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Souillac is a little town in a thriving ftate, having fome rich merchants. They receive ftaves from the mountains of Auvergne by their river Dordonne, which is navigable eight months in the year; thefe they export to Bourdeaux and Libourn; alfo wine, corn, and cattle, and import falt in great quantities. It is not in the power of an English imagination to figure the animals that waited upon us here, at the Chapeau Rouge. Some things that called themselves by the courtesy of Souillac women, but in reality walking dung-hills.-But a neatly dreffed clean waiting girl at an inn, will be looked for in vain in France.34 miles.

The 10th. Cross the Dordonne by a ferry; the boat well contrived for driving in at one end, and out at the other, without the abominable operation, common in England, of beating horfes till they leap into them; the price is as great a contraft as the excellence; we paid for an English whisky, a French cabriolet, one faddle-horse, and fix perfons, no more than 50. (2s. 1d.) I have paid half-a-crown a wheel in England for execrable ferries, paffed over at the hazard of the horses limbs.-This river runs in a very deep valley between two ridges of high hills: extenfive views, all scattered with villages and fingle houses; an appearance of great population. Chefnuts on a calcareous foil, contrary to the Limofin maxim.

Pass Payrac, and meet many beggars, which we had not done before. All the country, girls and women, are without fhoes or stockings; and the ploughmen at their work have neither fabots nor feet to their stockings. This is a poverty, that ftrikes at the root of national profperity; a large confumption among the poor being of more confequence than among the rich the wealth of a nation lies in its circulation and confumption; and the cafe of poor people abstaining from the use of manufactures of leather and wool ought to be confifidered as an evil of the first magnitude. It reminded me of the misery of Ireland. Pafs Pont-de-Rodez, and come to high land, whence we enjoyed an immenfe and fingular prospect of ridges, hills, vales, and gentle flopes, rising one beyond another in every direction, with few maffes of wood, but many fcattered trees. At least forty miles are tolerably diftinct to the eye, and without a level acre; the fun, on the point of being fet, illumined part of it, and displayed a vast number of villages and fcattered farms. The mountains of Auvergne, at the distance of 100 miles, added to the view. Pafs by feveral . cottages, exceedingly well built, of stone and flate or tiles, yet without any glass to the windows; can a country be likely to thrive where the great object is to pare manufactures? Women picking weeds into their aprons for their cows, another fign of poverty I obferved, during the whole way from Calais. 30 miles.

The 11th. See for the first time the Pyrenees, at the distance of 150 miles.To me, who had never seen an object farther than 60 or 70, I mean the Wicklow

low mountains, as I was going out of Holyhead, this was interefting. Whereever the eye wandered in fearch of new objects it was fure to reft there. Their. magnitude, their fnowy height, the line of feparation between two great kingdoms, and the end of our travels altogether account for this effect. Towards Cahors the country changes, and has fomething of a favage afpect; yet houses are feen every where, and one-third of it under vines.

That town is bad; the ftreets neither wide nor ftrait, but the new road is an improvement. The chief object of its trade and refource are vines and brandies. The true Vin de Cahors, which has a great reputation, is the produce of a range of vineyards, very rocky, on a ridge of hills full to the fouth, and is called Vin de Grave, because growing on a gravelly foil. In plentiful years, the price of good wine here does not exceed that of the cafk; last year it was fold at 10s. 6d. a barique, or 8d. a dozen. We drank it at the Trois Rois from three to ten years old, the latter at 30. (1s. 3d.) the bottle; both excellent, full bodied, great fpirit, without being fiery, and to my palate much better than our ports. I liked it fo well, that I established a correspondence with Monf. Andoury, the innkeeper*. The heat of this country is equal to the production of strong wine. This was the moft burning day we had experienced.

On leaving Cahors, the mountain of rock rises so immediately, that it seems as if it would tumble into the town. The leaves of walnuts are now black with frosts that happened within a fortnight. On enquiry, I found they are subject to these frosts all through the spring months; and though rye is fometimes killed by them, the mildew in wheat is hardly known ;-a fact fufficiently deftructive of the theory of frofts being the caufe of that diftemper. It is very rare that any fnow falls here. Sleep at Ventillac.22 miles.

The 12th. The shape and colour of the peasants houfes here add a beauty to the country; they are fquare, white, and with rather flat roofs, but few windows. The peasants are for the most part land-proprietors. Immenfe view of the Pyrenees before us, of an extent and height truly fublime: near Perges, the view of a rich vale, that seems to reach uninterruptedly to thofe mountains is a glorious fcenery; one vast sheet of cultivation; every where chequered with these well built white houfes ;-the eye lofing itself in the vapour, which ends only with that ftupendous ridge, whofe fnow-capped heads are broken into the boldeft outline. The road to Cauffade leads through a very fine avenue of fix rows of trees, two of them mulberries, which are the first we have feen. Thus we have travelled almost to the Pyrenees before we met with an article of culture which fome want to introduce into England. The vale here is all on a dead level; the road finely made, and mended with gravel. Montauban is old, but * I fince had a barique of him; but whether he sent bad wine, which I am not willing to believe, or that it came through bad hands, I know not. It is however fo bad, as to be item for folly.

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not ill built. There are many good houfes, without forming handfome freets. It is faid to be very populous, and the eye confirms the intelligence. The cathedral is modern, and pretty well built, but too heavy. The public college, the feminary, the bishop's palace, and the houfe of the first prefident of the court of aids are good buildings: the laft large, with a moft fhewy entrance. The promenade is finely fituated; built on the highest part of the rampart, and commanding that noble vale, or rather plain, one of the richeft in Europe, which extends on one fide to the fea, and in front to the Pyrenees; whofe towering maffes, heaped one upon another, in a stupendous manner, and covered with snow, offer a variety of lights and fhades from indented forms, and the immenfity of their projections. This profpect, which contains a femi-circle of an hundred miles diameter, has an oceanic vaftness, in which the eye lofes itself; an almost boundless scene of cultivation; an animated, but confufed mafs of infinitely varied parts-melting gradually into the diftant obfcure, from which emerges the amazing frame of the Pyrenees, rearing their filvered heads far above the clouds. At Montauban, I met Capt. Plampin, of the royal navy; he was with Major Crew, who has a house and family here, to which he politely carried us; it is fweetly fituated on the skirts of the town, commanding a fine view; they were fo obliging as to refolve my enquiries upon fome points, of which a refidence made them complete judges. Living is reckoned cheap here; a family was named to us, whofe income was fuppofed to be about 150c louis a-year, and who lived as handfomely as in England on 5000l. and cheapness of different countries, is a subject of confiderable importance, but The comparative dearness difficult to analize. As I conceive the English to have made far greater advances in the useful arts, and in manufactures, than the French have done, England ought to be the cheaper country. What we meet with in France, is a cheap mode of living, which is quite another confideration. 30 miles.

The 13th. Pafs Grifolles, where are well built cottages without glafs, and fome with no other light than the door. Dine at Pompinion, at the Grand Soleil, an uncommonly good inn, where Capt. Plampin, who accompanied us thus far, took his leave. Here we had a violent storm of thunder and lightning, with rain much heavier I thought than I had known in England; but, when we set out for Toulouze, I was immediately convinced that fuch a violent shower had never fallen in that kingdom; for the deftruction it had poured on the noble scene of cultivation, which but a moment before was finiling with exuberance, was terrible to behold. All now one fcene of diftrefs: the finest crops of wheat beaten fo flat to the ground, that I question whether they can ever rife again; other fields fo inundated, that we were actually in doubt whether we were looking on what was lately land, or always water. The ditches had been filled rapidly with mud, had overflowed the road, and fwept dirt and gravel over the crops.



Crofs one of the finest plains of wheat that is any where to be feen; the form, therefore, was fortunately partial. Pats St. Jorry; a noble road, but not better than in Limofin. It is a defert to the very gates; meet not more perfons than if it were Ico miles from any town.-31 miles.

The 14th. View the city, which is very ancient and very large, but not peopled Towhouse in proportion to its fize: the buildings are a mixture of brick and wood, and have confequently a melancholy appearance. This place has always prided itself on its tafte for literature and the fine arts. It has had a univerfity fince 12153 and it pretends that its famous academy of Jeux Floraux is as old as 1323. It has alfo a royal academy of fciences, another of painting, fculpture, and architecture. The church of the Cordelliers has vaults, into which we defcended, that have the property of preferving dead bodies from corruption; we faw many that they affert to be 500 years old. If I had a vault well lighted, that would preferve the countenance and phyfiognomy as well as the flesh and bones, I fhould like to have it peopled with all my ancestors; and this defire would, I fuppofe, be proportioned to their merit and celebrity; but to one like this, that preferves cadaverous deformity, and gives perpetuity to death, the voracity of a common grave is preferable. But Toulouze is not without objects more interefting than churches and academies ; these are the new quay, the corn mills, and the canal de Brien. The quay is of a great length, and in all respects a noble work: the houses intended to be built will be regular like thofe already erected, in a flile aukward and inelegant. The canal de Brien, fo called from the archbishop of Toulouze, afterwards prime minister and cardinal, was planned and executed in order to join the Garonne at Toulouze with the canal of Languedoc, which is united at two miles from the town with the fame river. The neceffity of fuch a junction arifes from the navigation of the river in the town being abfolutely impeded by the wear which is made across it in favour of the corn mills. It paffes arched under the quay to the river, and one fluice levels the water with that of the Languedoc canal. It is broad enough for several barges to pass abreast. These undertakings have been well planned, and their execution is truly magnificent: there is however more magnificence than trade; for while the Languedoc canal is alive with commerce, that of Brien is a defert.

Among other things we viewed at Toulouze, was the house of Monf. du Barrè, brother of the husband of the celebrated countefs. By fome tranfactions, favourable to anecdote, which enabled him to draw her from obfcurity, and afterwards to marry her to his brother, he contrived to make a pretty confiderable fortune. On the first floor is one principal and complete apartment, containing seven or eight rooms, fitted up and furnished with fuch profufion of expence, that if a fond lover, at the head of a kingdom's finances, were decorating for his mistress, he could hardly give in large any thing that is not here to be feen on a moderate


fcale. To thofe who are fond of gilding here is enough to fatiate; fo much that to an English eye it has too gaudy an appearance. But the glaffes are large · and numerous. The drawing-room very elegant (gilding always excepted).Here I remarked a contrivance which has a pleafing effect; that of a looking-, glafs before the chimnies, inftead of thofe various fcreens used in England: it flides backwards and forwards into the wall of the room. There is a portrait of Madame du Barrè, which is said to be very like; if it really is, one would pardon a King fome follies committed at the shrine of fo much beauty.-As to the garden, it is beneath all contempt, except as an object to make a man stare at the efforts to which folly can arrive in the space of an acre, there are hills of genuine earth, mountains of pasteboard, rocks of canvass: abbeés, cows, sheep, and shepherdeffes in lead; monkeys and peasants, affes and altars, in ftone. Fine ladies and blacksmiths, parrots and lovers, in wood. Windmills and cottages, fhops and villages, nothing excluded except nature.

The 15th. Meet Highlanders, who put me in mind of thofe of Scotland; faw them first at Montauban; they have round flat caps,and loofe breeches: "Pipers, blue bonnets, and oat-meal, are found," fays Sir James Stuart," in Catalonia, Auvergne and Swabia, as well as in Lochabar." Many of the women here are without stockings. Meet them coming from the market, with their fhoes in their baskets. The Pyrenees, at fixty miles diftance, appear now fo diftinct, that one would guess it not more than fifteen; the lights and fhades of the fnow are feen clearly. -30 miles.

The 16th. A ridge of hills on the other fide of the Garonne, which began at Toulouze, became more and more regular yesterday; and is undoubtedly the moft diftant ramification of the Pyrenees, reaching into this vaft vale quite to Toulouze, but no farther. Approach the mountains; the lower ones are all cultivated, but the higher feem covered with wood: the road now is bad all the way. Meet many waggons, each loaded with two cafks of wine, quite backward in the carriage and as the hind wheels are much higher than the fore ones, it shews that these mountaineers have more fenfe than John Bull. The wheels of these waggons are all fhod with wood instead of iron. Here, for the first time, fee rows of maples, with vines, trained in feftoons, from tree to tree; they are conducted by a rope of bramble, vine cutting, or willow. They give many grapes, but bad wine. Pafs St. Martino, and then a large village of well built houses, without a fingle glass window. 30 miles.

The 17th. St. Gaudens is an improving town, with many new houses, something more than comfortable. An uncommon view of St. Bertrand; you break at once upon a vale funk deep enough beneath the point of view to command every hedge and tree, with that town clustered round its large cathedral, on a rifing ground; if it had been built purposely to add a feature to a fingular pro


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