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The 20th. To the Ecole Militaire, eftablished by Louis XV. for the education of 140 youths, the fons of the nobility; fuch establishments are equally ridiculous and unjuft. To educate the son of a man who cannot afford the education himself, is a gross injustice, if you do not secure a fituation in life answerable to that education. If you do fecure fuch a fituation, you destroy the result of the education, because nothing but merit ought to give that fecurity. If you educate the children of men, who are well able to give the education themselves, you tax the people who cannot afford to educate their children, in order to ease those who can well afford the burthen; and in fuch inftitutions, this is fure to be the cafe. At night to l'Ambigu Comique, a pretty little theatre, with plenty of rubbish on it. Coffee-houses on the boulevards, mufic, noife, and filles without end; every thing but fcavangers and lamps. The mud is a foot deep; and there are parts of the boulevards without a fingle light.

The 21ft. Monf. de Brouffonet being returned from Burgundy, I had the pleasure of paffing a couple of hours at his lodgings very agreeably. He is a man of uncommon activity, and poffeffed of a great variety of useful knowledge in every branch of natural history; and he speaks English perfectly well. It is very rare that a gentleman is feen better qualified for a poft than Monf. de Brouffonet for that which he occupies, of secretary to a Royal Society.

The 22d. To the bridge of Neuilié, faid to be the finest in France. It is by far the most beautiful one I have any where feen. It confifts of five vaft arches; flat, from the Florentine model; and all of equal span; a mode of building incomparably more elegant, and more ftriking than our fyftem of different fized arches. To the machine at Marly; which ceases to make the leaft impreffion. Madame du Barré's refidence, Lufienne, is on the hill just above this machine; fhe has built a pavilion on the brow of the declivity, for commanding the profpect, fitted up and decorated with much elegance. There is a table formed of Seve porcelain, exquifitely done. I forget how many thousand louis d'ors it coft. The French, to whom I spoke of Lufienne, exclaimed against mistreffes and extravagance, with more violence than reason in my opinion. Who, in common sense, would deny a king the amusement of a mistress, provided he did not make a business of his play-thing? Mais Frederic le Grand avoit-il une maitresse, lui fafoit-il batir des pavillons, et les meubloit-il de tables de porcelaine? No: but he had that which was fifty times worfe: a king had better make love to a handfome woman than to one of his neighbour's provinces. The king of Pruffia's mistress coft an hundred millions fterling, and the lives of 500,000 men; and before the reign of that mistress is over, may yet coft as much more. The greatest genius and talents are lighter than a feather, weighed philofophically, if rapine, war, and conqueft, are the effects of them.

To St. Germain's, the terrace of which is very fine. Monf. de Brouffonet

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met me here, and we dined with Monf. Breton, at the maréchal duc de Noailles, who has a good collection of curious plants. Here is the finest Sophora japo nica I have feen.-10 miles.

The 23d. To Trianon, to view the Queen's Jardin Anglois. I had a letter to Monf. Richard, which procured admittance. It contains about 100 acres, difpofed in the tafte of what we read of in books of Chinese gardening, whence it is fuppofed the English ftyle was taken. There is more of Sir William Chambers here than of Mr. Brown-more effort than nature-and more expence than tafte. It is not eafy to conceive any thing that art can introduce in a garden that is not here; woods, rocks, lawns, lakes, rivers, iflands, cafcades, grottos, walks, temples, and even villages. There are parts of the defign very pretty, and well executed. The only fault is too much, crouding; which has led to another, that of cutting the lawn by too many gravel walks, an error tó be seen in almost every garden I have met with in France. But the glory of La Petite Trianon is the exotic trees and fhrubs. The world has been fuccefsfully rifled to decorate it. Here are curious and beautiful ones to please the eye of ignorance; and to exercise the memory of science. Of the buildings, the temple of love is truly elegant.

Again to Verfailles. In viewing the king's apartment, which he had not left a quarter of an hour, with thofe flight traits of diforder that fhewed he lived in it, it was amufing to fee the blackguard figures that were walking uncontrouled about the palace, and even in his bed-chamber; men whose rags betrayed them to be in the last stage of poverty,, and I was the only perfon that ftared and wondered how the devil they got there. It is impoffible not to like this careless indifference and freedom from fufpicion. One loves the mafter of the house, who would not be hurt or offended at feèing his apartment thus occupied, if he returned fuddenly; for if there was danger of this, the intrufion would be prevented. This is certainly a feature of that good temper which appears to me fo vifible every where in France. I defired to fee the Queen's apartments, but I could not. Is her majefty in it? No. Why then not fee it as well as the king's? Ma foi, Monf. c'est un autre chofe. Ramble through the gardens, and by the grand canal, with abfolute astonishment at the exaggerations of writers and travellers. There is magnificence in the quarter of the orangerie, but no beauty any where; there are fome ftatues good enough to wish them under cover. The extent and breadth of the canal are nothing to the eye; and it is not in such good repair as a farmer's horfe-pond. The menagerie is well enough, but nothing great. Let those who defire that the buildings and establishments of Louis XIV. fhould continue the impreffion made by the writings of Voltaire, go to the canal of Languedoc, and by no means to Verfailles. Return to Paris.14 miles.

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The 24th. With Monf. de Brouffonet to the King's cabinet of natural hiftory and the botanical garden, which is in beautiful order. Its riches are well known, and the politenefs of Monf. Thouin, which is that of a moft amiable difpofition, renders this garden the fcene of other rational pleasures befides those of botany. Dine at the Invalides, with Monf. Parmentier, the celebrated author of many œconomical works, particularly on the boulangerie of France. This gentleman, to a confiderable mafs of ufeful knowledge, adds a great deal of that fire and vivacity for which his nation has been distinguished, but which I have not recognized fo often as I expected.

The 25th. This great city appears to be in many respects the most ineligible and inconvenient for the refidence of a perfon of fmall fortune of any that I have seen; and vaftly inferior to London. The ftreets are very narrow, and many of them crouded, nine-tenths dirty, and all without foot-pavements. Walking, which in London is so pleasant and so clean, that ladies do it every day, is here a toil and fatigue to a man, and an impoffibility to a well dressed woman. The coaches are numerous, and, what are much worse, there are an infinity of one-horfe cabriolets, which are driven by young men of fashion and their imitators, alike fools, with fuch rapidity as to be real nuifances, and render the streets exceedingly dangerous, without an inceffant caution. I faw a poor child run over and probably killed, and have been myself many times blackened with the mud of the kennels. This beggarly practice, of driving a one-horse booby hutch about the streets of a great capital, flows either from poverty or a wretched and despicable œconomy; nor is it poffible to speak of it with too much feverity. If young noblemen at London were to drive their chaifes in ftreets without foot-ways, as their brethren do at Paris, they would speedily and juftly get very well threshed, or rolled in the kennel. This circumftance renders Paris an ineligible refidence for perfons, particularly families that cannot afford to keep a coach; a convenience which is as dear as at London. The fiacres, hackney-coaches, are much worse than at that city; and chairs there are none, for they would be driven down in the streets. To this circumftance also it is owing, that all perfons of small or moderate fortune, are forced to drefs in black, with black stockings; the dufky hue of this in company is not fo difagreeable a circumftance as being too great a diftinction; too clear a line drawn in company between a man that has a good fortune, and another that has not. With the pride, arrogance, and ill temper of English wealth this could not be borne; but the prevailing good humour of the French cafes all fuch untoward circumftances. Lodgings are not half fo good as at London, yet confiderably dearer. If you do not hire a whole fuite of rooms at an hotel, you must probably mount three, four, or five pair of stairs, and in general have nothing but a bed-chamber. After the horrid fatigue of the streets,

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fuch an elevation is a delectable circumftance. You must fearch with trouble before you will be lodged in a private family, as gentlemen ufually are at London, and pay a higher price. Servants wages are about the fame as at that city. It is to be regretted that Paris (hould have thefe difadvantages, for in other refpects I take it to be a moft eligible refidence for fuch as prefer a great city. The fociety for a man of letters, or who has any fcientific purfuit, cannot be exceeded. The intercourfe between fuch men and the great, which, if it is not upon an equal footing, ought never to exist at all, is refpectable. Perfons of the highest rank pay an attention to science and literature, and emulate the character they confer. I fhould pity the man who expected, without other advantages of a very different nature, to be well received in a brilliant circle at London, because he was a fellow of the Royal Society. But this would not be the cafe with a member of the Academy of Sciences at Paris; he is fure of a good reception every where. Perhaps this contraft depends in a great measure on the difference of the governments of the two countries. Politics are too much attended to in England to allow a due refpect to be paid to any thing elfe; and should the French eftablish a freer government, academicians will not be held in fuch eftimation, when rivalled in the public efteem by the orators who hold forth liberty and property in a free parliament.

The 28th. Quit Paris, and take the road to Flanders. Monf. de Brouffonet was fo obliging as to accompany me to Dugny, to view the farm of Monf. Cretté de Palluel a very intelligent cultivator. Take the road to Senlis: at Dammertin, I met by accident a French gentleman, a Monf. du Pré du St. Cotin. Hearing me converfing with a farmer on agriculture, he introduced himself as an amateur, gave me an account of feveral experiments he had made on his estate in Champagne, and promised a more particular detail; in which he was as good as his word. -22 miles.

The 29th. Pafs Nanteul, where the Prince of Condé has a chateau, to Villes-Coterets, in the midst of immense forests belonging to the duke of Orleans. The crop of this country, therefore, is princes of the blood; that is to fay, hares, pheafants, deer, boars !—26 miles.

The 30th. Soiffons feems a poor town, without manufactures, and chiefly supported by a corn-trade, which goes hence by water to Paris and Rouen.

25 miles.

The 31st. Coucy is beautifully fituated on a hill, with a fine vale winding befide it. At St. Gobin, which is in the midst of great woods, I viewed the fabric of plate-glafs the greateft in the world. I was in high luck, arriving about half an hour before they begun to rún glaffes for the day. Pafs La Fere. Reach St. Quintin, where are confiderable manufactures that employed me all the afternoon. From St. Gobin, are the most beautiful flate roofs I have anywhere feen.30 miles.

NOVEMBER

NOVEMBER I.

Near Belle Angloife I turned afide half a league to view the canal of Picardy, of which I had heard much. In paffing from St. Quintin to Cambray the country rifes fo much, that it was neceffary to carry it in a tunnel under ground for a confiderable depth, even under many vales as well as hills. In one of thefe vallies there is an opening for visiting it by an arched stair-cafe, on which I defcended 134 steps to the canal, and, as this valley is much below the adjacent and other hills, the great depth at which it is dug, may be conceived. Over the door of the defcent, is the following infcription :-L'ann. 1781. Monf. le Comte d'Agay etant intendant de cette province, Monf. Laurent de Lionni etant directeur de l'ancien & nouveau canal de Picardie, & Monf. de Champrofé inspecteur, Jofeph II. Empereur Roi des Romaines, a parcourru en batteau le canal fous terrain depuis cet endroit jufques au puit, No. 20, le 28, & a temoigné fa fatisfaction d'avoir vu cet ouvrage en ces termes: " Je fuis fier d'etre homme, quand je vois qu'un de mes femblables a ofé imaginer & executer un ouvrage ausi vaste et aussi hardie. Cette idea me levé l'ame."-These three Meffieurs lead the dance here in a very French ftyle. The great Jofeph follows humbly in their train; and as to poor Louis XVI. at whofe expence the whole was done, thefe gentlemen certainly thought that no name less than that of an emperor ought to be annexed to theirs. When infcriptions are fixed to public works, no names ought to be permitted but thofe of the king, whose merit patronizes, and the engineer or artist whofe genius executes the work. As to a mob of intendants, directors, and inspectors, let them go to the devil! The canal at this place is ten French feet wide and twelve high, hewn entirely out of the chalk rock, imbedded, in which are many flints-no mafonry. There is only a small part finished of ten toifes long for a pattern, twenty feet broad and twenty high. Five thousand toifes are already done in the manner of that part which I viewed; and the whole distance under ground, when the tunnel will be complete, is 7020 toises (each fix feet) or about nine miles. It has already coft 1,200,000 liv. (52,500l.) and there wants 2,500,000 liv. (109,3751.) to complete it; fo that the total estimate is near four millions. It is executed by fhafts. At prefent there is not above five or fix inches of water in it. This great work has stood ftill entirely fince the adminiftration of the archbishop of Toulouze. When we fee fuch works ftand still for want of money, we shall reasonably be inclined to ask, What are the fervices that continue fupplied? and to conclude, that amongst kings, and minifters, and nations, economy is the first virtue :-without it, genius is a meteor; victory a found; and all courtly fplendour a public robbery. At Cambray, view the manufacture. Thefe frontier towns of Flanders are built in the old ftyle, but the ftreets broad, handfome, well paved, and lighted. I need not obferve, that all are fortified, and that every flep in this country has been rendered famous or infamous according to the feelings of the fpectator, by many of

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