004,
of heart, 880
of inferior extremity, 1014
intra-cranial, 1003
of larynx, 1006
lateral aortic, 1024
of leg, 1014
of lips, 1005
of lower limb, 1014
of lung, 1013
meningeal, 1003
of middle ear, 1004
of nasal muco-periosteum, 1005
of the nose, 1004
of ovaries, 1018
of pelvic viscera, 1017
of pharynx, 1006
of pleura, 1013
pre-aortic, 1024
of prostate, 1018
of rectum, 1018
of rectum and anus, 1233
of salivary glands, 1006
of scalp, 1003
superficial, 1014

of head, 1003
of teeth, 1005
of testis, 1018
of thigh, 1014
of thorax, 1010
of the thyreoid gland, 1006
of tongue, 1005

surgical anatomy of, 1382
of trachea and æsophagus, 1006
tunica externa of, 994

interna of, 994

media of, 994
of upper limb, 1009
of ureter, 1018
of urethra, female, 1018

male, 1017
of urinary bladder, 1018
of uterine tube, 1018
of uterus, 1018

lower part, 1018
of vagina, 1018
valves of, 994
vasa afferentia, 993

efferentia, 993
of vesicles, seminal, 1018
visceral, of abdomen and pelvis, 1017, 10:
Lymph vessels (contd.), walls of, 994
Lymph-vascular system, 993

development of, 1042

Macewen's operations for knock-knee, 1461
Macrodont skulls, 288
Macula acustica sacculi, 847

utriculi, 846
cribrosa inferior, 844

media, 843

superior, 843
flava of vocal fold, 1070
lutea, 815

structure of, 817
Maculæ, structure of, 847
Macular artery, 818
Maier, sinus of, 825
Male pronucleus, 20
Malleolar arteries, 957

of anterior tibial, 956

of posterior tibial, 953
Malleolus, lateral, 253

topography of, 1463
medial, 249

topography of, 1463
Malleus, 839

articulations of, 840
development of, 841
ligaments of, 841
movements of, 842
surgical anatomy of, 1368
Mamillary bodies, 541, 615

development of, 608
line, 1397
process of vertebræ, 96

ossification of, 104
Mamma, 1336

development of, 1339

lymph vessels of, 1010
Mammæ accessoriæ, 1338
Mammary gland, 1336

alveoli of, 1337
ampulla of lactiferous ducts, 1338
areola of, 1337
areolar glands of, 1337
development of, 1339
lactiferous ducts of, 1338
lobes of, 1337
lymph vessels of, 1338
nerves of, 1339
papilla or nipple of, 1337
sinus of lactiferous ducts, 1338
stroma of, 1337
structure of, 1337
supernumerary, 1338
surgical anatomy of, 1446
variations in, 1338

vessels of, 1338
line, 1397
lymph glands, 1008
region, 1397

veins, 977
Mandible, 154

alveoli of, 156
angle of, 155
architecture of, 271
base of, 155
body of, 155
capitulum of, 156
condition at birth, 158
coronoid process of, 156
differences in, due to age, 158

Mandible (contd.), movements of, 313

neck of, 156
Ossification of, 157
ramus of, 156
surgical anatomy of, 1392

variations in, 279
Mandibular arch, 43

muscles derived from, 496
canal, 156
foramen, 156
nerve, 778

course and branches, 778
notch, 156
veins, 993
Mantle-layer of neural tube, 502
Manubrium mallei, 841

sterni, 107
Margin, falciform of fossa ovalis, 404

infraorbital, 146
liber of ovary, 1311
pupillary, 813
supraorbital, 115
Marginal artery of heart, 887

layer of neural tube, 502

veins of heart, 959
Marrow, 83

gelatinous, 83
red, 83
yellow, 83
Marrow-cells, 83
Marshall, oblique vein of, 872, 960

vestigial fold of, 872, 882
Massa lateralis of atlas, 91

development of, 608
intermedia of brain, 617
Masseter muscle, 454

action of, 458
nerve-supply of, 457
Masseteric artery, 899

border of zygomatic bone, 153
fascia, 447, 454
nerve, 779

vein, 965
Mastication, muscles of, 457

actions of, 457

nerve-supply of, 457
Mastoid cells, 836

surgical anatomy of, 1370
angle of parietal bone, 120
artery, 895
border-cells, 1370
canal, 129
foramen, 128
fossa, 1369

process, 128

development of, 1370
growth of, 1370
ossification of, 133
relation of, to transverse process, of atlas,

178
sexual differences in, 193

surgical anatomy of, 1370
Matrix unguis, 859
Maturation of ovum, 15
Maxillæ, 146

anterior surfaces of, 146
antrum of, 149, 186, 804, 1378
architecture of, 271
body of, 146
conchal crests of, 148
connexions of, 149
infra-temporal surfaces of, 147

Maxillæ (contd.), nasal surfaces of, 147

orbital surfaces of, 147
ossification of, 149
processes of, 148
relation of, to nasal fosse, 183

to infra-temporal fossa, 168

to orbit, 162
tuberosity of, 148

variations in, 279
Maxillary antrum, see Maxillary Sinus

arteries, 898
lymph glands, internal, 998
nerve, 775
process, 49, 50, 76, 149

of inferior concha, 143

of palate bone, 151
sinus, 149

development of, 150
ossification of, 149
relation of, to nasal fossæ, 148, 149, 162,

185, 186, 188
to orbit, 162
skiagraphs of, 1379

surgical anatomy of, 1379
vein, internal, 968

morphology of, 1048
Maximum occipital point, 285
Measurements and indices in anthropology,

284
humero-femoral index, 289
intermembral index, 289
of limb bones, 289
platyknemic index, 289
platymeric index, 289
radio-humeral index, 289
of skulls, 285

tibio-femoral index, 289
Meatus, acoustic external, 830

bony part, 830
cartilaginous part, 830
ceruminous glands of, 832
condition in infancy of, 831
development of, 52, 831
diameters of, 830
foramen of Huschke of, 832
isthmus of, 830
lymph vessels of, 832
nerves of, 832
structure of, 831
surgical anatomy of, 1365
variations in and absence of, 278

vascular and nervous supply of, 832
acoustic internal, 135, 845

absence of, 278
area of facial nerve, 846

vestibularis inferior, 846
crista transversa, 846
foramen singulare, 846
fossula inferior, 846

superior, 846
fundus of, 845
superior vestibular area, 846

tractus spinalis foraminosus, 8 16
of nose, atrium of, 803
inferior, 804

bony, 185, 188

surgical anatomy of, 1378
middle, 803

bony, 185, 188

surgical anatomy of, 1378
superior, 803

bony, 185, 188

Meatus (contd.), urinarius, 1284, 1308
Mechanism of foot, 361

of pelvis, 338
Meckel, band of, 841

cartilage of, 157, 841
diverticulum of, 1420
ganglion of, 777, 778

development of, 796
Medial longitudinal bundle of ain, 558, 542

568, 570, 588
plantar artery, position of, 1465
Median artery, 834

abnormalities of, 1056

morphology of, 1048
nerve, 705
surgical anatomy of, at elbow, 1450

in forearm, 1454

in upper arm, 1447, 1448
plane, 4
veins, 980

position of, in forearm, 1454

surgical anatomy of, 1450
Median basilic vein, 980

surgical anatomy of, 1450
Median cephalic vein, 980

abnormalities of, 1058

surgical anatomy of, 1450
Mediastinal arteries, of aorta, 925

of internal mammary, 913
lymph glands, 1011, 1012
pleura, 1085, 1086, 1401, 1402
space, 1089
veins, 961, 963
Mediastinum, 1089
thoracis, 1089
dorsal, 1090

boundaries of, 1090

centres of, 1090
middle, 1090
superior, 1089
ventral, 1090

boundaries of, 1090
Medulla, of bone, 83

of kidney, 1265
Medulla oblongata, 543

ala cinerea of, 551
anterior area of, 545
fasciculus proprius of, 545, 558
relation of, to medial longitudina'

bundle, 558
antero-lateral furrow of, 544
antero-median groove of, 543

areas of, 545, 547
arcuate fibres of, 556

anterior external, 563, 548
external, 548
internal, 560

posterior external, 563
area acustica, 551

development of, 554
anterior, 545
lateral, 545
posterior, 547
postrema, 551
vestibularis, 551

1
association fibres of, 564
calamus scriptorius of, 550
central canal of, 564
chorioidal plexuses of fourth ventricle, ***
clava of, 547
closed part of, 544
corpus ponto-bulbare of, 548

Medulla oblongata (contd.), cuneate tubercle of,

547
decussation of the pyramids, 545
development of, 33, 515, 536
eminentia medialis, 551
external arcuate fibres, 548
fasciculus olivaris pyramidis, 548
fissures of, 543
foramen cæcum of, 544
fossa rhomboidea of, 544
fovea inferior of, 550

development of, 554
funiculus cuneatus of, 559, 547

gracilis of, 559, 547

separans, 551
gray matter of, 33, 515
internal structure of, 551
lateral area of, 545

funiculus of, 564
recess of, 552

somatic column of, 551
lemniscus fibres of, 561
locus cæruleus, 551
medial longitudinal bundle in, 558, 562

somatic column of, 551
nuclei of, 551, 555, 559
oliva of, 546
olivary eminence of, 546
olivo-cerebellar fibres of, 556
open part of, 544
origin of nerves from, 481
position and connexions of, 564
posterior area of, 547
postero-lateral furrow of, 544
postero-median fissure of, 544
pyramidal (cerebrospinal) tract in, 545

decussation of, 545

development of, 533
pyramids of, 545
raphe of, 554, 561

development of, 554
restiform body of, 547, 562
sections of, 555, 563
spino-cerebellar tract of, 564

relation of, to restiform body, 563
striæ medullares of, 550
substantia reticularis of, 564

development of, 551
sulcus lateralis anterior of, 544

Medullary rays, 1265

.

posterior of, 544
tractus solitarius of, 597

development of, 593
trigonum, hypoglossi of, 551

development of, 554
vagi, 551

development of, 554
tuberculum cinereum of, 547
veins of, 972

white matter of, 557, 560, 562
Medulla ossium, 83

flava, 83

rubra, 83
Medullary arteries, 87

cavity, 83
centre of cerebral hemisphere, 644

corona radiata of, 644
folds, 23, 74

sheath, 508, 532

velum, 549
Megacephalic skulls, 284
Megadont skulls, 288
Megalocolon, 1423
Megaseme skulls, 287
Meissner, corpuscles of, 865 ,
Melanin, 858
Membrana atlanto-occipitalis anterior, 310

posterior, 310
basilaris cochleæ, 845, 849, 850

substantia propria of, 850
vas spirale of, 850
zona arcuata of, 850

pectinata of, 850
hyaloidea, 819
hyothyreoidea, 1066
interossea antibrachii, 327

cruris, 350
limitans retinæ externa, 818

interna, 817
obturatoria, 338
pupillaris, 813

development of, 826
sterni, 316, 317
tectoria, 311

of organ of Corti, 851
tympani, 834

annulus fibro-cartilagineus of, 834
appearance of, on examination,

1367
blood-vessels of, 835
dendritic fibres of, 835
development of, 52
examination of, 1367
folds of, 835
lymph vessels of, 836
malleolar folds of, 835
membrana propria of, 835
nerves of, 836
otoscopic appearances of, 835
paracentesis of, 1368
pars flaccida of, 835

tensa of, 835
stratum circulare of, 835

cutaneum of, 835
mucosum of, 835

radiatum of, 835
surgical anatomy of, 1367
triangular cone of, 835

umbo of, 835
secundaria, 833
vestibularis, 833
Membranæ deciduæ, 57
Membrane, anal, 42

anterior occipito-atloid, 310
bones, 85, 292
of brain, development of, 37
bucco-pharyngeal, 39, 41, 42
chorionic, 53
cloacal, 39, 42, 48
costo-coracoid, 369

relation of, to axillary artery, 915
fenestrated, 868
fætal, 53, 62
hyoglossal, 1129
hyothyreoid, 1066

surgical anatomy of, 1387
interosseous, of forearm, 327

of leg, 350
of Nasmyth, 1122

groove, 23

lamina, lateral, of lentiform nucleus, 639

of thalamus, 611
medial, of lentiform nucleus, 639

of thalamus, 611

Membrane (contd.), nictitating, 821

nuclear, 8, 9
obturator, 338
periosteal, 83
posterior occipito-atloid, 310
of Reissner, 849
of Shrapnell, 835

surgical anatomy of, 1367
Membranes, fætal, 53

of spinal medulla, 669, 675
Membranous cranium, 292

labyrinth, 846
urethra, 1304, 1307

surgical anatomy of, 1427
vertebral column, 29, 102
Meningeal arteries, 902

lymph vessels, 1003
veins, 970
Meninges of brain, 667
Meniscus, 302, see also Articular Disc

development of, 304
interarticular, 302
of knee-joint, 347

surgical anatomy of, 1460, 1461
Mental artery, 899
foramen, 155

topography of, 1375*
nerve, 780
protuberance, 155
spines, 156
tubercles, 155
Mentalis muscle, 451

action of, 454
Merkel, philtrum ventriculi of, 1069
Mesaticephalic skulls, 285
Mesencephalic root of trigeminal nerve, 601
Mesencephalon, 33, 514, 516, 542, 581

development of, 33, 34, 592
internal structure of, 584
lamina quadrigemina of, 584
nerve cells of, 584

fibres of, 588
stratum griseum centrale of, 584
Mesenteric arteries, inferior, 932

superior, 931, 1205
ganglion, superior, 765
lymph glands, 1020
plexus, inferior, 932

superior, 766
veins, 992
Mesenterico-mesocolic fold, 1185
Mesenteriolum processus vermiformis, 1216
Mesentery, 1163

development of, 1252
dorsal, 1252
folds of, 1163
of intestine, 1208

contents of, 1208
folds of, 1208
root of, 1208
structure of, 1252

surgical anatomy of, 1426
primitive, 1254
of testis, 1295
ventral, 1255

of vermiform process, 1216
Mesocephalic skulls, 284
Mesocolic glands, 1021
Mesocolon ascendens, 1219

descendens, 1220
development of, 1253, 1254
iliac, 1222

Mesocolon (contd.), pelvic, 1223

sigmoid, 1223
transverse, 1206, 1220, 1212

attachment of, 1206

topography of, 1422
Mesoderm, 23, 24, 25, 28, 30

cephalic, 30
ecto-mesoderm, 21, 25
lateral plates of, 30
paraxial, 27, 28
primary, 21
secondary, 23

differentiation of, 25
somatic, 27
somites of, 27
splanchnic, 27

structures formed from, 30
Mesodont skulls, 288
Mesoduodenum, 1185
Mesogastrium, 1252
Mesognathous skulls, 287
Mesometrium, 1318
Mesonephros, 1327
Mesorchium, 1295
Mesorectum, 1223
Mesorhine skulls, 287
Mesosalpinx of uterine tubes, 1314, 1318
Mesoseme skulls, 287
Mesotympanum, 1368
Mesovarium, 1312, 1318
Mesuranic skulls, 287
Metacarpal arteries, 920, 923
bones, 223

architecture of, 272
fifth, 226
first, 224
fourth, 226
ossification of, 226
second, 225
shafts of, 223
surgical anatomy of, 1454
third, 225

variations in, 280
ligament, superficial transverse, 333
tubercle, 1451
Metacarpo-phalangeal joints, 333

topography of, 1454
Metacarpus, 223
Metaphase, 10
Metatarsal artery, 955, 958
bones, 265

architecture, 275
fifth, 267
first, 266
fourth, 267
ossification of, 267
second, 266
third, 267

variations in, 282
ligaments, transverse, 360

superficial, 423
Metatarso-phalangeal joints, 360

movements at, 361
position of, 1465

surgical anatomy of, 1464, 1465
Metatarsus, 265
Metathalamus, development of, 35, 608
Metencephalon, 33, 515

early changes in, 515
Metopic skulls, 172

suture, 118
Metrio-cephalic skulls, 286

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