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In more elementary books and branches of study, it is common to provide questions in the book; but in advanced studies, in which the students are expected to make their own analysis, prepared questions are of little use, and may be injurious. They may tempt the pupil to forego that very effort at analysis which is the most useful and important part of his work. Better to require of the student to make out for himself a list of questions or topics which shall touch the very heart of each section and paragraph.

The art of teaching is, in large part, the art of asking questions. No one can teach well who can not question promptly and wisely. The aim of questions is threefold: 1. To awaken thought and attention; 2. To ascertain what the pupil knows; and 3. To correct and instruct. If the teacher is a master of his subject and book, he will easily make his questions as the work goes on; but, if a pressure of other work, as is too often the case in high schools, prevents such mastery of the lesson of the day, questions should be prepared beforehand. Let the teacher read through the chapter, pencil in hand, and, at each paragraph jot down on the margin, or on a separate sheet, the question or topic which will bring out the truth or principle involved. Such questions will serve him better than any that any author can prepare.


This system is one of the most convenient for ordinary questioning, or for reviews. Let the teacher procure a good quantity of blank cards, a little smaller than common playing cards; on each of these cards let him write one or more of the questions on topics above described, numbering the cards for his own convenience. The questions and topics should be such as will fairly cover the ground of the instruction.

At the opening of the recitation, a card may be handed to a student in place of an oral question, and a full answer required thereon; and so on till the lesson is completed. Or each student may be required to draw a card in turn, at random, and answer at once the questions drawn. In this latter case, the cards may first be shuffled, and the questions, coming out of order, will more fully test the student's mastery of the lesson.


No teaching can be successful that neglects constant, daily, persistent reviews. The unalterable laws of mind refuse accurate and permanent knowledge of any book or subject, on any other conditions than this.

He who reviews best, teaches best; and commonly the teacher who reviews most, teaches most.

The first review should be made the next day after the lesson is recited. It need occupy but a few minutes, if the lesson was well learned, but it should show that the subject is understood and remembered.

A partial, miscellaneous review may be made at any time when the hour of recitation is not fully occupied, by distributing a few of the cards, and requiring the students to answer promptly the questions they chance to draw. A little care in the use of the cards will enable the teacher to pass the whole subject again and again in review in the course of the term.

As often as once a week, at the outset of the term, the whole hour should be given to the review, and the cards will afford the means of making this review thorough and searching. These frequent and thorough reviews the first half of the term will make the progress of the latter half rapid and safe.

No harm can come if the students copy the cards as they frequently are inclined to do. If the questions are wide and general, covering fully the ground, the special study of the answers will give a good body of the subject thorough lodgment in the mind; and a few oral questions will prevent mere memoriter learning.

One of the most useful reviews may be given by requiring the pupils to reproduce on the blackboard, from memory, the tabular or synoptical views given in this volume. It will tend to systematize and keep in order the student's knowledge of the subject. These synoptical statements on the blackboard afford also a good method of recitation by requiring the students to explain the topics in their order.


This volume, designed to afford a somewhat full discussion of the subject, for the general reader as well as for the student, presents, in some cases, a wider discussion than is needed for the class-room. The author, therefore, advises the omission, at least in the first study, of such parts as the teacher may choose to omit. This may sometimes be whole chapters, and, in other cases, paragraphs or parts of chapters. The coat must be cut according to the cloth. If only a single term can be given to the work, only a portion of the book can be mastered.

P. E.-33.


Numbers refer to pages.

About, Edmond, title of work, 27.
Accumulation, a motive for labor
stronger than gratification, 31.
Agricultural Capital, four classes of,
219; amount per acre, 220; in live
stock, 222.

Agricultural Economy, synoptic view
of, 208; its peculiarities, 212.
Agricultural Education, need of, 217;
value of, 218.

Agricultural Population in different
countries, 215.

Agricultural Wealth in U. S., 215.
Agriculture belongs to substance-
changing work, 91; its scope in
economics, 91; employs forces of
growth, 105; forms of capital in, 194;
as an industry described, 209; two
grand divisions of, 210; mixed hus-
bandry, 211; classes of soil culture,
211; the wants met by, 212; nature of
its products, 213; the materials in, 213;
extent of, 214; nature's gifts in, 216;
extensive and intensive, 221; ma-
chinery and supplies in, 223; profits
of, in economy of force, 223; eco-
nomic mistakes: 1, waste of land, 224;
2, waste of animal force, 224; 3, waste
of capital, 225; 4, waste by poor stock,
225; 5, improper rotation of crops,
226; the farm a machine, 313; Metayer
system of renting, 314.

Animals, rearing of in early times,
210; necessity of, to fertilize soil, 211;
cost of, 218; uses of draught and stock
animals, 222; serve on farm as mate-
rials, machinery, 223.

Animal strength, its uses changed by
machinery, 105; cost of, 218; waste
of, 224.

Antagonism of Capital and Labor
must be between laborer and capi-
talist, 205.

Arkwright, Sir Richard, invention
of spinning-jenny, 264.
Arts, all reach back to some science,
25; devices suggested by nature, 99;
natural development of, 154.

Balance of Trade, definition and com-
mon opinion of, 246; is it an advan-
tage, 247; profit depends on use, 248;
influence on labor, 248.

Bank Checks, use in exchanges, 279;
tabular statement of use, 280.
Banks described, 278; two kinds of, 279.
Banks of Deposit, functions of, 279.
Banks of Issue, description of, 281.
Barter, measure of values relative, 61;
definition of, 240.

Bastiat, Frederick, his circle of Pol.
Ec. (note), 12; value to Pol. Ec., what
enumeration is to arithmetic, 40;
definition of value, 42; denies value
to mere products of nature, 111.
Bentham, Jeremy, theory of estima-
tion of desires, 71; on right of prop-
erty, 286.

Bowen, Prof., counts Pol. Ec. a men-
tal and moral science, 15.
Burchard, H. C., notice of report, 65.
Business Establishments, large, pro-
duced by division of labor, 167; why
the large absorb the small, 168; dan-
gers of large, 170.

Business Managers, labor of de-
scribed, 137; Say's description, 138;
qualifications required, 139.

Capital, general view of, 187; its nat-
ure explained, 188; its origin and
four forms, 189; two classes of, 190;
forms of in different business, 193;
productive and non-productive, 194;
fixed and circulating, 195; relations
to labor, 197; 1, their union neces-
sary, 198; 2, gives time to labor, 199;
3, gives power over nature, 200; 4,
commands natural forces, 201; 5, rel-
ative increase, 202; not antagonistic
to labor, 205; two classes in trade, 232;
share of in products, 312; compared
with labor, 312.

Carey, H. C., treats Pol. Ec. as national
and social, 26; def. of value, 43; ex-
plains increase of wages, 204.

Chambers, Dr. T. K., on expenditure
of force in living, 119, 120.
Cities, flow of wealth to, 325.
City Growths in modern times, 325.
Civilization estimated by its wants,
69; mental wants predominate, 73;
division of employments a step in,
155; depends on soil yield, 211;
money, 261.

Clearing House, description of, 281.
Clerks and Accountants, industry of
productive, 137.

Climates, tropical, discourage indus-
try, 98; frigid, overburden industry,
98; temperate, natural home of in-
dustry, 98; influences health, 100.
Coinage, problems of, 267.
Colbert, promoted industries to in-
crease taxes, 23.

Commodities, defined, 31; new use
of increases demand illustrated, 86.
See Goods.

Comparison of Values, cases of, 61, 62.
Comparison of Values made in trade,


Competition between manufactur-
ers, 133.

Consumption of Wealth a secondary
distribution, 319; classes of, 319, 320.
Co-operation as remedy for competi-
tion, 308.

Copyright considered as property,
144, 296; law of in Eng. and U. S., 297.
Cost, meaning of term, 45.
Cost of Production, lowest limit of
natural value, 87; diminished by
machinery, 129.

Cotton Manufacture, illustration of
power of machinery to cheapen
products, 129; its extent illustrated,
130; invention of spinning-jenny,
164; growth of in England and U.S.,

Credit, its nature described, 191; is
not wealth, 192.

Credit Money described, 274.

Debts increased or lessened by
changes in money, 265; falsely
counted property, 299; taxes on,

Demand, economic, defined, 77; never
exceeds wants, 77; reciprocal with
supply, 79; laws of, 80; effects of in-
creased and diminished, 81; effects
of excess explained, 83; effect of
diminution,84; fictitious created by
speculation, 85.

Dependent Class, proportion of to
population, 116.

DeQuincey, Thomas, calls Pol. Ec. a
mental science, 15; value the consti-
tutive idea, 40; affirms two elements
in value, 44.

Desires, conflict of in values, 48; il-
lustrated in 5 cases, 49-51; becomes

strong by habit, 75; compared in
trade, 241.

Distribution of Labor, reasons which
control, 185; personal and social
considerations in, 186.

Distribution of Wealth, forces caus-
ing it, 301; classes of, 302; primary
described, 302; into wages, interest,
rents, and profits, 303; the share of
wages, 306; tabular statement of, 308;
share of capital, 312; rent share in,
312; the profit of, 317; secondary
forms of, 319; territorial movement,
324; by international trade, 327.
Division of Employments, its origin,
154; its progress and causes, 155; ad-
vantages enumerated, 157; disad-
vantage of mutual dependence an-
swered, 157.

Division of Labor described, 158;
Adam Smith's view of, 159; advan-
tages of, 159; 1, economy of time, 160;
2, economy of strength, 161; 3, econ-
omy of skill, 161; 4, economy of tools,
162; 5, economy of materials, 163; 6,
improvement of tools, 162; 7, im-
proves products, 165; 8, multiplies
and cheapens products, 165; 9, masses
labor and capital, 167; disadvantages
of, 169; three limits of, 172; in intel-
lectual labor, 172; in the graded
schools, 173; natural division, 173;
between establishments, 174; laws
of value in, 175; little used in agri-
culture, 218.

Double Standard defined, 268; objec-
tion of monometalists to, 273.

Economic Circle, represented, 13; re-
lations of its sections, wants, wealth,
and work, 14; with the triangle of
value inscribed, 40; the work seg-
ment, 89.

Economic Science, field of repre-
sented, 12; three names of, 15; is
wealth or industry its object (note) ?
15; begins and ends with man, 17;
statesmen must look to, 21; three-
fold division, 17; importance of this
division, 21; the three not always
separable, 22; these divisions
authorized, 22; present tendency of
is towards Social Economy, 27; other
subdivisions possible, 28; shares un-
certainty of human will, 28; its un-
certainty does not destroy its utility,
29; not concerned with false and
fraudulent prices, 80; laws of exist
for the intellectual life, 135; not yet
complete, 331.

Economics, Pure, defined as the sci-
ence of value, 18; the natural his-
tory of work and wealth, 18; na-
tional, 335.

Economy, National, 333; synoptic
view of, 339.

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