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133. Mind work.—The mind guides the hand in all human labor. All such labor has, therefore, its intellectual side or element. As has been shown, this intellectual element is the very source and foundation of skill. And every advancement in the quality and condition of physical labor is marked by a larger and higher intelligence.

But there are forms of labor in which the intellect is the sole force employed, except as the senses may be summoned to aid in the investigations, and the hand to make record of the


The labors of the intellect do not directly effect physical changes or create material values; but these labors are, nevertheless, the most important known to the business world, and can not, therefore, be left out of any complete survey of economic science. Intelligence not only doubles production, but doubles also the values of the things produced. The ignorant and degraded have as little power to appreciate and enjoy goods of great fineness and beauty as they have to produce them.

134. Ideas give values to goods.-Goods are valued in proportion to the number and dignity of the ideas wrought into them. Those which simply feed and warm the body, however necessary they are for life, are held in slight esteem. Those which suggest ideas of personal beauty and dignity, and can help to attract admiration or awaken esteem, command a

higher price. Those in which high genius has embodied its grand conceptions, and in which fine art has wrought its forms of beauty-which come to a man as a vision of supernal glory, and feed him with thoughts of the ineffable and the perfectthese goods of the soul are of prices which astonish the ignorant and the uncultured. But the goods into which affection has poured its labor, and with which love has woven its very life, are counted beyond all price.

The real life of man is sentient and intelligent. Out of this life spring all motives of voluntary action, all feelings of want, all desires of happiness, all struggles to obtain good and to avoid pain, all work and business of whatever kind. All the laws and forces of economic science, exist for and center in this real, this intellectual, life of mankind. The vast procession of the industries, with all their triumphs of art and treasures of wealth, moves as the body-guard and supply-train of that kingly thing, the human mind, which orders the march and rides up-borne, central, and high, amidst the mighty movement.

135. Intellectual labor productive.-To the intelligent economist who discerns clearly the real significance of human industries, thought-guided and spirit-serving as they all are in the last result, there is no difficulty in admitting intellectual labor to its proper place and rank in the world of productive work. The working power of the intellect is the finest skill, and its products are the finest forms of value. This skill is the rarest and costliest, and these values are the highest and best.

Some of the earlier economists refused to call any labor productive which did not result immediately in a material product. Even Prof. Roscher says: "Strictly speaking, only those employments should be called productive which increase the world's resources." This would shut out from productive labor all but the final processes by which the material products are brought forth or shaped. All the work done in planning, arranging for, supervising, and managing the labor, counts for nothing. All the discoveries, inventing, training, and educa

tion which has made the production possible counts as nothing; the few physical movements of the laborer's hand, according to this theory, are alone productive. How evident, on the contrary, is it that each product is the result of all the causative acts, mental or physical, which were in the chain of causation? A watch is the product of all the thinking and all the working which conspired to produce it. If it be said that what is intended by productive is productive of material goods, then we have it affirmed that only labor producing material goods is to be counted as productive of material goods-a truism, but wholly insignificant. The truth is, that the distinction between productive and non-productive labor is foolishly taken and wholly unimportant. It is one of the juggles of communism to persuade physical laborers that they alone create the world's wealth.

136. The two fields of mind work.-We conceive the intellect as working in the world of matter, and in the world of mind and ideas.

In the world of matter, it investigates and invents. These two processes exhaust its activities. The one is the labor of observation and discovery; the other is the labor of creation and construction.

If the field of its labor is nature itself, or matter in its natural aspects, the investigator discovers science-the facts and laws. of nature. The inventive mind, in this field, creates theories, constructs systems, and invents new combinations of matter.

If the field is that of man's work in matter-the field of the material arts-the investigator discovers the nature of known processes and the causes of observed changes. The inventor devises new processes, and invents the machinery for effecting the changes. The investigator discovers a law or fact; the inventor creates an art. Often the investigator and inventor are one. The same mind works in both fields.

In the field of business and trade, the investigator seeks to discover the wider facts and forces of the social and economic

world—the drifts of production, the laws of markets, and the economic changes among peoples. The inventor plans and creates great business enterprises, combines large masses of capital, and organizes labor. The great business manager most frequently unites these two functions, and by virtue of these leads as a captain of industry.

137. The three intellectual industries.-The most common forms of intellectual labor employed in the industrial world, as now organized, are of these three chief classes: 1. Clerks and accountants.

2. Managers and superintendents.

3. Discoverers, inventors, designers, and experts.

The labor of the first class needs no discussion. The laborers of this class conduct the correspondence, make the records, and keep the accounts—matters as necessary to the regular and successful on-going of the whole work as the thoughtfulness which plans the enterprise and guides each hammer stroke in the labor. It contributes directly to the production, and is to be credited with its share of the values produced.

Clerks and accountants may be counted as aids to the brain power of a business. They are the eyes, voice, and hearing, and through their aid materials are collected from distant points, laborers are summoned, and goods are sold in the far away markets of the world. Operations involving millions of treasure, and the coöperation of thousands of people, are, by their aid, carried to success.

138. Managers and superintendents.-The labor of management and superintendence, when performed by a paid agent, follows the same rule as that of clerks and accountants, though it is of higher character, and involves a larger skill and wider responsibility. It is the work, on a greatly magnified scale, which every solitary worker is obliged to do for himself if he would work successfully. It includes the choice of work to be done, and of time, means, and methods of doing it, together with providing the necessary materials and tools. The

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manager is the brain power of the enterprise. He invents or plans it, and directs it to its completion.

The manager is also, in part at least, a superintendent; but, in great enterprises, involving a wide field of practical operations, and employing many laborers, the manager has other superintendents as his aids, charged with the supervision of groups of labor, or fields of operation. These aids take the names of foremen, overseers, or superintendents, in different forms of business.

In great business corporations, like railway and banking corporations, as also in the great stock companies of manufacture, the manager is a salaried officer or agent, and conducts the business for his employers. But in most cases the manager is also proprietor. The business is his own, and he plans the work, provides the capital, buys the material, pays all wages, assumes all risks, and takes, as his own, all the profits, after meeting the expenses attending the business.

In the smaller business enterprises, conducted by a single person, acting as both capitalist and laborer, the business of management is lost sight of, it is so inconsiderable in amount. The small shop-keeper plans his work from day to day, buys his materials as he needs them, hires such help as he requires, and markets his products when finished, without taking account of the brain work he has done through it all. It is only when the enterprise swells to wide proportions, and demands days and nights of careful planning and vigorous thought, that the business of management stands out from the other labor as a distinct and difficult work.

J. B. Say, in his "Political Economy," describes him who is here called a manager as the "master-agent or adventurer," "l'entrepreneur." "This kind of labor," he says, "requires a combination of moral qualities that are not often found together judgment, perseverance, and a knowledge of the world, as well as of business. He is called upon to estimate, with tolerable accuracy, the importance of the specific product, the

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