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4 thee, and thou mayest live long in the land." And, fathers', provoke not your children to anger; but bring them up in the instruction and admonition of the Lord.

5 Servants, obey your masters according to the flesh, with fear and trembling, in singleness of your heart, as ye obey 6 Christ: not with eye-service, as men-pleasers; but as the servants of Christ, doing the will of God from the heart; 7 doing service with good-will as to the Lord, and not to 8 men: knowing that whatever good thing any man doeth, he will receive it from the Lord, whether he be servant or free. And, masters, do the same to them, forbearing threats: knowing that yourselves also have a Master in heaven, with whom there is no respect of persons.



Finally, my brethren, strengthen yourselves in the Lord, 11 and in the power of his might'. Put on the whole armour of God, that ye may be able to stand against the wiles of 12 the devil. For we wrestle not against blood and flesh", but against principalities*, against powers, against the rulers of this world of darkness, against spirits of wicked13 ness in heavenly places +. Wherefore take up the whole Or, parents, N. m. 2 anger not your children, N. 3 Or, Slaves, N. m. So ver. 6, 7. 4 Or, his mighty power. N. m. you wrestle not, Mss. 6 blood and flesh only, N.

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As believers, being raised to heaven, are represented as subject to a celestial hierarchy, (see ch. ii. 6; i. 20, 21.) so unbelievers, dwelling upon earth, or in a world of darkness, are also figuratively described, as subject to the dominion of evil spirits, of whom Satan, or the evil One, is the chief. This scenic representation, borrowed from the Oriental philosophy, is not to be understood literally. Principalities, powers, &c., express a personification of all wicked opposition to the gospel, whether from the civil or the ecclesiastical power. The Primate, with Griesbach, omits the words 78 aves,' of this age,' which are in the received text. Mr. Simpson's interpretation is," we wrestle not against men, merely, but against supreme governors, against powerful magistrates, against the rulers of this world of darkness, against spiritual wickedness in heavenly things. Compare i. 20; ii. 6-10. By such rulers Paul was detained in prison while writing this epistle."

+ So Doddridge, and the margin of the public version. The apostle probably means to express emblematically the opposition of the Jewish priests and rulers to the progress of Christianity. See ch. iii. 10. 66 Spiritual wickedness

in heavenly things." N. "The wickedness of spiritual men in a heavenly dispensation." Wakefield.

armour of God *, that ye may be able to withstand in the evil day, and to stand having performed' every thing. 14 Stand therefore, having your loins girt about with truth; 15 and having put on the breastplate of righteousness; and

having your feet shod with a readiness for preaching the 16 gospel of peace; besides all, having taken up the shield of

faith, with which ye will be able to quench all the fiery darts 17 of the evil One: take also the helmet of salvation; and the 18 sword of the spirit, which is the word of God. Praying always with all prayer and supplication with your spirit, and watching thereto with all perseverance, and supplica 19 tion for all the saints; and for me, that utterance may be given unto me, in opening my mouth with freedom, to make 20 known the mystery of the gospel, for which I am an ambassador in a chain; that therein I may speak freely, as I ought to speak.


But that ye also may know the things concerning me, what I do3, Tychicus, a beloved brother and faithful minister in the Lord, will make known to you all things; 22 whom I have sent unto you for this very purpose, that ye might know our affairs, and that he might comfort your hearts.


Peace be to the brethren, and love and faith, from God 24 the Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ. Favour be with all those who love our Lord Jesus Christ uncorrupt edly +. 4

1 Or, subdued, N. m.

chains, N. See N. m.

3 Or, how I am, N.m. 4 Amen. R. T. and N. To the Ephesians was written from Rome by Tychicus. R. T.

* The armour of God here described is wholly allegorical; a plain proof that the persons against whom this armour is to be used are also figurative and allegorical.

+" in incorruption.” N. “Not adulterating the gospel with false doctrines, as the Judaizers did." Newcome.




1 PAUL and Timothy, servants of Jesus Christ, to all the holy through Christ Jesus* that are at Philippi, and to the 2 bishops and deacons : favour be to you, and peace, from God our Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ.

3 I thank my God upon every remembrance of you; al4 ways, in every supplication of mine for you all, making my 5 supplication with joy, for your kind contribution to the go6 spel', from its first day until now; being confident of this very thing, that he, who hath begun a good work in you, 7 will finish it until the day of Jesus Christ: as it is right for me to think this of you all, because I have you in my heart, both in my bonds, and in my defence of myself, and my confirmation of the gospel, even all of you as being joint-contri8 butors to the gift which I have receivedt. For God is my witness, how greatly I long after you all with the tender af9 fection of Christ Jesus. And this I pray, that your love may abound still more and more in knowledge, and in all

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' partaking of the gospel, N. See Wakefield. 2 Or, that each of you who hath begun a good work will go on, &c. Wakefield. 3 Gr. bowels, N. m. 4 Jesus Christ., R. T. and N.

* "To all that are holy by means of admission into the Christian covenant." See 1 Cor. i. 2. Newcome.

+ Compare ch. ii. 25—30 ; ch. iv. 10-18. See Paley, Hor. Paul. p. 256. "Fecause I have you in my heart, and because both in my bonds, and in my defence of myself, and my confirmation of the gospel, I have you all joint-partakers of the favour bestowed on me." N. Dr. Paley observes that the sense of Joint-contributors was first given by Mr. Peirce, and he believes that this exposition is now generally assented to.

10 judgement, to the end that ye may discern the things which are excellent; and I pray that ye may be sincere, and 11 without offence, till the day of Christ; being filled with the fruit' of righteousness which is by Jesus Christ, to the glory and praise of God.


Now I wish you to understand, brethren, that the things concerning me have fallen out rather to the furtherance of 13 the gospel ;- so that my bonds are well-known to be for the 14 sake of Christ in all the palace, and in all other places; and that many of the brethren in the Lord, growing confident by my bonds, are much more bold to speak the word with15 out fear. Some indeed preach Christ even through envy 17 and strife; and some also through good-will. +Those who

preach him from love, preach him knowing that I am ap16 pointed for the defence of the gospel: + but those who

preach from contention, preach Christ not sincerely, think18 ing to add affliction to my bonds. What then? notwithstanding, every way, whether in pretence or in truth, Christ is preached; and herein I do rejoice, yea, and will rejoice. 19 For I know that this will end in my deliverance through your prayer, and through the supply of the spirit of Jesus 20 Christ: according to my earnest expectation and hope, that I shall be put to shame in nothing; but that, with all freedom of speech in me, Christ, as always, so now also, will be magnified in my body, whether it be by life or by 21 death. For as concerning me, to live is Christ 3, and to die 22 is gain ‡. But if it be given me to live in the flesh, this 'fruits which are, R. T. 2" to excite affliction," Mss. 3" to live is good," Mss.

See Hallet, vol. i. p. 68. The Primate's version is, “in all judgement, that ye may discern the things that are excellent, so as to be sincere" The margin of the public version reads, "that ye may try things that differ." + "The transposition and reading of these verses rest on very good external authority." Newcome.

The apostle probably thought that the advent of Christ to raise the dead was very near. See 1 Thess. iv. 13-18, and therefore judged that a quiet rest in the grave till that event, would be to himself preferable to a life of suffering and persecution: though he was content to continue in his present suffering state for

preaching of Christ is the fruit of my labour: yet what I 23 should choose I know not: but I am in a strait between

the two, having a desire to depart, and to be with Christ; 24 [for] this would be very far better: nevertheless to remain 25 still in the flesh is more needful for you. And, confident of this, I know that I shall remain, and shall even remain with 26 you all, for your furtherance and joy in the faith: that your glorying in Christ Jesus may abound through me, by my presence with you again.



Only let your conduct be worthy of the gospel of Christ: that, whether I come and see you, or be absent, I may learn concerning you that ye stand firmly in one spirit, striving 28 together with one mind for the belief of the gospel and in nothing terrified by those who oppose it3: which is to them a declaration of destruction, but to you of salvation, and 29 that from God. For to you it hath been graciously given,

as concerning Christ, not only to believe on him, but also 30 to suffer for him; having the same contest which ye saw in me, and now hear to be in me.*

CH. II. If therefore there be any comfort in Christ, if any consolation from love, if any mutual affection, if any bowels 2 and mercies; fill up my joy, that ye be of the same mind, having the same love, joined together in soul, of one mind:

for I am, R.T. 2 Or, conduct yourselves worthily of, &c. Wakefield. 3 your adversaries: N. 4 a proof of destruction, N. See Theol. Rep. vol. iv. p. 241. 5 Or, to be for Christ, i. e. to be devoted to him. Hallet, vol. i. p. 69. 6 which ye see in me, Mss. 8 46 7 Or, encouragement, Wakefield. partaking of the spirit," N. "spiritual union," Wakefield.

the benefit of the church. At any rate he could not mean to express an expectation of an intermediate state of enjoyment between death and the resurrection: for he hints at no such topic of consolation to the bereaved Thessalonians in the passage above cited. And if he had expected that a state of felicity would have immediately succeeded the dissolution of the body, it would have been impossible for him to have declared to the Corinthians, 1 Cor. xv. 17, 18, that if the dead rise not, their faith would be vain, and that all who had fallen asleep in Christ were perished.

* Some think that ver. 30 is misplaced, and that it ought to be inserted immediately after ver. 27. See Theol. Rep. vol. iv. p. 241.

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