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were turning out one thousand pieces per head. the Grand Trunk Railway of Canada, the French-Canadian laborers received three shillings and six pence a day, while the Englishmen received from five shillings to six shillings a day; but it was found the Englishmen did the greatest amount of work for the money. In the quarry at Bonnières, Frenchmen, Irishmen, and Englishmen were employed side by side. The Frenchmen received three, the Irishmen four, and the Englishmen six francs a day each; and the Englishmen were found to be the most profitable workmen.”

117. The loss by sickness.-The loss of time by sickness, by bad weather, and by proper holidays, or by the calls of family and society, must also be subtracted from the possible working time, and the expenses attending this loss must be charged to the cost of the actual time of labor; for it is evident that the sustenance of the body, during such leisure, must be earned in the working days. It was estimated that, in 1870, the sickness among the people of the working ages in Massachusetts amounted to 24,553 years and eight months. English calculations affirm that "for every death there are two constantly sick-that is 730 days sickness for every death." All this is to be deducted from the available strength for labor; and, indeed, from the exercise of the productive skill of a country as well.

118. The cost of feeding.-Human strength must also be constantly renewed by feeding. Daily bread is the condition of daily work. Man's body is a living machine which wastes by the mere act of living. A man must eat (1) to keep the machine in full repair, and (2) to furnish it with working power.

Modern science tells us that heat is working force. The body is a furnace, and the food we take is the fuel. A part of the force generated by the digestion of the food goes to carry on the vital operations of the body, and the remainder is available for voluntary muscular effort.


may be reckoned," says Dr. T. K. Chambers, in the

"Encyclopedia Britannica," in the article on dietetics, "that the daily expenditure of force in working the machinery of the body-in raising the diaphragm about fifteen times, and contracting the heart about sixty times, a minute; in continuously rolling the wave of the intestinal canal, and in various other involuntary movements, without any thing to be fairly called work-it may be reckoned that the expenditure of force in doing this is equal to that which would raise a man of ten stone (one hundred and forty pounds) ten thousand feet." This is the merely involuntary work of an idle man—the work done by the body for itself. A definite amount of food is required to do this work, and when additional work is undertaken an exact equivalent of food must be supplied. A working man will starve if allowed only so much food as will keep him while in idleness. Dr. Lyon Playfair calculated that the food of a man, for "bare existence," is two and one-fourth ounces of nitrogenous food, one ounce of fat, twelve ounces of starch, and onefourth of an ounce of mineral matters per day. For "moderate exercise," or "light labor," one-half more of food is requisite ; and for "hard work" the food must be doubled at least.

The strength resulting from the food taken must depend, in part, upon its healthful digestion, and partly upon the amount required to keep up the animal heat of the body. Hence, unsanitary dwellings and insufficient clothing detract largely from the utility of the food, and from its recruitment of the working power. The half-clad man must use up much of the power of his food in keeping the body warm; while the dwellers in small, dark, damp rooms, without sunshine or fresh air, will get but half of the good out of their food, and will loose, in unnecessary sickness, days and weeks of time. Nothing could be more uneconomical than the miserable hovels, and especially the dark, crowded tenement houses in which the laboring classes are often sheltered, and one may almost say, slaughtered. The interests of public and private wealth alike demand sanitary reform.

119. The substitutes for human strength.-Human strength is cheapened as a factor in labor by the fact that it has cheaper substitutes which, in many places, may replace it; such as the strength of animals and the powers of nature. These are steadily driving human labor out of the employments where the strength of muscle alone was required. In half civilized lands and times, men transport goods, carry travelers, dig the soil, row or drag vessels, run as messengers, spin, weave, forge, and turn the wheels of rude machinery, furnishing with their own muscles the working force of the arts. In enlightened lands, all these things are done by the harnessed forces of nature, and man does but superintend their labor.

But while the demand for merely muscular labor has relatively diminished, the demand for men has increased-men with intelligence to construct and manage machinery; to search out materials; to superintend labor; to distribute goods; and to minister to a thousand new wants. Human strength must, therefore, forever remain a valuable factor in labor, but it must be more and more mixed with intelligence.

P. E.-11.



120. The skill factor.-Skill, the second factor in labor, is, primarily, the product of the intelligence. It is "the knowing how," learned by experience and reflection. But perfected skill is also the result of practice. Long continued use of mind or muscle, in performing repeatedly a certain act, or series of acts, gives the power of thinking, willing, and doing these acts with a swiftness and precision wholly impossible to the unpracticed. It is the power of habit; but it is habit of the intelligence as well as of the hand. The movements of the skilled artisan seem almost automatic in their quickness and accuracy. Recent writers have attempted to account for them by reflex action, a sort of animated automatism. But they are much more easily and rationally explained by that marvelous facility which habit gives to our movements. The rapidity with which the pianist touches the keys of his instrument would remain as marvelous on the theory of reflex action as upon the more common and more intelligible one of the power of habit.

All movements are, at first, made slowly and with uncertainty. At each repetition the mind travels a more beaten path. Among the myriad possible directions of motion, and the endless possible degrees of force, the mind learns, by experience, the right one for any given effect, and employs that without loss of time. Such is the simplest account that can be given of it. Add to this that the much-used power of muscle

or mind grows stronger by use, and we have stated all that is known of the matter.

121. Three kinds of skill.-Skill, divided according to the powers employed, gives three classes:

1. Mental skill, in which the mental powers alone are used. The power of rapid computation of numbers, of the skilled accountant, is purely mental. Some accountants learn to add long columns of figures, taking three and even four orders of units at once, almost as fast as the eye can travel up the column, and distinguish the figures. The quick estimates made by business men, in their respective lines of trade, also belong to this kind of skill. Though each case differs from all others, the accountant and business man learn to find, in each case, certain common elements and combinations, and so rush to the results over well-worn roads. The skill of the lawyer, the physician, the orator, and the poet, or versifier, is due largely to the same principle. It is the facility of habit—the use of movements of mind made familiar by practice. In all these cases there is, indeed, a measure, larger or less, of original action of the intellect, exercised in acts of perception, judgment, and reasoning. There are new phenomena to be observed, new truths to be cognized, and new arguments and deductions to be made. Each trade and vocation, mental and physical, has its own tools to be made familiar-its own processes to be learned; and it is the province of skill to know and use these with certainty and dispatch.


2. Sense skill, or skill of the senses, resides in the mind and It is seen in the power of the practiced eye of the mechanic and trader, to discriminate forms, dimensions, distances, colors, and the visible indications of hidden qualities, in materials, goods, or persons. The eye of the stock-dealer judges, with close accuracy, the weight and qualities of the animal he proposes to purchase. The ear of the musician reads, with a wonderful definiteness, the pitch, power, and quality of the notes in a rapid piece of music. The blind man will often tell,

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