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ing one of the most striking differences which distinguish men from brutes, it lies at the basis of human civilization, if not of man's power to stay permanently upon the earth. The right to exchange hangs upon the right to possess, and gives to that right its chief importance. Wealth is possible, and worth having, only through this power to exchange it for all objects of desire. The wider discussion of this field must be left for coming chapters.

go. Intellectual work.-The third field of work takes us out of the domain of material goods into the sphere of man's intellectual life and powers. Human efforts do not expend themselves wholly upon the outer world; there is a world within, a world of ideas, in which man is also a worker. There are industries of the intellect just as onerous and as important as those of the physical powers. Indeed, all proper industry begins with a mental movement; and the physical effort only gives form and effect to what the mind had already shaped in idea. Some knowledge of nature's laws must precede the mastery of her forces and the proper use of her materials.

There has been a question whether intellectual forces are economic factors, and whether intellectual products are economic goods; but there can be no question as to the part that these intellectual powers and products play in the world of the industries. The scientific investigator and explorer sometimes discovers facts which revolutionize industry and lend to it a productiveness manifold greater than that which it had previously possessed. The discoverer of the magnet made modern commerce possible. The studies of Galvani and his successors have given to us the telegraph and telephone, electro-plating, electrotype, and the powerful and fast-prevailing electric light. They bid fair to give us, ere long, a motor force which shall surpass all others, and lift us to achievements heretofore impossible.

The inventor who is also an intellectual worker, turns the work of the investigator to account, and harnesses the new

found fact or force to its task in the arts. The great patent offices of Europe and America are full of their work; and governments, by their letters-patent, recognize the property value of their ideas,

Authors, scholars, orators, teachers, lawyers, poets, preachers, artists, and statesmen, all belong to the guilds of intellectual workers, and all have their place in the world of work. All are counted worthy of wages by their fellow-men, and their wages are relatively large.

The number of intellectual workers always increases as civilization advances; and one of the plainest results of our modern improvements in the arts, is the release of men, more and more, from merely physical toil and drudgery, and their elevation to the position of brain-workers. Arms of iron and fingers of steel now do the hardest of the work, while the human laborer furnishes the eyes to watch the processes, and the hand to arrange the task and summon the power.

91. Service work. In the fourth and final field of work, we find the worker ministering directly to the gratification of his employer. This ministration we call service. The worker in this field fabricates no goods, offers no exchanges, aims at no mere intellectual effects. He simply meets, by some act, another's wants. He who brushes our clothes, or brings our dinner, drives our carriage, or watches by our bedside when we are sick, does us a valuable service, and we recognize its value by giving value in exchange. For there are intellectual as well as physical services. The lawyer, the teacher, the singer, and many other professional and artist classes, render services, either personal or public.

The chief criterion of service is that it yields gratification. without producing valuable goods. It does for us directly what the goods are designed to do-meets our wants or desires. But this test is not of universal application. Many services are a part of the necessary labor of production. Thus, the cook who prepares our dinner adds to the value of the food as much as

the miller who grinds the wheat into flour. Service employs no small part of the working forces of the world. Myriads of services are rendered gratuitously, by friend to friend, by kindred and neighbors, and even by strangers. They may all be counted as contributions to the common good, if not to wealth, in so far as they save goods, conserve force, and advance wellbeing.

We have thus glanced at the great subdivisions of that field in which the working power of the world finds its daily employment. This survey will help us to study, with more clearness, the factors, or agencies, and instruments by which man effects his purposes. It is not needful to anticipate here the discussion of these factors, each of which will demand its separate chapter or chapters.

In the examination of the chief forms of industry, each of which will also ask its own chapter, we shall revisit, from a new line of approach, and see under a different light the fields here explained.


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92. General view.-We come now to the factors which necessarily enter into all of man's work. They are these three: 1. The gifts of nature; 2. Labor; 3. Capital.

Before acquiring any thing of his own, man must take from existing things around him. His work presupposes matter and

its laws.

Nature, or the world of matter and force, presents to mankind and their industries, an endless variety of substance, forms, and forces. To measure properly the economic character and influence of these, they must be divided into their proper classes. The following diagram will bring these classes under the eye at once:

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This classification is economic, not scientific. In a scientific classification, water-power is a form of gravitation, and wind and steam are results of heat. The division lines in science are never fixed and impassible. Class melts into class by insensible gradations.

93. Nature's gifts control industry.-These so-called gifts of nature, though without any proper value, have often the highest utility, and are among the most important economic facts and forces. They furnish the solid basis of all values, and their abundance or scarcity in any region, potentially affects and controls the industries of that region.

In tropical climates, the gifts of nature so nearly meet the common wants of man as to seriously discourage industry. The spontaneous growths of edible fruits and vegetables pro-. vide the indolent natives with food; the warm air renders clothing nearly useless except for decency, and the shade of the trees shelters from the sunshine. Except to guard against the attacks of wild beasts, and to protect from the occasional storms, houses would be needless, and the simplest inclosure, with roof of boughs or bark, serves as domicile and home. Store-houses and barns are unknown. When commerce tempts them with its offers of useful exchanges, the labor is often limited to a more abundant gathering of the spontaneous products of their prolific soil and clime.

In the arctic regions, on the contrary, nature is so chary of its higher gifts, that the laboring power of the inhabitants is mostly exhausted in the toil of procuring the merest necessaries of life. If the desire is ever awakened to engage in higher and more productive arts, the rigors of the climate, and the absence of favoring conditions, would make them powerless against the rivalries of more temperate and propitious climes. The fields of ice and snow offer poor soil for seed-sowing, and the scant sunshine of the brief summer could ripen only the hardiest plants. The darkness and cold of the arctic winter would compel a suspension of most manufactures, and commerce

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