Evoked Spinal Cord Potentials: An illustrated Guide to Physiology, Pharmocology, and Recording Techniques

Couverture
Koki Shimoji, William D. Jr. Willis
Springer Science & Business Media, 18 janv. 2008 - 215 pages

Techniques using evoked spinal cord potentials (SCPs) have become important clinical tools for monitoring spinal cord surgery and diagnosing spinal cord diseases. This book surveys the neurophysiological and neuropharmacological bases of evoked SCPs with reference to animal studies and to recording those potentials mainly from the spinal epidural space. Generous use of illustrations promotes understanding of the neurophysiological and neuropharmacological backgrounds of monitoring spinal cord functions, and case studies provide additional insight into the monitoring and diagnosis of spinal cord dysfunction and disease. The book is especially useful for students and those new to the fields of clinical neurophysiology, neurosurgery, neurology, orthopedics, and neuroanesthesia. No other text sets forth the terminology of the components of evoked SCPs as clearly as this volume does with its careful use of lucid explanations and illustrations.

 

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Table des matières

Neuroanatomical Considerations
3
12 Spinal Meninges
8
14 Afferent Input to the Spinal Cord
14
15 Somatosensory and Other Ascending Tracts
17
152 Spinothalamic and Associated Tracts of the Anterolateral Quadrant
20
16 Input to the Spinal Cord from Pathways Descending from the Brain
21
161 Corticospinal Tract
22
162 Other Descending Pathways from the Brain
24
526 Summary
96
53 Effects of Inhalation Anesthetics
98
542 Epidural Lidocaine on Conducting SCPs
100
543 Intrathecal Lidocaine on Conducting SCPs
101
544 Summary
102
Motor Evoked SCPs
103
Transcranial Magnetically Evoked SCPs TCMEvoked SCPs
105
12 Basic Patterns of TCMEvoked SCPs
106

Physiology of the Spinal Cord
26
22 Responses of Nociceptive Dorsal Horn Neurons to Peripheral Input
29
23 Responses of Spinal Cord Neurons to Corticospinal Volleys
32
Pharmacology of the Spinal Cord
34
Overviews of Human Evoked Spinal Cord Potentials SCPs Recording Methods and Terminology
40
42 Recording Methods of Human SCPs from the Posterior Epidural Space
44
43 Six Different Kinds of Human SCPs Recorded from the Epidural Space
46
433 Slow SCPs Produced by Antidromic Stimulation of the Spinal Cord Descending SCP
48
TCMEvoked SCPs
49
Somatosensory Evoked Spinal Cord Potentials Segmental SCPs
52
Segmental SCPs
53
12 Comparison with Skin Surface Recordings
54
14 Origins of the Segmental SCP
57
143 The Slow Positive Wave P Wave P2 Wave
61
Spinal Cord Potentials Evoked by Ascending Volleys
65
22 SCPs Evoked by Two Ascending Volleys from the Cauda Equina
66
23 Conduction Velocities of Ascending Volleys Along the Cord
67
Spinal Cord Potentials Evoked by Descending Volleys
71
32 Effects of Graded Stimulation to Determine the Population of Spinal Tract Fibers that Produce Descending SCPs
73
33 Effects of Double Shocks on Descending SCPs
76
34 Origins of Descending N and P Waves in Human SCPs
77
35 Spinal Tracts Producing N and P Waves
79
Heterosegmental SCPs HSPs
82
42 Fundamental Patterns of the HSP
83
43 Central Nuclei of the HSP
85
44 The Relationship Between WDR Neuron Activities and HSP
87
Clinical Pharmacology
90
52 Effects of Intravenous Anesthetics
91
522 Ketamine Hydrochloride
93
523 Fentanyl Citrate and Droperidol
94
525 Diazepam
95
13 Effects of Intravenous Anesthetics
107
14 Effects of Inhalation Anesthetics
110
Transcranial Electrically Evoked SCPs TCEEvoked SCPs
112
214 Recording
113
215 Discussion
117
22 TCEEvoked SCPs in Animals and Human
118
222 Experimental Studies
119
223 Comparison Between Direct and TCEevoked SCPs
121
23 TCEEvoked Potentials from Muscle and TCEEvoked SCPs
124
233 Results
125
234 Discussion
128
24 Effects of Intravenous and Inhalational Anesthetics
129
242 Methods for Recording TCEEvoked SCPs
130
243 The Effects of Inhalation Anesthetics
132
Case Studies Clinical Applications
134
Monitoring by SCPs During Surgical Operations
137
12 Spinal Cord Surgery
140
122 Spinal Cord Tumor
143
13 Spinal Cord Hypothermia During Aortic Surgery
150
131 Discussion
151
14 Spinal Cord Ischemia During Aortic Surgery
153
142 TCEEvoked Electromyograms During Thoracoabdominal Aortic Surgery
156
15 Cardiovascular Surgery
160
152 Motor Evoked Potential
165
Diagnosis by Spinal Cord Potentials of Spinal Diseases
174
21 Spinal Cord Potentials in Patients with ALS
175
22 Spinal Cord Potentials in Patients with Tabes Dorsalis
176
23 Spinal Cord Potentials in Patients with Spinal Tumors
177
References
180
Index
207
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