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Bibls. 11,T, English

THE NEW TESTAMENT

OF OUR

LORD AND SAVIOUR JESUS CHRIST

THE TEXT CAREFULLY PRINTÈD FROM THE

MOST CORRECT COPIES OF THE PRESENT AUTHORIZED VERSION

INCLUDING THE

MARGINAL READINGS AND PARALLEL TEXTS,

WITH A

COMMENTARY AND CRITICAL NOTES.

DESIGNED AS A HELP TO A BETTER

UNDERSTANDING OF THE SACRED WRITINGS.

BY ADAM CLARKE, LL. D. F. S. A. M. R. I. A.

FOR WHATSOEVER THINGS WERE WRITTEN AFORETIME, WERE WRITTEN FOR OUR LEARNING; THAT WE THROUGH PATIENGH
AND COMFORT OF THE SCRIPTURES MIGHT HAVE HOPE-Epist. Rom.

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BS3540

164

682085

GENERAL VIEW

OF THE CHARACTER AND DESIGN OF THIS WORK.

In my General Preface prefixed to Genesis, I gave a suceinct account of the Plan I pursued in preparing this Work for the press: but as this plan became necessarily extended, and led to much farther reading, examination, and discussion, I judge it necessary to give my Readers a general Summary of the whole, that they may be in possession of my mode of proceeding, and be enabled more fully to compre. hend the reasons why the Work has been so long in passing through the press.

Bengel, Mill, Wetstein, and Griesbach; actually examining
many MSS., either cursorily or not at all examined by them;
illustrating the whole by quotations from ancient anthors,
Rabbinical, Grecian, Roman, and Asiatic; I exceeded my
previous design, and brought down the Work to the end of
the Apocalypse; and passed the whole through the press.
I should mention here a previous work, (without which
any man must be ill qualified to undertake the illustration of
the New Testament,) viz. a careful examination of the Sep-
tuagint. In this the phraseology of the New Testament is
contained, and from this the import of that phraseology is
alone to be derived. This I read carefully over to the end of
the Book of Psalms, in the edition of Dr. Grabe, from the Co-
der Alexandrinus; collating it occasionally with editions
taken from the Vatican MS., and particularly that printed by
Field, at Cambridge, 1665, 18mo. with the Paronetic Preface
of the learned Bishop Pearson. Without this previous work,
who did ever yet properly comprehend the idiom and phrase.
ology of the Greek Testament? Now, all these are parts of
my labour which common readers cannot conceive; and
which none can properly appreciate, as to the pains, diff.
culty, and time which must be expended, who have not
themselves trodden this almost unfrequented path.

My education and habits from early youth led me to read and study the Bible, not as a text-book to confirm the articles of a preconceived creed, but as a revelation from God to man, (of His will and purposes, in reference to the origin and designation of His human offspring,) which it was the duty and interest of all the inhabitants of the earth, deeply to study, and earnestly to endeavour to understand; as it concerned their peace and happiness, and the perfection of their being in reference to both worlds. Conscious that Translators in general must have had a particular creed, in reference to which they would naturally consider every text; and this reference, however honestly intended, might lead them to glosses not always fairly deducible from the original words; I sat down with a heart as free from bias and sectarian feeling as possible, and carefully read over, cautiously weighed, and literally translated, every word, Hebrew and Chaldee, in the Old Testament. And as I saw that it was possible, even while assisted by the best trans. lations and best lexicographers, to mistake the import of a Hebrew term, and considering that the cognate Asiatic lan-important parts of the Sacred Records, yet I could easily foreguages would be helps of great importance in such an enquiry, I collated every verse, where I was apprehensive of any difficulty, with the Chaldee, Syriac, Arabic, and Persian, and the Ethiopic in the Polyglott Translation, as far as the Sacred Writings are extant in these languages: and I did this with a constant reference to the Various Readings collected by Houbigant, H. Michaelis, Kennicott, and De Rossi, and to the best editions of the Septuagint and Vulgate, which are the earliest translations of the Hebrew Text which have reached our times.

Nor have I been satisfied with these collections of Various Readings; I have examined and collated several ancient Hebrew MSS. which preceding scholars had never seen, with many ancient MSS. of the Vulgate equally unknown to biblical critics. This work required much time and great pains, and necessarily occasioned much delay and no wonder, when I have often, on my plan, been obliged to employ as much time in visiting many sources and sailing down their streams, in order to ascertain a genuine reading or fix the sense of a disputed verse, as would have been sufficient for some of my contemporaries to pass whole sheets of their work through the press. Had I not followed this method, which to me appeared absolutely necessary, I should have completed my Work, such as it would have been, in less than one half

of the time.

These previous Readings, Collations, and Translations, produced an immense number of Notes and Observations on all parts of the Old Testament; which, by the advice and entreaty of several learned and judicious friends, I was induced to extend in the form of a perpetual comment on every Book in the Bible. This being ultimately revised and completed as far as the Book of Judges, which formed, in my purpose, the boundary of my proceedings on the Hebrew Scriptures, I was induced to commit it to press.

Though my friends in general wished me to go forward with the Old Testament; yet, as several of them were apprehensive, from the then infirm state of my health, that I might | not live long enough to finish the whole, they advised me strongly to omit for the present the Old Testament, and begin with the New. This was in conformity with my own feel ings on the subject; having wished simply to add the four Gospels and Acts of the Apostles to the five Books of Moses and the Books of Joshua and Judges; as these two parcels of Divine revelation, carefully illustrated, would give a full view of the origin and final settlement of the church of the Old Covenant, and the commencement and completion of that of the Newto. And thus I proceeded.

After having literally translated every word of the New Testament, that last best gift of God to man; comparing the whole with all the ancient Versions, and the most important of the modern; collating all with the Various Readings collected by Stephens, Courcel, Fell, Gherard of Maestricht,

When the New Testament was thus prepared and finished at press, I was induced, though with great reluctance, to recominence the Old. I was already nearly worn down by my previous work, connected with other works and duties which could not omit; and though I had gone through the most see that I had an ocean of difficulties to wade through in those parts that remained. The Historical Books alone, in their chronology, arrangement of facts, concise and often obscure phraseology, presented not a few :-the books of Solomon, and those of the Major and Minor Prophets, a multitude. Notwithstanding all these, I hope I may say, that having obtained help of God, I am come with some success, to the conclusion; having aimed at nothing throughout the whole but the glory of God, and the good of men.

But still something remains to be said concerning the modus operandi, or particular plan of proceeding. In prosecu ting this work I was led to attend, in the first instance, more to words than to things, in order to find their true ideal meaning; together with those different shades of acceptation to which they became subject, either in the circumstances of the speakers and those who were addressed, or in their ap plication to matters which use, peculiarity of place and situa tion, and the lapse of time, had produced. It was my invariable plan to ascertain first, the literal meaning of every word and phrase; and where there was a spiritual meaning, or reference, to see how it was founded on the literal sense. He who assumes his spiritual meanings first, is never likely to interpret the words of God either to his own credit or to the profit of his readers; but in this track commentator has followed commentator, so that, in many cases, instead of a careful display of God's words and the objects of His providence and mercy, we have tissues of strange doctrines, human creeds, and confessions of faith. As I have said in another place, I speak ot against compilations of this kind; but let them be founded on the words of God, first properly understood.

As I proceeded in my work I met with other difficulties. I soon perceived an almost continual reference to the Litera. ture, Arts, and Sciences, of the Ancient World, and of the Asiatic nations in particular; and was therefore obliged to make these my particular study, having found a thousand passages which could neither illustrate nor explain, without some general knowledge at least of their jurisprudence, astronomy, architecture, chemistry, chirurgery, medicine, metallurgy, pneumatics, &c. with their military tactics, and the arts and trades (as well ornamental as necessary) which are carried on in common life.

In the course of all this labour I have also paid particular at tention to those facts mentioned in the Sacred Writings, which have been the subjects of animadversion or ridicule by free-thinkers and infidels of all classes and in all times; and I hope I may say that no such passage is either designedly passed by or superficially considered; that the strongest objections are fairly produced and met;-that all such parts of these Divine writings are, in consequence, exhibited in their own lustre ;-and, that the truth of the doctrine of our salvation has had as many triumphs as it has had attacks from the

Inspiration of the

INTRODUCTION.

sacred writers.

the chronological department from my own nephew. I have laboured alone for nearly twenty-five years previously to the Work being sent to press; and fifteen years have been employed in bringing it through the Press to the public; and thus about forty years of my life have been consumed and from this the Reader will at once perceive, that the Work, well or ill executed, has not been done in a careless or precipitate manner: nor have any means within my reach been neglected to make it in every respect, as far as possible, what the title-page promises,-A HELP TO A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF THE SACRED WRITINGS.

rudest and most formidable of its antagonists: and on all such disputed points I humbly hope that the Reader will never consult these volumes in vain. And if those grand doctrines which constitute what by some is called orthodoxy; that prove that God is loving to every man; that from His innate, infinite, and eternal goodness, He wills and has made prori sion for the salvation of every human soul, be found to be those which alone have stood the rigid test of all the above sifting and examination; it was not because these were sought for beyond all others, and the Scriptures bent in that way in order to favour them; but because these doctrines are essentially contained in, and established by, the ORACLES OF GOD. I may add, that these doctrines, and all those connected with them, (such as the defection and sinfulness of man,-the incarnation and sacrificial death of Christ,-His infinite, unoriginated, and eternal Deity; justification by faith in His blood; and the complete sanctification of the soul by the inspiration of the Holy Spirit,) have not only been shown to be the doctrines of the Sacred Records, but have also been subjected to the strongest test of logical examination; and, in the Notes, are supported by arguments, many of them new, applied in such a way as has not been done before in any similar or the-poor. It has been the means of doing good to the simple of ological work.

In this arduous labour I have ha no assistants; not even a single week's help from an amanuensis: no person to look for common places, or refer to an ancient author: to find out the place and transcribe a passage of Greek, Latin, or any other language, which my memory had generally recalled, or to verify a quotation;-the help excepted which I received in

Thus, through the merciful help of God, my labour in this field terminates; a labour, which were it yet to commence, with the knowledge I now have of its difficulty, and my (in many respects) inadequate means, millions, even of the gold of Ophir, and all the honours that can come from man, could not induce me to undertake. Now that it is finished, I regret not the labour; I have had the testimony of many learned, pious, and judicious friends, relative to the execution and the usefulness of the Work. It has been admitted into the very highest ranks of society, and has lodged in the cottages of the heart; and the wise man and the scribe, the learned and the philosopher, according to their own generous acknowledgments, have not consulted its pages in vain.

For these, and all His other mercies to the Writer and Reader, may God, the Fountain of all good, be eternally praised! ADAM CLARKE. Eastcott, April 17, 1826.

INTRODUCTION

TO THE FOUR GOSPELS AND ACTS OF THE APOSTLES.

this description, without involving much of that sort of Bibli cal Criticism which could not be advantageous to general readers. I have, therefore, only introduced what I deemed necessary for a proper understanding of the references to be found in the Commentary itself.

When the great difficulty of my work is considered, no one will suppose that mistakes were avoidable: general consistency correctness are all that candour can require. I have met with difficulties in every part of my undertaking, such as a commentator only can feel and estimate. On the Acts of the Apostles alone, I have spent many months of almost in. cessant labour. Difficulties occurred in every page; and I could not proceed till I had made the way plain before me, and left it open to those who might come after. This alone is sufficient to account for the delay in this part; and for any casual mistakes into which I may have fallen: mistakes, if such there be, over which the candid reader will find little difficulty gently to draw the pen of correction: remembering, that it is much more easy to find faults than to mend them.

THE Introduction, so long promised, giving an account of the Manuscripts, Versions, &c. referred to in this Work, is at last before my readers; and could not with any propriety, have been published sooner, as the Gospel History could not be considered complete till the Book of the Acts was finished. As the chronology of the New Testament ends with the two I have purposely avoided the question concerning the au years' imprisonment of Paul at Rome, it may be thought need-thenticity of the Sacred Writings in general. On a thorough less to carry it any farther down: but as there is some reason conviction, I assume the fact, that they are a Divine record, a to believe, that he visited Rome a second time, and suffered revelation from God. This has been so amply proved, that the martyrdom there about A. D. 64 or 65; and as learned men Christian cause has had a complete triumph. I consider, have agreed that the Apocalypse, which completes the canon therefore, the question to be for ever at rest. As to the parti. of the New Testament, was not written till about the year 96; cular books, scriptures, or scripture facts, to which objections I have thought it necessary to carry down the Chronology have been made, I have carefully considered them as they through the whole of the first century of the Christian era; occur in their respective places; and I hope, I have fully rethat, if I should not have health or life to proceed any farther moved every such objection, and have exhibited the doctrines in this work, that important part should be left in a state of of the Gospel, and the facts of the evangelical history, in their tolerable perfection. I have proceeded on the same plan with own certain and steady light: at least, I have carefully labourthe four Gospels, and the Book of the Acts, as I have done ed to do it, and, like the woman in the Gospel, I have done what with the Pentateuch and the Book of Joshua; and have rea- I could. gon to thank God that he has spared me to go through (in the manner I first proposed) with these tiro most important parts of that Revelation, which his mercy has granted to man. In the first, (the Pentateuch and the Book of Joshua,) the history of the world and its original inhabitants, and the history of the church, are brought down from the creation, to the final settlement of the Israelites in the Promised Land. In the se cond, (the four Gospels and Book of Acts,) I have deduced the important events of the Christian dispensation from six years before the vulgar era, down to the year 100. This chronology is as rich in the necessary eras, as that which is attached to the Book of Deuteronomy; and has, I hope, left nothing unnoticed that belongs to such a work. The account of MSS., Versions, &c. is necessarily short: I could not proceed farther in Inspiration of the Sacred Writers, Various Readings, and account of Manuscripts and Versions, etc. referred to in this work. $1. Concerning the manner in which Di- | excellently on this point. After asserting that tion on their brain as gives them a deep and vine Inspiration was granted to the sacred the apostles and evangelists indited these clear idea of that which he intended to make writers.-The manner in which the Divine Scriptures by the assistance of the Holy known unto them: only the impression must Inspiration has been granted to the sacred Ghost; and that as the immediate succeeding then be made in such a manner and degree, writers, is a question of more than mere cu-ages did, so we at present securely may, rely and with such circumstances as may make it riosity. As every work of God is done in an upon them as a rule of faith, he proceeds to certain to the inspired person that it derives orderly, rational manner, so must this also: show, from God. Now seeing, when we hear the but we must take heed not to confine him to "I How this assistance may fitly be ex-voice of any one, or receive a letter from him, one particular form, and say, it must be we may be certain from the knowledge we thus and thus, or not at all. God is sovereign have of his voice, or his hand-writing, that it of his own ways; and so does his wondrous is he indeed who speaks or writes to us; we works, that they may be had in everlasting "1. That prophecy is sometimes represented may very well conceive, that God can easily remembrance. As he has spoken at sundry as the word of the Lord, and he is said to speak give such distinctive marks of what he intimes to our fathers and predecessors, by the to the prophet; and suitably to this metaphor, wardly speaks to us, or writes upon the ta prophets and other inspired men; so has he some illustration of the assistance of the Hely bles of our hearts, as shall enable us to disdone this in divers manners, ever adapting Spirit may be made from the analogy it bears cern what he imprints upon them, from any the manner to time, place, circumstance, &c. to human conversation; thus, that as we con-impression that shall otherwise be made upon Hence we are not to look for a uniformity in vey our thoughts one to another by such them. the manner of communicating his inspira-words as, by the organs of hea.ing, make 2. Sometimes the prophet is in Scripture tions, any more than we are to look for identity of time, place, and persons. He has done great things; and he has done all thin s rell. On the inspiration of the Scriptures them selves, I must therefore refer my readers to those who have written professedly on the subject; but on the mode of communicating that inspiration, I be leave to make a few extracts from Dr Whitby, who has written

plained.

"For explication of this divine assistance, let it be considered,

such a motion on their brain to whom we
speak, as gives them an idea of the w we
utter, and by them of the thiry hich by
those words are signified, and so it is, the im-
presion made upon their brain, which doth
communicate on thoughts to them; o, when
it pleased God to reveal his will to any pason,
it seeins only necessary that he talk ivard
ly with them, that is, that he makes a mo-

styled a seer, and his word, a vision; and then the parallel, or the analogy, runs thus: As we see, by virtue of a light reflecting the species of things upon the retina of the eye, and thence deriving a peculiar motion to, and making a distinct impression on, the brain; so may the prophet be supposed to see what God reveals unto him, by a like motion of the Holy Spirit made upon his brain concerning

Inspiration of the

It And as it is as easy to propose a material bject to the view, as to describe it by our words, so must it be as easy for God to dart such an impression or inward light upon the brain of the prophet, or spiritual nian, as shall give him a more bright and sensible idea of things, than if he did perceive them by the ear, or even view them by the eye. And as we more exactly discern a sensible object by the view, than we know it by a description of! it without that view; so the Jeurs say, that prophecy ɔ in vision, is more excellent than that which comes only ng by dream, or in a dream, in which we seein to hear one

taiking with us.

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cite them to indite those things, and should sojance, should exactly give us all that was carefully preside over, and direct their minds, spoken in such long discourses, whilst writing, as to suggest, or bring into "And hence we may account for the olgectheir memories, such things as his wisdom tions against this Divine assistance, arising thought fit to be written; and should not suffrom the seventh of Acts, for, though I have fer them to err in the delivery of what was showed in the note on verses 15, 16, that there thus indited in his name, or which they had is no real mistake in the words of the Protowritten, as apostles of God the Father, and martyr, yet were it granted, that there is an our Lord Jesus Christ. error in his account of the sepulchres of the "Secondly. In all their revelations of mys-patriarch, that affects not the authority of teries, or things which could not otherwise be St. Luke at all, provided he have exactly remade known to them, either by natural rea- lated what was then said by St. Stephen, son or antecedent revelation, they must be who was not chosen to be a penman of the acknowledged to have had them by an imme- Holy Scriptures. diate suggestion of the Holy Spirit. Hence, Lastly, from what is thus discoursed, it "Now though this impression may be suf- of these things the apostle says, negatively may appear, that I contend only for such an ficient to convince the prophet and splied that the natural man (who only judges of inspiration, or Divine assistance of the sacred person, that his revelation did indeed derive things by his natural reason) cannot know writers of the New Testament, as will assure Tom God; yet, since this revelation was in them, because they are spiritually discerned,' us of the truth of what they wrote, whether bded not for himself, but for the use of Cor. ii. 14. i. e. they being mysteries, can by inspiration of suggestion or direction others, he, with the revelation, must be ena- only be discerned by the revelation of the only; but not for such an inspiration as imbiet, hy some convincing proof, to evidence Spirit: and positively, that they spake the plies, that even their words were dictated, to those who were concerned to embrace it, wisdom of God in a mystery, even the wis-or their phrases suggested to them by the that he was sent indeed by God with such a com hid from former ages, which eye hath Holy Ghost: this, in some matters of great message to them. Now, of this, they only not seen, nor ear heard, nor had it entered moment, might be so; St. Paul declaring, Could be satisfied by some outward marks or into the heart of man to conceive,' 1 Cor. ii. 7. that they spake the things which were given nores, of which they, by their senses, were And that because God had revealed these them of God in the words which the Holy enabled to judge, viz. The miracles wrought things to them by his Spirit,' verse 9. they Ghost teacheth,' 1 Cor. 11. 13. if that relate for confirmation of his testimony, or some having received the Spirit of God, that they not to what the Holy Ghost had taught them prophetical prediction of something future might know the things which are freely out of the Old Testament. But that it was and contingent, exactly verified in the event given to us of God,' verse 10. Thus was the not always so, is evident, both from the conAnd thus, saith the apostle, was their preach mystery of the calling of the Gentiles into an sideration that they were hagiographers, ing confirmed to the world; God bearing equality of privileges with the believing who are supposed to be left to the use of witness to them, both with signs and wolers, Jes, made known unto them; for God, by their own words, and from the variety of the and with divers intracies, and girls of the Ho revelation, saith St. Paul, made known to style in which they write, and from the solely Ghost, according to his will,' Heb. ii. 4. me the mystery of Christ, which in other cisms, which are sometiines visible in their The ways of prophecy, under the Old ages was not made known, as it is now re-compositions; and more especially from their Testament, seem to be comprehended under, vealed to his holy apostles and prophets by own words, which manifestly show that, in these four heads, viz. either the prophets re- the Spirit: that the Gentiles should be fellow-some cases, they had had no such suggestion eived their revelation in a dream or trance, heirs and of the same body, and partakers of from the Holy Ghost as doth imply, that he in a vision, or by a voice from heaven, or his promise in Christ, by the Gospel,' Eph. ill. had dictated those words unto them. For by the secret suggestions of the Holy Ghost. 3, 4, 5, 6. chap. 1. 9. vi. 19. Col. 1. 26, 27. if. 2. iv. instance, when St. Paul declares his will or Now some of the apostles had their vi- 3,4. So they knew the mystery of the recall-purpose to do what he was hindered by the sions, 1st. either by day, as Peter; for an eeing of the Jers, Rom. xi. 25, 26. The mystery providence of God from doing: as, when he stacy tell upon him, and he saw the heavens of the resurrection, i. e. the quality of the says to the Romans, When I go into Spain, opened, and he heard a voice saying unto him, ho lies to be raised, and the order of it, with I will come to you,' chap. xv. 24. 'I will come Arise, Peter, kill and eat, Acts x. 11. And all the other special circumstances mention by you into Spain,' verse 29. For though he this is called opapa, a vision, verse 17. And ed. 1 Cor. xv. 1 Thess. iv. and the apostacy of might, after his enlargement, go into the by this, saith he, Gol taught me to call no the latter times; for the Spirit speaketh ex-west, where St. Clement (Ep. ad Cor. § 6.) man common, or unclean, verse 29. Or by pressly, saith the apostle, that in the latter says he preached. And even into Spam, as 21ht: thus a vision of the night was seen by day's men shall depart from the faith,' 1 Tim. Cyril, (Catechis. 17. p. 204. C.) Epiphanius, Paul, and a man speaking to him, in the vi. 11. This inspiration of suggestion must (Hær. 27. p. 107. C.) and Theodoret, (in 2 Tim. sion of the night, Acts xvi. 9. also be allowed to St. John, the author of the iv. 17. and Præfat. in Psalm cxvi) say he adly. They had o the Spilt speaking to them; for the Spi- Revelations; for he, speaking only what was did; yet it is certain he did not designedly rit said to Peter, Behold, three men seek represented to him in visions, or by angelical go to Rome, in order to an intended journey thee: arise, therefore, and go with them, discourses, or apparitions, must have that as into Spain; and when he says to the Corinnothing doubting, for I have sent them,' Acts Sistance which suggested these ideas to him. thians, I will come to you when I pass X 20, 21. 3dly. And sometimes they had vi- did know already, either by natural reason, confesses in his second epistle, 2 Cor. i 15, "Thirdly. As for those things which they through Macedonia,' 1 Cor. xvi. 5. and yet sions and revelations of the Lord, either by way of rapture to them, 2 Cor. xii. 2 or of education, or antecedent revelation, they 16, 17. that he did not perform that journey conversation with them; as when Christ said needed only such an assistance, or direction for it is not to be thought the Holy Ghost to St Paul, My grace is sufficient for thee,' their reasonings, or in their confirmation of pose, what He knew he would not perform. in them, as would secure them from error in should incite him to promise, or even to pur verse 9. Here then are three kinds of revela tion granted to the apostles; but then these their doctrines by passages contained in the This also we learn from all those places in things were mostly occasional, and accidental Old Testament; and, therefore, a continuai which they do express their ignorance, or to them, in respect of their apostolical func indeed, one great work they had upon their ing of; as when St. Paul says, I know not suggestion must be here necessary. And, doubtfulness of that which they are speakOnly the case of the apostle Paul must hands, both in preaching the Gospel, and whether I baptized any other,' 1 Cor. i. 16. here admit of an exception; for it being newriting these Gospels and epistles, being to And again, Txov napapevo, perhaps I will cessary for an apostle, that is, a witness of the wavering Jew, or rectify the errors of the And when St. Peter saith, By Sylvanus, a convince the unbelieving Jer, or to confirmabide, yea, and winter with you,' 1 Cor. xvi. 6. Christ's resurrection, to have seen the Lord risen from the dead, according to those words, Judaizing Christian, the gift of knowledge of faithful brother, as I suppose, have I written Am I not an apostle? Have I not seen the the Scriptures of the Old Testament was very to you,' 1 Fet. v. 12. for these words plainly Lord? I Cor. ix. 1: and for an apostle, not necessary for them, and therefore is deser show, that, in all these things, they had no of man, neither by man, but by Jesus Christ, the Holy Ghost; and, being so, we have realy, may be gathered from all those places in vedly reckoned among the primary gifts of inspiration, or Divine assistance. This, lastGal. 1. 1. to receive his message immediately from the Lord Jesus; Christ speaks thus to son to believe, that either the Holy Ghost sug- which they only do express their hope, and hin: I have appeared unto thee for this pur- which they used in these sacred writings to in these words, I hope to see you in my gested to their memory those scriptures that conditionally, of doing this or that; as pose, to make thee a minister, and a witness, convince them; or else presided so over journey, Rom. XV. 24. both of those things which thou hast seen, them, as not to suffer them to make any in-you quickly, if the Lord will, 1 Cor. iv. 19. 'I will come unto and of those things in the which I will appear ferences from them which were not agreea1 hope to stay some time with you, if the unto thee,' Acts xxvi. 16. Which words contain a promise of an immediate instruction ble to the true intent and meaning of them: Lord permit,' I Cor. xvi. 7. I hope in the from Christ in his apostolical function, though, at this distance of time, we may not Lord Jesus, to send Timothy quickly to you, always be able to discern the strength and Phil. ii. 19, 23. Whence this apostle declares, confirming that 'And I truse that I myself his declaration with an oath, the Gospel clearness of the consequence. also shall come quickly,' ver. 24. These which was preached by me was not after "Fourthly. In writing the historical parts things I write, hoping to come to thee quickman; for I neither received it of man, neither of the Near Testament, or matters of fact re-ly, but if I should tarry, that thou mayest was I taught (by man) but (only) by the revelating to themselves, or others, it is only ne know how to behave thyself in the church of lation of Jesus Christ,' Gal. 1. 11, 12 He there- Cessary, that what is there delivered is mat-God,' 1 Tim. iii. 14, 15. I hope. by your fore had his message from Christ, as Moses ter of fact, should be truly performed, as it is prayers, to be given to you,' Philemon 22. had from God, Christ speaking to him mouth said to have been done; but it is not necessa This will we do, if the Lord penit,' Heb. iry that they should be related in that order vi. 3. I hope to come to you, St. John, 2d But yet, that which enabled them for the of time in which they were performed, un-Ep. ver. 12. 3d Ep. ver. 14. For, spes est ininditing of these writings, as a rule of faith less that also be affirmed of them; for this certa rei nomen, the word hope, impites on to all succeeding ages, was the internal and must be sufficient to assure us of the truth of uncertainty, whereas the Holy Spirit cannot powerful assistance of the Holy Spirit. what they thus delivered. be uncertain of any thing; nor can we think "To proceed, then, to the consideration of "Moreover, in writing the discourses con he would inspire men to speak so uncertainthe distinction made by somie, viz. Or Inspi- tained in these books, it is not necessary that ly. And, (2.) There can be no necessity, or ration by suggestion, and inspiration of dithe very words should be suggested, or re-even use, of a Divine assistance to enable a rection only: I say, then, corded, in which they were first spoken, but man to express his hopes, seeing all men do, "First. Where there is no antecedent idea only that the true intent and meaning of by natural reflection, know them. or knowledge of the things written for the them should be related, though in diversity "II. Having thus premised these things, good of others, to be obtained from reason, or of words. Though the promise made to the for the right stating and explication of the à former revelation, there, an inspiration of apostles by our Lord, that the Holy Spirit controversy, I proceed to lay down the argusuggestion must be vouchsafed to the apos- should bring to their remembrance, zavra, ments which prove that in these writings the tles, to enable them to make them known unto all things which he had said unto them, apostles were assisted and preserved from the world. But where there is an antecedent John xiv. 20. doth fairly plead for this exact error by the Spirit of God; and, therefore, knowledge of the things to be indited, it can ness in what they have delivered of our Sa were enabled to deliver to us an unerring only be necessary that God should, either in-viour's sermons: it being scarcely imagina-rule of faith. mediately, or by some special occasions, ex-ble that their memory, without divine assist

Lions.

to mouth, &c. Sec Num. xii. 7.

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