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strong consolation in himself; for, the consciousness of our faith gives us assurance of salvation; thus the apostle joins these two together, 2 Tim. i. 12. “ I know whom I have believed, and I am persuaded he is able to keep that which I have committed unto him against that day." 3dly, That with the greater alacrity, he may run the race of piety: for he who is assured that he acts from faith, is also assured, that his labour shall not be in vain in the Lord; and this assurance makes the believer stedfast, immoveable, always abounding in the work of the Lord, 1 Cor. xv. 58.



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HAT faith which we have in the last chapter treated of as saving, is usually also called justifying in the divinity schools. And since justification is its first memorable effect, it will by no means be improper to speak of it now, and that with the greater accuracy, as it so nearly concerns the whole of religion that we stumble not in explaining this article. The doctrine of justification diffuseth itself through the whole body of divinity, and if the foundation here is well laid, the whole building will be the more solid and grand; whereas a bad foundation or superstructure threatens a dreadful ruin. The pious Picardians, as they were called in Bohemia and Moravia valued this article, at its true price, when in their confession of faith, Art. vi. speaking of justification, they thus write: " this sixth article is accounted with us the most principal of all, as being the sum of alf Christianity and piety. Wherefore our divines teach and handle it with all diligence and application, and endeavour to instil it into all." Let us to the utmost of our power imitate them in this, beginning with its name.

II. To justify, in hebrew p, in greek xv, is very frequently and ordinarily used in a declarative sense, and signifies to account, declare, prove any one just. Which is manifest from those places of scripture, where it occurs, as the act of a judge, as Psal. lxxxii. 3. “ do justice to (justify) the afflicted and needy;" and this is especially the case, when it is opposed to condemnation, as Deut. xxv. 1. Prov. xvii. 15. Isa. v. 22, 23


III. And doubtless this word has such a signification when God is said to be justified, as Psal. Ji. 4. " that thou mightest be justified when thou speakest;" that is, that thou mightest be declared, proved, acknowledged to be just, when thou pronouncest sentence. In like manner, Mat. xi. 19. " wisdom is justified of her children," that is, they who are truly regenerated ef God by the Gospel have accounted the wisdom of God

which the Scribes and Pharisees falsely accounted foolishness to be, as it really is, the most consummate wisdom, and cleared it from the calumny of folly, with which it was branded. In the same sense it is said, Luke vii. 29. "all the people and the publicans justified God."

IV. Nor can this word have any other than a forensick signification, when Christ is said to be justified, 1 Tim. iii. 16. and still more fully Isa. 1. 8.where the Lord himself thus speaketh: "he is near that justifieth me, who will contend with me? Let us stand together; who is mine adversary?" Almost in the same manner as the apostle speaks of the elect, Rom. viii. 33, 34. How was Christ justified? 1st, When the father declared that he was holy and without spot, according to his hind and will, and even such " in whom he was well pleased," Mat. iii. 17. and xvii. 5. adly, When he pronounced him innocent of all the crimes with which he was falsely accused, and for which he was unjustly condemned. 3dly, When he declared, that he had made full satisfaction to his justice, and was no longer under the guilt of those sins which as surety he took upon himself. The two former acts of justification respect Christ as man; the last as mediator. And in this view he is called "the righteous or just servant of God," Isa. liii. 11. not only as holy and without sin in himself, but as one who had also fulfilled all that righteousness to which he bound himself by his voluntary engagement, whereby, tho' he was the son, yet he became the servant of God, and by his resurrection was declared to have performed the whole, and so was exalted to that state, that he might be able to justify many, or procure righteousness for many, by virtue of his own righteousness.

V. But we are not to imagine we have accomplished any great matter, when we have shewn that justification is often taken in a forensick or law sense. For scarce any who love to be called Christians, have such a bold front or stubborn mind as to deny it. Certainly the popish doctors themselves generally own it; Bellarm, de justificat. Lib. 1. c. i. Becan. Sum. Theol. T. 2. Tract.4.c. iii. Tirin. Controvers. 15. No. 1. Nor do they deny that Paul himself sometimes treats of justification in that sense: Estius in Comm. ad Rom. ii. 13. Observes that to be justified there is the same thing as to be" adjudged, declared, accounted righteous according, says he, to the most usual language of scripture." Which interpretation Ruardus Tapperus also approves, ad Art. 8. p. 32. I will do my townsman the honour to quote his words. "As to what was a foresaid, says he, it is to be considered, that in scripture, to be justified •ENCHUSANO meo. For it seems, Tapperus was born at Enhuysen as well as



justified, not only signifies, to be endowed and adorned with righteousness; but sometimes also to be pronounced, declared, adjudged, allowed, and esteemed just or righteous. According to which interpretation, blessed Augustine explains the Apostle Paul's expression. The doers of the law shall be justified, "that is, says he, shall be accounted and esteemed just." In like manner, Cornelius a Lapide on Rom. viii. 33. " it is God that justifieth," thus comments: "it is God, that acquits these elect persons, namely, his faithful people and true christians, from their sins, and absolves from the charge brought against them by sin and the devil, and pronounces them just," or righteous. The state of the controversy therefore between us and the doctors of the church of Rome, is not whether justification be sometimes taken in a forensick or law sense: for that is confessed on both sides.

VI. What then? Are we thus to state the question, namely, whether the term to justify has always in scripture a forensick sense? But the most eminent protestant divines do not af firm this, and therefore it would be too harsh and inhuman to charge them with prevarication on that account. Beza on Tit. iii. 7. thus comments; "I take the term justification in a large sense, as comprehending whatever we obtain from Christ, as well by imputation, as by the efficacy of the spirit in our sanctification, that we may be aprio that is, perfect and compleat in him. Thus also the term justify is taken Rom. viii. 30. Much to the same purpose Thysius in synops. Purior. Theolog. Leyden. Disput. 23. sect. 3. Nor yet do we deny, that, on account of their very great and close connection, justification seems sometimes to comprize sanctification also, as a consequent, Rom. viii. 30. Tit. iii. 7. &c. I shall add one testimony more, namely, Chamierus Panstrat. T. 3. Lib. 10. c 1. No 6. who speaks to this purpose: "We are not such ridiculous judges of words as not to know, nor such impertinent sophisters, as not to allow that the terms justification and sanctification, are put one for the other: yea, we know that they are called saints principally on this account, that in Christ they have remission of sin. And we read in the Revelations," let him that is righteous, be righteous still;" which can only be understood of the progress of inherent righteousness; and we deny not, that there may be a promiscuous use of the words perhaps in other places.

VII. And indeed this ingenuity of these very great men is not to be too much canvassed, who, though they have granted so much to their adversaries, have yet, in the main question happily triumphed over them. Nevertheless we see no suffiVol. 1.

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cient reasons why they should have been so liberal to them. There had been no violence put on the alledged passages, if in them the term justification should be taken in the sense in which Paul commonly takes it: nor doth it appear that all things would have flowed less agreeably.

VIII. What should hinder us from explaining Rom. viii. 30. in this manner? Whom he did predestinate, that is, whom, by his most free and inmutable decree, he has chosen to grace and glory, them be also called, that is, by his word and spirit he sweetly invited, and powerfully drew them from a state of sin and misery to communion with Christ, and being endowed with faith regenerated them: and whom he called, them he also jus tified; that is, as soon as they were united to Christ by the Holy spirit and by faith, he, on the account of the merits of Christ, imputed to them, acquitted them from the guilt of sin, and adjudging them to have a right to all the good things of Christ, as well in grace as in glory and whom he justified, them he also glorified; that is, he not only gave them a right, but also put them in actual possession of the greatest blessings. 1st, By sanctifying them, and transforming them more and more to his own image, and making them partakers of a divine nature, which doubtless is a great degree of glory. 2dly, By plentifully pouring in upon them the sweetest consolations of his spirit, which are, as it were, the preludes of joy and gladness. 3dly, and lastly, By making them perfectly happy, first in soul, and then in soul and body together.

IX. But we think it far more proper to comprize sanctifica tion under glorification than to refer it to justification. For, it is familiar to the Holy Spirit, to delineate holiness under the names of beauty, ornament, and glory. Thus Ps. xciн. 5. boliness becometh thine house. Ps. cx. 3. thy people shall be willing in the day of thy power, in the beauties of holiness. Nay, by the very term glory, holiness and righteousness are expressed Ps. xlv.13. the king's daughter is allglorious within: But what else is meant there by that glory, but the genuine holiness of believers? Or as Peter speaks, 1 Pet. iii. 4. “ the hidden man of the heart, in that which is not corruptible, even the ornament of a meek and quiet spirit, which is in the sight of God of great price:" add Isa. lxii. 2. and the Gentiles shall see thy RIGHTEOUSNESS, and all kings thy GLORY; where these two words are used alternately one for the other and justly, for the highest pitch of our glory consists in a perfect conformity to God, I John iii.2. But holiness is the image, Eph. iv. 24. of God so that saints who accurately express, or resemble that image, are on that account called the glory of Christ, 2 Cor. viii. 23.


Why then should we not account cur conformity to God in holiness as no contemptible first fruits of glory? Certainly Paul calls the progress made in sanctification, a transformation, or a being changed from GLORY to GLORY, 2 Cor. iii. 18.

X. It is plain, that with the same propriety we may understand by justification, Tit. iii. 7, absolution from guilt, and an adjudging to eternal life. For the first work of a man who is regenerated by the Holy Spirit, is the work of faith, the infallible consequent of which is, the remission of sins; this is either succeeded by, or attended with, the hope of the inheritance of eternal life. What probable reason is there then to make us to depart from this sense? And if we would have sanctification contained in any of the words, which the Apostle makes use of, why shall we not rather refer it to regeneration and the renewal of the Holy Ghost? For really, sanctification differs no otherways from the first regeneration and renovation than as the continuance of an act differs from the beginning of it. And we are sure, that the Apostle exhorts the Romans who had been, for some time regenerated, to a progress in sanctification, when he writes, Rom. xii. 2. be ye transformed by the renewing of your minds: and in like manner, Eph. iv. 23. be renewed in the spirit of your mind. As the beginning of this renovation goes before justification strictly so called, so the progress of it serves to promote the certainty and the sense of justification; and in both respects it was excellently well said by the Apostle, that the elect are regenerated by the Holy Spirit, shed on them abundantly; that being thus justified by his grace, that is, acquitted from sin, and conscious to themselves of absolution, they might lawfully, yea in full assurance, hope for the inheritance of eternal life.

XI. As to Rev. xxii. 11. he that is righteous, let him be righteous still; it does not appear that any fuller sense can be put on these words than if we thus explain them: whoever is reputed righteous before God by faith on Christ, should think it his duty, or concern, to verify by his actions this his justification before men and to his own conscience; and so by faith and the exercise of it, and by studying the word of God, he may have a more abounding consolation concerning his righteousness. And by this reasoning too, the forensick use of this term is still retained.

XII. Others also allege, 1 Cor. vi. 11. "but ye are washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye are justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the spirit of our God." But even this testimony does not prove that justification is equivalent to sanctification, rather the contrary. For after the Apostle had

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