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government secures to him ownership in his book, or its contents rather, by giving him a copyright. Men buy his book, or pay him for his lectures: they purchase his thoughts. If they do not pay him in money, they give him that higher compensation, honor and fame, more coveted by noble minds than money.

When his copyright expires, his ideas cease to be property, because they have lost the element of ownership, without which, as was shown in a former chapter, value can not exist. His discoveries pass into the common stock and belong to all mankind, as do the air we breathe and the light which gives us vision.

It

This intellectual property is not usually enumerated in the tax list, nor counted in the census, but it still has value. has cost effort; it possesses high utility; and it acknowledges ownership. A copyright and all it covers may be sold, as one sells a farm. Intellectual property differs from material property simply as mind differs from matter. Its high economic force and importance will not be denied by any one who has studied carefully the influences which act upon mankind and inspire their industries. He who makes a machine helps one industry; he who discovers, or puts into clearer light, a great truth, aids all industries.

As the living man can not be dissected, and his mind separated from his body; so, in the wide range of his desires and gratifications, the intellectual can not be wholly divided from the physical. In the final and truest analysis, all efforts put forth to meet man's needs are true labor; and all products of such efforts, rightly understood, possess value, whether sold in the common markets of goods, or in that higher market in which men buy wisdom and power.

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144. Services defined. There is a class of gratifications which labor yields directly to human desires, without producing material values. These are called services. Thus, one who sings us a song, teaches us a truth, brushes our clothing, drives our carriage, or saves from pain or trouble, does us a service. A service, in the strictest sense of the term, is a gratification rendered directly, without the intervention of goods; but we commonly count as services, also, the labors of domestic servants who prepare and serve our food, care for our houses, clothes, and other property, though much of their labor is bestowed upon material goods. They are supposed, however, to cover that final effort by which goods are taken and put to their uses, and which most consumers make for themselves.

Services, like other labors, divide into physical and intellectual. The labors of the lawyer, the teacher, the physician, and the clergyman, are commonly called professional services, because they meet needs, but do not create values of the material

sort.

As simple gratifications, services would not, ordinarily, come within the range of economic science, any more than the gratifications which men take immediately from nature, from air, and sunshine, and scenery, or from the gratuitous services of friends. But the efforts by which these gratifications are given have economic value, and may be exchanged or purchased, the (145)

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same as productive labors. The strength and skill employed must be produced, trained, and supported.

145. The power of service valuable.-The thing actually sold or exchanged in service is the use of power which renders the service. This power has utility, costs effort, and is held in strict ownership by its possessor. It thus has the three essential elements of value. Its use is sold as one sells the use of a house in renting it.

This power can not be separated from its possessor, and can not, therefore, be permanently alienated. It is sold for a limited time, and for that time its use belongs exclusively to its purchaser. If I hire a band of musicians for an evening, I buy their musical powers for that evening, as much as if I purchased, for the evening, the use of an automatic music-box. So, also, if I employ a domestic servant, or a professional man, it is, in effect, a temporary purchase of their powers of service. In slavery, the power of the slave is the permanent property of the master. In free labor, the laborer sells his own services, to which he has the right; in slavery, the slave and his services were sold by some third party, who could have no right to them.

146. Productive and service labor contrasted.—In the employment of mechanical or other productive labor, there is also a virtual purchase, for the time, of the laboring power and skill of the laborer. But the labor differs from that of service in the results. The former leaves a valuable product in the goods which it helps to produce; the latter affords an immediate satisfaction, and leaves no permanent product of value. The one produces the means of a future gratification; the other produces the gratification itself at the moment. It is evident that the means of future gratification-the goods produced by the laborer-belong to the purchaser of the labor as much as the immediate gratification does.

The difference in results may seem slight, as it is a question between a present and a future pleasure or satisfaction; but,

economically, this difference is of great importance. In each case there is a consumption of old values used up in the support of the laborers; but in the one case, the values consumed reappear immediately, with an increase, in the new values produced. Something has been added to the world's wealth, and it remains as an economic force to enter into new economic movements. In the other case, the old values disappear, and, ordinarily, nothing remains but the evanescent feeling of gratification or relief, save in the case of productive power described in the following article.

147. Productive services.-Many services may be said to be productive. All services are productive in the highest sense, which strengthen the physical energies of men, increase the intelligence, improve the character, lend courage or energy to the mind, or promote the public intelligence and civilization. The service of the teacher leaves a product of the highest personal and economic worth. No investment of accumulated wealth ever made by civilized men has been more productive than that made in the diffusion of education and intelligence. The rapid increase of the world's wealth, within the last half century, over and above that of all former ages, is traceable directly to the schools which have educated labor, and led to the wealth-giving discoveries and inventions.

The services of the teachers of morals and religion are also productive in character, and have added to the wealth of mankind far beyond their cost. They have checked the growth of extravagant and wasteful vices; saved life, health, and working power; given additional safety to property, and thus lent fresh impulse to production by increasing the motives both to toil and

to save.

The services of musicians, and others who minister to the higher amusements of the people, though less commonly counted productive, are not necessarily unproductive. Recreation, wisely used, conserves energy, and may add to the motives and the power for work.

148. Lawyers and physicians. The services of the lawyer have, usually, a more direct and immediate connection with the business interests of mankind. As a counselor he aids in effecting the legal exchange of property; helps in forming contracts, and interprets and secures the legal rights of his clients. His services in prosecuting crime, and in administering the laws, belong chiefly to the domain of social and political life. If his functions take their utility largely from the ignorance and dishonesty of men, they are none the less useful, since ignorance and dishonesty are unavoidable. The wide movement and immense machinery of the modern industries and business could not be guarded and controlled without the aid of laws equally wide in scope and power.

The physician's services are more purely personal in character, since they minister to the health of individuals; but their economic relations are direct and important. In so far as they save life and preserve working power, they save property. To abate sickness and restore health is to stay wasteful expenditure and give back productive force. If the physician is also a sanitarian, and gives his professional aid to the stamping out of epidemics and the promotion of public health, his services often acquire inestimable usefulness in saving whole populations from needless sickness and loss.

149. Services and goods compared.-The difference between service and productive labor has been shown to lie in their results. The difference between services and goods is often still less. Both yield an immediate satisfaction. The gratifications may be the same. The musician gives me music by his own effort; the music-box also gives me music. The teacher or orator serves me with his voice; in buying a book I may purchase the same instruction. In those goods which are consumed, in yielding a single satisfaction, the likeness to service is stronger. If I would have a new gratification, I must buy

a new feast, or a new service.

In one sense, all goods are services, since they all have util

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