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of known and visible effects. Whether they are all distinct and different, or are merely the differing forms of a common energy, it is of little use to inquire. As economic facts, these forces differ in rank and worth.

Force is never an absolutely free gift of nature. Human strength must be nourished and educated before it is useful; animals must be tamed, trained, fed, and cared for; and the non-vital forces must be fitted with the proper machinery before they can be made to do useful work.

First in the rank of forces stand the vital, and first among the vital stand the human, and first among the human stand the mental or brain forces, if we may separate the brain power from the bodily forces.

100. Human strength.-The mental, or rather the brain and nerve force, stands most nearly connected with the mind which controls all by its intelligence. It is not necessary to discuss here the real relations of mind and matter. Taking the mind or intelligence as a palpable and admitted fact, we may confine our view to the physical side of being. On this side, man's power, or strength, rather, is a gift of nature as much as is that of the animals which serve him. Man, it is true, is reared for his manhood, not simply for his labor. The wants of childhood are as much the ultimate end and use of wealth as those of manhood. But, as an economic force, we must take account of the cost and productiveness of human strength as we would of any other agent used in our work. The proper and full showing of this cost belongs to another chapter-that on labor.

Whatever the aids man may summon by his arts, from natural forces and mechanical devices, human strength can never be dispensed with in the field of the industries. Above the machine always stands the man. Even the business of supervision-the work of eyes and brain-demands a certain outlay of physical energy. The hand of the machinist comes before the machine which he constructs; and the hand of the engi

neer, or other attendant, must remain upon the machine till its work is done. As to fact, the wide introduction of so-called labor-saving machinery, in modern times, has greatly increased the demand for human labor, in place of diminishing it. It has simply transferred the man to another, and generally to a higher, sphere of work.

IOI. Animal strength.-The strength of the domesticated animals—the first force which man learned to employ next his own—has also been crowded out of its old places in the industries. Water, wind, and steam have shown themselver cheaper, mightier, and more manageable servants than the ox and the horse. But, like their masters and drivers, these animals have found themselves not dismissed from labor, but only transferred to new fields. It was thought that the railroads, which displaced the old stage coaches, would also render thousands of horses useless; but the result shows that the demand for horses was increased.. New routes were found for many of the coaches, and a multitude of cars and carts came into demand to transport people and packages to and from the railway stations. Agriculture and other industries also took on immense growths, making new requisitions for the draft animals; and hence the animal forces, instead of disappearing from our industries, hold now, among these industries, a larger place than

ever.

102. Forces of growth.-The silent, vital forces employed by nature to build up her forests and to clothe her fields with vegetation, as also those which work out the tissues and organs of animal life, are implied and embraced in the organic gifts which they create.

In the great agricultural industries, the forces of plant-growth have for ages been the chief reliance of the grain-raisers and the forest and fruit-growers. To stimulate these forces by cultivation, to nourish them by fertilizers, to direct them by selections of seed and soil, by grafting and pruning,-these make up much of agricultural art.

But with the advance of biological science, and in the farmer's and stock-breeder's art, these forces are coming to be counted on and employed as the mechanician counts on and employs the energies of steam and electricity. Thus they are now to be reckoned among the costly and controllable economic forces, to be taken into account in the computations of values.

103. Economic production a problem of force.-In the final analysis, all economic questions, in the production and consumption of wealth, reduce to the question of the economy and conservation of energies-the silent energies of nature above all others. The productive power of the soil, the working power of the domestic animals, and the steam or electric power generated by the consumption of costly fuels, all alike belong to these silent molecular energies. The foods or other gratifications which they produce, are only stored-up energy, ready to be transformed, in turn, to the finer energies of human life and happiness.

104. Non-vital forces.-The non-vital or inanimate forces of nature can only be employed through machinery costing great skill in its invention, construction, and management. But, when thus harnessed and controlled, these forces work with a tireless power and steadiness which defy the competition of human energies. The most conspicuous feature of the industrial progress of this century, is the rapid multiplication and perfection of power-machinery of all sorts. Its triumphs are still extending: 1. In the variety of purposes to which it is applied, leaving no field of industry uninvaded; 2. In the perfection and abundance of its work, surpassing skilled labor in some of its very strongholds, such as watch-making and banknote engraving, and so abundantly that a watch may now be had for five dollars, and even less; and, 3. In man's increasing mastery over these forces, enabling him to cheapen the use of the older forces of wind and water, and to introduce new forces, as in the heat engine and the electric motors.

It was estimated, in 1876, that the steam-power then in use throughout the world, amounted to fifteen million horse-power; and that, if worked continuously, it would do the work of sixty million horses. Stephenson's first railroad locomotive, built in 1814, could run six miles an hour. Locomotives have lately drawn trains ninety miles the hour. The Rocket, the first locomotive of the first regular railroad, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, weighed four and one-fourth tons. Locomotives are now made which weigh nearly one hundred tons.

The non-vital forces which nature offers for the service of man are usually divided into the molar forces, or those which affect masses of matter and produce sensible movements, and the molecular, or those which act upon the molecules of matter and produce motions inappreciable by the senses. In their origin all known forces are molecular, the largest motions growing out of the minute and insensible.

The molar forces, embracing the power of moving winds, of falling waters, the down-pulling weight, and the coiled spring, early attracted attention, and were utilized in the arts. Their sensible character made it easy to invent the sails, the waterwheel, and the pulley, which served to harness them to their work. But their utility was limited to times and conditions which prevented their general employment.

The molecular forces of electricity, magnetism, chemical affinities, and, above all, the steam-generating heat, have come forth only at the bidding of science, but their omnipotence and their independence of favoring times and localities have given them a sudden acceptance and a universal employment.

105. The land gift.—Land, as a gift of nature and a factor in the world's work, might seem properly to belong partly to the class of crude matter and partly to the non-vital forces which alone make the soil productive. But the land problems hold so important a place in Political Economy as to ask separate treatment.

Land, as an economic fact, is both important and peculiar.

As constituting the habitable part of the globe, all human life must have a part in its occupation. As the theater of all established industrial operations, it is a prime necessity to such operations. As the source of nearly all the food supplies, and thus of man's continued stay in life, its cultivation fills the first place among human employments. As a form of permanent investment of wealth, its security and other advantages are so unique and superior as to claim for it a still higher consideration. And, finally, its connections as territory, with social and national life and power, force it perpetually to the front in all great political interests and questions. The peculiarity and importance of its economic character are attested by the space given to its discussion among the economists, and by the diversity of views presented in their discussions.

106. Land as soil.-Land as soil is useful in proportion to its productiveness, and its nearness to markets.

Its productiveness depends: (1.) Upon its composition and that of the subsoil; (2.) Upon the climate in which it lies; (3.) Upon its elevation, slope, and exposure; (4.) Upon the irrigation and drainage required and possible to it; (5.) Upon the fertilization needed or applicable to it; (6.) Upon the crops to which it is adapted; (7.) Upon the kind and amount of cultivation to be employed. The character, amount, and value of the crops will depend, in part, upon all of these. The discussion of the extent of the influence of these several circumstances would occupy more space than can be given in this chapter.

The nearness to markets affects the value of land because of the time and labor required to get its crops to the place of sale. Many of the coarser products are so great in bulk in proportion to their value, that they will not pay for long transportation. There is a distance at which the cost of carrying a ton of hay will equal the value of the hay itself. In this case, the farmer will simply be paid for his labor of transportation, and not at all for his hay. All less distances will evidently consume

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