The Cambridge History of Africa, Volume 2
After the prehistory of Volume I, Volume II of The Cambridge History of Africa deals with the beginnings of history. It is about 500 BC that historical sources begin to embrace all Africa north of the Sahara and, by the end of the period, documentation is also beginning to appear for parts of sub-Saharan Africa. North of the Sahara, this situation arises since Africans were sharing in the major civilizations of the Mediterranean world. It is shown that these northern Africans were not simply passive recipients of Phoenician, Greek, Roman and Arab influences, or of the great religions and cultures of Judaism, Christianity and Islam coming from the Semitic world. They adapted these things to their own particular needs and purposes, and sometimes too contributed to their general development. But the North African civilization failed to make headway south of the Sahara.
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North Africa in the period of Phoenician
North Africa in the Hellenistic and Roman
The Nilotic Sudan and Ethiopia c 660 Bc to c AD
TransSaharan contacts and the Iron
The emergence of Bantu Africa
The Christian period in Mediterranean
The Arab conquest and the rise of Islam
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Abbasid Abū Aghlabid agriculture al-Bakri Alexandria Allah Almoravids Arabic archaeological army Awdaghust Bantu Banū became Berber Bishop Byzantine caliph camel Carthage Carthaginian centre century BC Christian Church coast conquest Coptic cultivation culture Cyrenaica Cyrene desert Donatist dynasty Early Iron Age east eastern Egypt Egyptian emperor empire Ethiopia evidence excavations Fatimid forest fourth century Ghana Greek hominids Ibadite Ibn Hawqal Ifriqiya important inscription Iron Age Islam Kairouan king kingdom known land language later Libyans Maghrib Masinissa Mauretania Mediterranean Meroe Meroitic Middle military millennium Monophysite Muslim Napata Neolithic Nile ninth century nomads North Africa North-West Africa northern Nubia Numidian origin perhaps period Persian Phoenician population pottery Prehistory probably province Ptolemy radiocarbon region reign revolt Roman Rome royal ruler Sahara settlement Sijilmasa southern Stone Age Sudan suggests Syria Tahert temple tion town trade tradition tribes West Africa western Zambia Zirid