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of trusting in God, he means thereby that full assurance of mind, whereby we hold God to be our God; that at least this is also enjoined by the law. We are to consider this more distinctly. When the law enjoins us to take God for our God, it is to be understood in this manner, viz. to take him for our Creator, preserver, lawgiver, and Supreme Lord; this is absolutely and without distinction enjoined upon all men: but if we understand it thus, to take him for our saving good, this is enjoined upon none, but in that method which the revealed will of God prescribes. And this is the way either that men shall obtain the salvation of God by a most personal obedience, as proposed to Adam in innocence, which is now impossible for the sinner; or, that sinful man be converted, and united by faith to Christ, then examine himself whether he be in the faith, and in Christ, which being discovered, he may then indeed glory and exult in God his Saviour; this is the way that is now proposed in the gospel. But the law enjoins us to embrace every truth by faith, which God either has revealed, or shall reveal, and to walk agreeably to that truth. But the law no where enjoins the impenitent sinner to look upon God as the God of his salvation. Nay, the law, as it was given to Adam himself, enjoins him to believe the contrary. And thus I imagine I have fully dispatched the quaint subtilties of Arminius, that it is of immutable right, that man, even under sin and guilt, is still under obligation to obey the law.

XII. We proceed a step farther, to shew that man, even after the violation of the covenant, continues bound, not only to obedience, but to a perfect performance of duty. Paul said of those who are without the covenant of grace, Gal. v. 3. "that they are debtors to do the whole law." Nor can it otherwise be; for the law of the covenant, as to the natural precepts, is immutable, being the transcript of the image of God, which is no less immutable than God himself: for if the image which had the nearest resemblance is changed, and yet continues still to resemble its archetype, or original, the archetype itself must also necessarily be changed. But the law of the covenant did undoubtedly require perfect obedi


XIII. Besides, if we imagine any abatement and relaxation of the law after sin, we are to conceive, that God addressed sinful man after this manner: "I formerly commanded thee to esteem as the supreme truth, thy chief good, and thy sovereign Lord, and consequently to assent with the fullest assu


rance of faith to all my precepts, to love me with all thy soul, and all thy strength, and esteem nothing preferable to that which is acceptable to me, to employ thy all in my service, at all times and in all things, to be at my command, and beck, and never venture on any thing that is not agreeable to my will. But now, since thou hast once presumed to disobey me, I require no more for the future, but that thou esteem me indeed to be the truth, but not infallible; to be thy good, but not the chief; to be thy Lord, but not the supreme and I allow thee to doubt of some of my testimonies, to love other things besides, and above me; to place thy happiness in other things besides my favour; in fine, to depend on me in some things, but in other things to act at thy own discretion." If all these be absurd and unworthy of God, as they certainly are; it is also absurd and unworthy of God, to abate and relax any thing of his law. But if these general propositions are of immutable truth; that as God is the chief good, he is, at all times, and by all persons to be loved with the whole heart; as he is the supreme lord, none can ever, under any pretence, act but according to his command; now the most perfect performance of every duty, must be the manifest consequence of all this.

XIV. Again, to perform duty perfectly, as every one will allow, is better than to do it in a slight manner. For all the goodness of duty consists in its agreement with the rule and directory of it. There must therefore be a certain rule, enjoining that perfection, which is a greater degree of goodness. If God has prescribed such a rule, it must certainly bind man to conform himself to it.

XV. The conscience of man, upon due attention, cannot but assent to these things. To make this appear I shall adjoin two excellent passages, one from Epictetus, the other from the emperor Julian. The former speaks thus, Dissertat. lib. 2. c. 11. "Having found a rule, let us keep it inviolable, and not extend so much as a finger beyond it." The latter thus, Orat. 1. "There is an ancient law given by him who first taught mankind philosophy, and which runs thus: that all who have an eye to virtue and to honesty, ought, in their words and actions, in society and 'in all the affairs of this life, both small and great, endeavour altogether after honesty." The law therefore of the old covenant continues to bind all mankind, without exception, to a perfect performance of duty.

XVI. The second thing, which we said, sect. II. was ir


mutable in the covenant of works, was this; that eternal life was not obtainable on any other condition but that of perfect obedience as may thus be invincibly proved; for, by virtue of this general rule, it was necessary for Christ to be made under the law, Gal. iv. 4. and fulfil all righteousness, and that for this end, that the righteousness of the law might be fulfilled, Rom. viii. 4. But if this righteousness had not been sacred and inviolable, Christ would have been under no necessity to submit to the covenant of the law, in order to merit eternal life for his people. This therefore is evident, that there ought to be a merit of perfect obedience on which a right to eternal life may be founded. Nor is it material whether that perfect obedience be performed by man himself, or by his surety.

XVII. The third thing which we affirmed as an unchangeable truth, regards the penal sanction; for that immutable and indispensable justice which we already defended by so many arguments, chap. V. sect. XVIII. seq. certainly requires this, so that there is no occasion to add any thing further.

XVIII. Since then these three things, the law, the promise and the threatening, constitute the entire nature of the covenant, as proposed by God, stand so firm; one may conclude, that though man has really on his part broken the covenant, yet no abrogation of the covenant is made on the part of God. But, on duly weighing the matter, we must also acknowledge some abrogation on the part of God: as may be evidently inferred from the substitution of the new covenant of grace. For thus the Apostle has taught us to reason, Heb. viii. 13. "In that he saith a new covenant, he hath made the first old." For though the abrogation of the old does not necessarily infer the substitution of a new; yet the substitution of a new does certainly import the abrogation of the old. It is indeed true, that the Apostle, in this place, does not speak precisely of the covenant of works, but of the old economy of the covenant of grace, which he says is abrogated. But yet we properly build on his reasoning, which we may also, and ought to apply to this subject; namely, that every substitution of a new covenant supposes the abrogation of an old one.

XIX. That abrogation on the part of God consists in this, that God has declared that no man can, by virtue of this covenant, have friendship with him, or obtain eternal life; so that he has declared all to have forfeited the promise of the covenant, and the hope of enjoying that promise according to


that covenant. This is what the Apostle says; "there is i not now a law, which can give life, as that righteousness should be by the law," Gal. iii. 21. To this purpose is what the law cannot do, which he inculcates, Rom. viii. 3.

XX. And that covenant is so really abrogated, that it can on no account be renewed. For should we imagine God saying to man; "If, for the future, thou canst perfectly keep my law, thou shalt thereby acquire a right to eternal life," God would not by such words renew this very covenant of works; for sin is now pre-supposed to exist, which is contrary to that perfection of obedience which the covenant of works requires. God would therefore transact here with man on a different condition, whereby forgiving the former sin, he would prescribe a condition of an obedience less perfect than that which he stipulated by the covenant of works; which, excluding all sin, knew nothing of forgiveness of sin. Nay, such a transaction would be so far from a renewal of the covenant of works, that it would rather manifestly destroy it. For the penal sanction makes a part of that covenant whereby God threatened the sinner with death, so that if he forgave him without a due satisfaction, he would act contrary to the covenant and his own truth.

XXI. The law therefore remains as the rule of our duty; but abrogated as to its federal nature; nor can it be the condition by the performance of which man may acquire a right to the reward. In this sense the Apostle says, "We are not under the law," Rom. vi. 14. Namely, as prescribing the condition of life. There is indeed still an indissoluble connection between perfect righteousness and eternal life, so that the last cannot be obtained without the first. But after that man, by falling from righteousness, had lost all his hope of the reward, God was at liberty either to punish the sinner according to his demerit, or give him a surety to fulfil all righteousness in his stead.

XXII. There are learned men, who, besides this abolition of the covenant of works, which regards the possibility of giving life and justification, enumerate four other degrees of abolition in this order. 1st, Of condemnation, by Christ being proposed in the promise, and apprehended by faith. adly, Of terror, or the power of the fear of death and bondage, by the promulgation of the new covenant, after the expiation of sin which being once accomplished, they who are redeemed are under the law of the Redeemer. So that the same law, abolished in the Redeemer as the law of sin, be



comes the law of the Saviour, and adjudges righteousness to to those who are his. 3dly, Of that war or struggle with sin, by the death of the body. 4thly, Of all the effects of it, by the resurrection from the dead.

XXIII. But let us give our reasons why we have hitherto doubted whether these things are with sufficient accuracy conceived and digested. Ist, All the particulars here mentioned belong to the covenant of grace. But the covenant of grace does not abrogate, but supposes the abrogation of the covenant of works: because there could be no place for this, without the abrogation of the other in the sense now mentioned. 2dly, The covenant of grace is not the abolition, but rather the confirmation of the covenant of works, in so far as the mediator has fulfilled all the conditions of that covenant, so that all believers may be justified and saved, according to the covenant of works, to which satisfaction was made by the mediator. This is the Apostle's meaning, Rom. iii. 31. "Do we then make void the law through faith? God forbid; yea, we establish the law." And again, Rom. viii. 4. "That the righteousness of the law might be fulfilled in us." Which signifies (as the learned person, whose opinion we are now examining, comments on this place) "that what the law accounts for righteousness is fully bestowed on us; and consequently, that what merits the reward of the law, becomes perfectly ours." 3dly, The very law of the covenant which gave up the human sinner to sin, when his condition is once changed by union with Christ the surety, does now, without any abolition, abrogatlon, or any other change whatever, absolve the man from the guilt and dominion of sin, and bestow on him that sanctification and glorification, which are gradually to be brought to that perfection which he shall obtain at the resurrection of the dead; as being constrained to bear witness to the justification of the covenant of grace. This is what the learned person not improperly says in the words we have just quoted: "So that the same law, abolished in the Redeemer as the law of sin, becomes the law of the Saviour; and bestows righteousness on those who are his ;" which he has at large and learnedly explained on Rom. viii. 2. In a word, the same law which was to man in innocence a commandment to life, and is to man in sin, the law of sin, giving him up to the dominion and guilt of sin, becomes again in the Redeemer the law of the spirit of life, testifying that satisfaction was made to it by the Redeemer, and bestowing on man, who by faith is become one with the Redeemer, all the fruits

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