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Soleus muscle (contd.), surgical anatomy of,

1461, 1462
Solitary glands, 1179, 1181
Somæsthetic area, 645
Somatic mesoderm, 25, 27

Sphenoid bone (contd.), great wings of, 134

orbital fissure, inferior, 137
ossification of, 138
pterygoid laminæ of, 137
small

wings of, 135
variations in, 278
Sphenoidal angle of parietal bone, 119

conchæ, 139
Sphenoidal crest of sphenoid bone, 135

process of palate, 152
sinuses, 271

skiagraphs of, 1372

surgical anatomy of, 1372
Spheno-mandibular ligament, 312
Spheno-palatine artery, 900
foramen, 185, 192, 152
ganglion, 775, 777
nerves, 775
notch, 152
roots of, 777

vein, 968
Spheno-parietal sinus, 975

segmental arteries, 1043, 1044
Somites, mesodermic, 28, 29, 75, 76
Sounds of heart, 1405
Space of Burns, 967
epidural, 669
intercostal, 114, 470
interpleural, 1089
mediastinal, 1089, 1090
of Nuel, 852
of Retzius, 1410, 1429
subarachnoid, 671

cisternæ of, 671
communications of, with ventricles,553,671
fluid of, 671
ligamenta denticulata of, 672, 675
septum posterius of, 672, 675
spinal, 672

trabecular tissue of, 671
subdural, 670

surgical anatomy of, 1362
Spaces of Fontana, 810

interglobular, of ivory, 1247
lymph, 867

perilymphatic, 846

perivascular, 870
Spatia anguli iridis, 810
intercostalia, 114, 470
perichorioidealia, 811
perilymphatica auris internæ, 846

zonularia, 819
Sperm cells, 11, 12, 16, 1288
Spermatic artery, internal, 928

abnormalities of, 1053

morphology of, 1047
fascia, 475, 477
funiculus, 1290, 1296

surgical anatomy of, 1430
vein, internal, 983

abnormalities of, 1058
development of, 1040
morphology of, 1048

surgical anatomy of, 1427
Spermatids, 17
accessory body of, 17
centrosomes of, 17

development of, 18
Spermatocyte, 12
of first order, 12, 16

of second order, 17
Spermatozoa, 17
axial filament, 17, 18
body, 18
centrosomes, 17
head, 17
neck, 17
sheath, mitochondrial, of, 18

spiral, of, 18
tail, end-piece, 18

end-ring, 18
Spheno-ethmoidal recess, 802
Sphenoid bone, 133

alie, development of, 138
angular spine of, 135, 136
architecture of, 271
body of, 133
connexions of, 138
crest of, 133

suture, 164, 166
Spheno-petrous fissure, 176
Spheno-squamous suture, 176
Spheno-vomerine canal, 279
Spheno-zygomatic suture, 163
Sphere, attraction, 20
Sphincter ani externus, 486, 1232

action of, 1232
internus, 1232
pupillæ, 814
pyloric, 1166, 1174
recti, 1229
vaginæ, 487

vesicæ, 1284
Spina or Spine, angular, of sphenoid, 136, 167
frontal, 116
helicis, 828
iliaca anterior inferior, 229

superior, 228
posterior inferior, 229

superior, 229
surface anatomy of, 1455
ischiadica, 232

sexual differences of, 237

surface anatomy of, 1456
mentalis, 156
nasal, 116
nasalis anterior, 146, 164

posterior, 174
peroneal, 260

variations in, 282
pubic, 233, 1458
scapula, 202
sphenoidal, 136, 167
suprameatal, 126, 1366
of tibia, 246
trochlear, of frontal bone, 117
tympanica major, 831

minor, 831
Spinal arteries, 938–

formation of, 1029
of intercostals, 926
of lateral sacral, 938

of vertebral, 907
column, 100, 102
foramen of cervical vertebræ, 90

of lumbar vertebræ, 95

of thoracic vertebra, 93
ganglia, 685
medulla, 517, 539

Spinal medulla (contd.), anterior median fissure

of, 521

surgical anatomy of, 1443
antero-lateral column, 529
antero-median column of, 529
arrangement of nerve-fibres of white matter

in tracts, 532
cauda equina of, 519, 526
cell column, intermedio-lateral, 530
central canal of, 521, 523, 526
cervical enlargement of, 519, 524
cervix of, 523
changes in gray matter of, 524
columns of, 22, 520, 523, 528

anterior, 523, 528
antero-lateral, 529
'central, 529
intermedio-lateral, 530
lateral, 523, 529
posterior, 522, 523, 525, 529
postero-lateral, 529

retro-postero-lateral, 529
commissure of, anterior white, 523, 539
gray, 523, 539

posterior, 523
component parts of white matter of, 531
conus medullaris of, 518, 524, 525
development of, 31, 33, 35, 520
dorsal nucleus of, 531, 538
enlargements of, 519, 524

surgical anatomy of, 1443
fasciculi of, anterior proprius, 535, 537, 538

lateral, 535
bulbo-spinal, 537, 538
collateral fibres of, 534, 535, 539
lateralis proprius, 538

olivo-spinal, 538
fasciculus cuneatus of, 526, 533

gracilis of, 526, 533

solitarius of, 598
(fasciculus of) posterior proprius, 535

Spinal medulla (contd.), length of, 517
Spinous process (contd.), of thoracic vertebræ, 93

rubro-spinal, 537, 538
septo-marginal, 535
spino-cerebellar anterior, 537, 538

posterior, 537, 538
spino-tectal, 537
(fasciculus of) spino-thalamic, 535, 537

anterior, 537, 538

posterior, 537
tecto-spinal, 537, 538
vestibulo-spinal, 537, 538
filum terminale of, 518, 526

externum, 526

internum, 526
fissures of, 522

antero-median, 522
intermedius posterior, 522
lateralis posterior, 522

postero-median (septum), 522
funiculi or tracts of, 535

anterior, 522, 525, 528, 539
antero-lateral, 522
of Burdach, 522
of Goll, 522
lateral, 522, 525
posterior, 521, 522, 525
postero-lateral, 584

solitarius, 598
gray matter of, 523, 525
inferior limit of, in child, 517
internal structure of, 523
intersegmental association fibres of,535,538

ligamenta denticulata of, 518, 675
longitudinal commissural fibres of, 537, 538
lumbar enlargement of, 519, 524
membranes of, 518, 669, 675
nerve-cells of, 528 et seq.
nerve-fibres in gray matter of, 531
nerve-fibres of, 531 et seq.
neuroglia of, 527
origin of nerves from, 519, 529, 533
posterior paramedian sulcus of, 522
postero-lateral column, 529

sulcus of, 522
postero-median column, 529
processus reticularis of, 524
regional differences in, 519, 527
regions of, 519
relation of, to vertebræ, 517, 1422
segments of, 519
sensory and motor distribution of various

segments of, 744, 752
septa of, 521, 522
substantia gelatinosa Rolandi, 523, 528

grisea, 520
substantia grisea centralis of, 528

reticularis of, 564
sulci of, 522
sulcus lateralis posterior of, 522
summary of chief characters, 527
surgical anatomy of, 1443, 1444
theca of, 518
tract or tracts of Burdach, 526, 533

anterior cerebro-spinal, 536, 539
cerebello-spinal, 531, 536
comma (fasciculus interfascicularis), 533
of Goll, 526, 533
of Gowers (fasciculus antero-lateral

superficial), 536
lateral cerebro - spinal (crossed), 536,

538
of Lissauer (postero-lateral), 534
trigeminal root-fibres in, 601
veins of, 977
ventriculus terminalis of, 526

white matter of, 524, 531
Spinal nerves, 519, 678

anterior rami of, 692
anterior root, 520
development of nerve-roots, 679
distribution of the, 687
distribution of, to muscles and skin of the

limbs, 744
lower limb, cutaneous nerves, 747

muscular nerves, 748
upper limb, cutaneous nerves, 744

muscular nerves, 745
white rami communicantes of, 687
divisions or rami of, 686
formation of, 680
posterior rami of, 687

roots of, 520, 533
splanchnic parts of, 680
venous plexus, anterior, 976

posterior, 970
Spinalis dorsi muscle, 442
Spindle, achromatic, 10, 13
Spine, somatic parts of, 680
Spino-glenoid ligament, 320
Spino-thalamic tract, 537, 538
Spinous process of cervical vertebræ, 90, 93

of lumbar vertebræ, 95
of sacrum, 97

honology of spinous processes, 283
surgical anatomy of spinous processes,

1436, 1442, 1443
Spiral fasciculi of cochlear nerve, 852

ganglion, 785, 845, 852
line of femur, 242
organ of cochlea, 849, 850

tubules of kidney, 1266
Splanchnic ganglion, 761
mesoderm, 27
nerve, 761

greater, 761, 764

lowest, 761, 764
segmental arteries, 1027, 1046

skeleton, 81
Splanchnology, 3
Spleen, 1352

accessory, 1353
angles of, 1352
blood and lymph vessels of, 1353
borders of, 1352
development of, 1253, 1353
excision of, 1442
hilum of, 1352
lymph nodules of, 1353
nerves of, 1353
notches and fissures of, 1352
peritoneal relations of, 1353
pulp of, 1353
structure of, 1353
surfaces of, 1352

sustentaculum of, 1353
Splenic artery, 929
lymph glands, 1020
plexus, 765

vein, 922
Splenium of corpus callosum, 630
Splenius capitis muscle, 439

action of, 439
Spongioblasts, 503, 817
Spongioplasm, 8
Spongy bone, 83
Spur of malleus, 839
Squama occipitalis, 120, 121

temporalis, 125
Squamo-petrosal sinis, 1369
Squamosal bone, 292
Squamoso-mastoid suture, 125
Squamous suture, 127
Stalk, allantoic, 38

body, 38
optic, 682, 825, 826

of thalamic radiation, 610, 612
Stapedial artery, 841
Stapedius muscle, 841
Stapes, 840

annular ligament of, 841
development of, 841
foot-plate of, 840
ligaments of, 841
movements of, 842

surgical anatomy of, 1368
Staphylorrhaphy, 1385

secondary haemorrhage after, 1385
Stenson, canals of, 149

duct of, 1136, 1137

foramen of, 149, 174
Stephanion, 166, 172, 285
Sternal angle, 107

articulations, 317
furrow, 1397

Sternal line of pleural reflexion, 1085,

1086
lines, 1397
lymph glands, 1010

veins, 963
Sternalis muscle, 370
Sterno-clavicular joint, 317

movements at, 319
muscle, 372
Sterno-cleido-mastoid muscle, 458

action of, 458

surgical anatomy of, 1390
Sterno-hyoid muscle, 459

action of, 460
Sterno-mastoid artery of occipital, 895

of superior thyreoid, 892
muscle, 458
Sterno-pericardial ligaments, 881
Sterno-thyreoid muscle, 459

action of, 460
Sternum, 106
architecture of, 270
body of, 107
infrasternal angle, 114
manubrium, 107
movements of, 317
ossification of, 108
surgical anatomy of, 1397, 1405
variations in, 276

xiphoid process of, 108
Stigmata of capillaries, 867
Stilling, canal of, 819
Stomach, 1163

anterior surface of, 1167
areæ gastricæ of, 1176
arteries of, 1176
bed of, 1170
body of, 1168
capacity of, 1171
cardia, 1164
cardiac orifice of, 1164

surgical anatomy of, 1416, 1417
portion of, 1163
of child, 1171
curvatures of, 1166, 1167
development of, 47, 1249
displaced, 1171
in female, 1171
form of, 1163
foveolæ of, 1176
fundus of, 1168, 1163

surgical anatomy of, 1416
gastro-phrenic ligament of, 1170
glands of, 1176
greater curvature of, 1167

surgical anatomy of, 1417
hour-glass, 1171
incisura angularis of, 1166

cardiaca of, 1165
lesser curvature of, 1166

surgical anatomy of, 1417
lymph vessels of, 1177
mucous menıbrane of, 1179
muscular coat of, 1174
nerves of, 1177
partial resection of, 1418
peritoneal relations of, 1170
pit of, 108, 114
plicæ villosæ of, 1176
position of, 1063, 1172
posterior surface of, 1167
pyloric antrum of, 1161, 1167, 1169

Stomach (contd.), pyloric canal of, 1169,

ligaments of, 1170
orifice of, 1169, 1173

surface anatomy of, 1416, 1417

surgical anatomy from the back, 1439
portion of, 1169

position of, 1416

surgical anatomy of, 1416, 1417
sphincter of, 1166, 1174

valve of, 1174
pylorus, 1165
radiography of, 1417
relations of, 1416
rugæ of, 1165
serous coat of, 1174
size of, 1171

at birth, 1171
structure of, 1174
submucous coat of, 1173
sulcus intermedius of, 1167
surfaces of, 1163
surgical anatomy of, 1416-1418
topography of, 1416, 1417, 1439
uncovered area of, 1170
veins of, 1991

X-ray examination of, 1173
Stomach-bed, 1170
Stomach-chamber, 1169

relations and connexions of, 1169
Stomata of capillaries, 867
Stomatodæum, 25, 27, 41

derivatives of the, 48

separation into nose and mouth, 49
Straight sinus, 974
Strand fronto-pontine, 653
Stratum bacillare retinæ, 816, 818
circulare membranæ tympani, 835

musculare ventriculi, 879
compactum, 57
corneum epidermis, 857, 859

unguis, 859
cutaneum membranæ tympani, 835
filamentosum, 858
germinativum epidermis, 857

unguis, 859
granulosum cerebelli, 581

epidermis, 858

ovarii, 1314
griseum centrale pedunculi cerebri, 584

Stratum, synovial (contd.), of intertarsal joints,

colliculi superioris, 586
interolivary, 556
lemnisci, 586
longitudinale musculare ventriculi, 879
lucidum, 858
mucosum epidermis, 857

membranæ tympani, 835
opticum, 586, 815
colliculi cerebelli, 580

superioris, 586
papillare of skin, 857
pigmenti retinæ, 816, 817
radiatum membranæ tympani, 835
reticulare of skin, 857
spongiosum, 57
synovial, 302

development of, 304
of ankle-joint, 353
of carpo-metacarpal joints, 333
of elbow-joint, 325
of hip-joint, 341
of intercarpal joints, 331
interosseous, of leg, 350

358
of knee-joint, 348
of mandibular joint, 312
of metacarpo-phalangeal joints, 333
of radio-carpal joint, 329
of radio-ulnar joint, 327

of shoulder-joint, 322
zonale cerebri, 585

sectionum corporum quadrigeminorum, 586

thalamencephali, 611
Streak, primitive, 23, 26
Strength of bones, 83
Stretching the sciatic nerve, 1457
Stria or Striæ, of Gennari, 644, 659
longitudinalis lateralis, 630

of corpus callosum, 629

medialis, 630
medullares, 615

fossa rhomboideæ, 550

of thalamus, 611
olfactorii lobi intermedia, 624

lateralis, 624
of Retzius, 1122
terminalis, 610, 635, 636, 642
transversæ corporis callosi, 631

vascularis auris internæ, 849
Striate arteries, 905

veins, 970, 971
Stripe of Hensen, 850
Stroma of iris, 813

ovarii, 1313

vitreum, 819
Structure of bones, 83

cerebral hemispheres, 644
teeth, 1122

urethra, 1428
Stylo-auricularis muscle, 830
Styloid process of fibula, 250

of metacarpal bone, 225

variations in, 280
of radius, 216

surgical anatomy of, 1450
of temporal bone, 127, 168, 177

development of, 43, 44, 159

ossification of, 132
of ulna, 213

surface anatomy of, 1451
Stylo-glossus muscle, 463 v
Stylo-hyals, 132, 159
Stylo-hyoid ligament, 313, 1134
muscle, 461

action of, 462
Stylo-mandibular ligament, 313, 1134
Stylo-mastoid artery, 895

foramen, 129, 177
Stylo-pharyngeus muscle, 465
Subacromial bursa, 323
Subanconeus muscle, 382
Subarachnoid fluid, 671
space, 671, 672

surgical anatomy of, 1227
Subarcuate fossa, 130, 131
Subclavian artery, 909

abnormalities of, 1055
branches of, 910
development of, 1027-1028
ligature of, 1394
morphology of, 1046

surgical anatomy of, 1252, 1255
groove, 111
loop, 759

Subclavian lymph trunk, 998

plexus, 759
vein, 965, 966

abnormalities of, 1058
danger of injury to, 1394
morphology of, 1048, 1049

surgical anatomy of, 1395
Subclavius muscle, 371

action of, 371
Subcoracoid centre, 204, 296
Subcostal angle, 1397, 1407

artery, 926
groove, 110
line, 1407
muscles, 470

plane, 1407
Subcrureus (O.T.), 408
Subdeltoid bursa, 323
Subdural space, 670

surgical anatomy of, 1362
Subinguinal lymph glands, 1459
Sublingual artery, 893
gland, 1138

development of, 1243

surgical anatomy of, 1383
region, 1383
Submalleolar apophysis, 282
Submaxillary artery, 893

duct, 1138
fossa, 155
ganglion, 780
gland, 1137

development of, 1243
duct of, 1138

surgical anatomy of, 1391
lymph glands, 1000
Submental artery, 894

triangle, 1387
Subnasal point, 285
Suboccipital nerve, 688
triangle, 444

boundaries of, 444
Subphrenic abscess, 1412
Subpleural plexus, 913
Subscapular artery, 917

of transverse scapular, 912
bursa, 377
fossa, 203
lymph glands, 1008
nerve, inferior, 713

superior, 713
Subscapularis muscle, 377

action of, 377
minor muscle, 377
Substantia adamantina, 1122
corticalis lentis, 820

lympho-glandula, 995
sectionum cerebelli, 576

telencephali, 644
eburnea, 1122
ferruginea, 570
gelatinosa (spinal medulla), 528
grisea centralis (spinal medulla), 528
lentis, 820
medullaris lympho-glandulæ, 995
nigra, 614
perforata anterior, 34, 541, 624

relation of, to olfactory tract, 624
posterior, 541, 615

relation of, to third ventricle, 616
propria corneæ, 810
Suctorial pad, 446, 1109

Sudoriferous glands, 861
Sulcus or Sulci, 646, 653

alar, 799
alveolo-glossal, 1383
angular, 665, 666
anthelicis transversus, 829
arteriæ occipitalis, 128

temporalis mediæ, 125

vertebralis, 89
auris anterior, 828
basilar, of pons, 548
bicipital, lateral, 1448

medial, 1446, 1447
calcanei, 259
calcarine, 659

lateralis, 659

posterior, 659
carotic, 135
central, of brain, 663

insulæ, 654
of cerebral cortex, 646

axial, 646
development of, 646
operculate, 646

terminal, 646
hemispheres, 653
chiasmatis, 135
chorioidal, of eye, 621, 637, 675, 826
cinguli, 666
circular, 654
collateral, 661, 662

transverse, 662
costæ, 110
cruris helicis, 829
diagonal, 566
ethmoidalis ossis nasalis, 145
finbrio-dentate, 627
floccular, of cerebellum, 572
frontal, of brain, 665

inferior, 665, 668
middle, 665
superior, 665, 668

surface anatomy of, 1360
of frontal bone, 116
fronto-marginal, 665
hamuli pterygoidei, 138
hippocampi, 626
horizontal, of cerebellum, 573
hypothalamicus, 618
inferior interventricular, 872
intermedius posterior medullæ oblongata,

544
of stomach, 1167
intertubercular, of humerus, 206
interventricular, 618
intraparietal, 661, 644, 664
lacrimal, of maxilla, 147

ossis lacrimalis, 147
lateral, of brain, 653, 1359, 1360
lateralis mesencephali, 584
posterior medullæ oblongatæ, 544, 547

spinalis, 522
limiting, of Reil, 654
longitudinal, of cerebrum, 540, 676
longitudinalis, of heart, 618
lunatus, 660
malleolaris, 253, 249
medianus posterior medullæ spinalis, 522
mento-labial, of lips, 1108
musculi flexoris hallucis longi calcanei, 260

tali, 257
peronæi calcanei, 260

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