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of righteousness for justification, sanctification, and glorification. All the change is in the state of the man, none in the law of the covenant, according to which man, in whatever state he is, is judged. Which things seem not to have escaped the observation of the learned person himself; when, Summa Theolog. c. 31. sect. 1. he speaks to this purpose. Nevertheless when we say this, we mean, that this fourfold abolition and removal of the covenant concerning works to be done, which is connected without our own happiness, is founded on the same law: not that this could be done by virtue of the law in itself alone, but that the intervention of a surety and redeemer made it, at last, possible to the law. I allow that what he calls the abolition of the covenant concerning works, is founded in the law of works; but I leave it to the reader's consideration, whether it is not a strange way of talking, to say, that "the abolition and removal of the law, is founded on the law itself, and that the intervention of a surety and redeemer made it, at last, possible to the law;" namely, that itself should effect its own absolution and removal? From all which I conclude, that it will be more proper to treat of these things when we speak of the fruits and effects of the covenant of grace, than when considering the abolition of the covenant of works: which is on no account abolished, but in so far as it is become impossible for man to attain to life by his own personal works.











Introduction to the Covenant of Grace.


THEN the covenant of works was thus broken by the sin of man, and abrogated by the just judgment of God, wretched man was cast headlong into the deepest gulf of ruin, whence there could be no escape. For listening to the solicitation of the devil, and giving way to his own reasonings, he, in a most violent manner, withdrew himself from God, that he might be at his own disposal; and (like the prodigal son, Luke xv. 12.) throwing off his rightful subordination to God, sold and enslaved himself to the devil. All which were acts of the highest injustice: for man had no right thus to dispose of himself; nor the devil to accept of what was God's. Yet God considering that by this rash and unjust action man was justly punished, did, by his righteous judgment, ratify all this for his further punishment, gave him up to himself, as the most wretched and foolish of masters; and to sin, as a cruel tyrant, which would continually force him. to every abominable practice. "And even as they did not like to retain God in their knowledge, God gave them over


to a reprobate mind, to do those things which are not convenient," Rom. i. 28. He also " gave them up unto vile affections," verse 26; that so they might receive that recompence which was meet," verse 27. In fine, he delivered them up as slaves to the devil, to be "taken captive by him at his will," 2 Tim. ii. 26. And all this according to that most equitable law; " of whom a man is overcome, of the same he is brought in bondage," 2 Pet. ii. 19.

II. Moreover, when man was no longer in covenant with God, he then became "without God and without hope in the world," Eph. ii. 12. For it was impossible for him to devise any method, becoming God, whereby, consistently with divine truth, justice, and holiness, he could be reconciled with God, and return again to his favour. The law of sin was also just, by which man was enslaved to sin, to the dominion and condemnation of it, and given up to the devil as his tormentor. In which sense he is said to be not only the captive of the devil, of the strong man, mentioned Matt: xii. 29; but also the lawful captive, Isa. xlix. 24. For he had the power of death, Heb. ii. 14. and that by the law, I Cor. xv. 56. the strength of sin is the law. Nor could man contrive any way, whereby sin, which condemned, by the most equitable law, could itself be justly condemned by God. III. But it pleased God, according to the riches of his unsearchable wisdom, to lay this breach of the legal covenant as a foundation for his stupendous works; for he took occasion to set up a new covenant of grace; in which he might much more clearly display the inestimable treasures of his all-sufficiency, than if every thing had gone well with man according to the first covenant: and thus he discovered what seemed to surpass all belief and comprehension, that God, who is true, just, and holy, could, without any diminution to, nay rather with a much more illustrious display of his adorable perfections, become the God and Salvation of the sinner: for he found out that admirable way to reconcile the strictest vindictive justice with the most condescending mercy. So that the one should be no obstruction to the other. For so illustrious an exercise of these perfections, there could have been no place under the covenant of works.

IV. If therefore any thing ought to be accounted worthy of our most attentive consideration, certainly it is the covenant of grace, of which we now attempt to treat. Here the way is pointed out to a Paradise far preferable to the earthly, and to a more certain and stable felicity, than that from which Adam fell. Here a new hope shines upon ruined mor


tals, which ought to be the more acceptable, the more unexpected it comes. Here conditions are offered to which eternal salvation is annexed; conditions, not to be performed again by us, which might throw the mind into despondency; but by him who would not part with his life before he had truly said, it is finished. Here, with the brightest splendour, shine forth the wonderful perfections of our God, his wisdom, power, truth, justice, holiness, goodness, philanthropy, or good-will to man, mercy, and what tongue can rehearse them all? Never before displayed on a more august theatre, to the admiration of all who behold them. Whoever therefore loves his own salvation, whoever longs to delight himself in the contemplation of the divine perfections, he must come hither, and deeply engage in holy meditations on the covenant of grace, which I think may not improperly be thus defined:

V. The covenant of grace is a compact, or agreement bez tween God and the elect sinner; God on his part declaring bis free good-will concerning eternal salvation, and every thing relative thereto, freely to be given to those in covenant, by, and for the mediator Christ; and man on his part consenting to that good-will by a sincere faith.


Of the covenant between God the Father and the Son.

I. IN order the more thoroughly to understand the nature of the covenant of grace, two things are above all to be distinctly considered. Ist, The covenant which intervenes between God the Father and Christ the Mediator. 2dly, That testamentory disposition, by which God bestows by an immutable covenant, eternal salvation, and every thing relative thereto, upon the elect. The former agreement is between God and the Mediator: the latter, between God and the Elect. This last pre-supposes the first, and is founded upon it.

II. When I speak of the compact between the Father and the Son, I thereby understand the will of the Father, giving the Son to be the head and Redeemer of the elect; and the will of the Son, presenting himself as a sponsor or surety for them; in all which the nature of a compact and agreement consists. The Scriptures represent the Father, in the economony of our salvation, as demanding the obedience of the Son even into death; and upon condition of that obedience, promising him in his turn that name which is above every


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