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have infirmity; but the word of the oath, which was after the law, appointeth the Son, who is made perfect' for ever. CH. VIII. Now the sum of what has been said is this: We

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have such a high-priest, as sitteth on the right hand of the 2 throne of the Majesty in the heavens; a minister of the most Holy Place, and of the true tabernacle, which the Lord 3 pitched, and not man. For every high-priest is appointed to offer gifts and sacrifices: wherefore it is necessary that 4 this High-priest also have somewhat to offer. For if he were on earth he would not be a priest; since there are 5 [priests] that offer gifts according to the law: who serve to the example and shadow of heavenly things, as Moses was instructed of God, when he was about to make the tabernacle. For, "See," saith God, "that thou make all things according to the pattern which was shown thee on the 6 mount." But now our High-priest3 obtained a more excellent ministry, by how much he is the mediator of a better 7 covenant, which is established on better promises. For if that first covenant had been faultless, then no place would 8 have been sought for the second. For, finding fault with those things, God saith, "Behold, the days are coming *,

"consecrated," Public Version. 2 the divine Majesty, N. S. 7. N.m. 4 whose law hath been established, Wakefield. them, i. e. the Jews. 6 the days come, N.

3 Or, Christ,

5 Or, with

pollution, ver. 28; it was necessary, therefore, that they should be re-conse crated by the daily sacrifice. But Christ being incapable of ceremonial pollation, his one sacrifice was sufficient. He is now perfect for ever. But in the same sense in which Christ offered up a sacrifice for his own sins, in that very sense did he offer himself a sacrifice for the sins of the people. That is, not to appease the wrath of God for moral offences, which is an idea quite remote from the author's mind, and foreign to his argument; but, to consecrate believers, and to bring them out of an unholy into a holy state by a figurative application of the blood of Christ, as the Israelites were formerly purified and made ceremonially holy by the real sprinkling of the blood of animal victims. See ch. ix. 11-28. These observations must be carried in mind by the reader of this epistle, in order to understand the writer's language and doctrine in the ninth and tenth chapters concerning the priesthood of Christ. See Grotius and Crellius in loc. and in ch, v. ver. 3.

saith the Lord, when I will make a new covenant with the 9 house of Israel, and with the house of Judah: not according to the covenant which I made with their fathers, in the day when I took them by the hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt: when they continued not in my covenant, 10 and I regarded them not, saith the Lord: for this is the co

venant which I will make with the house of Israel after those days, saith the Lord: I will put my laws into their mind, and will write them on their hearts; and I will be to 11 them a God, and they shall be to me a people. And they shall not teach every man his fellow-citizen3, and every man his brother, saying, 'K now the Lord:' forall shall know 12 me, from the least [of them] to the greatest of them3. For I will be merciful to their unrighteousness, and their sins 13 and their iniquities I will remember no more." In that God

saith, "A new covenant," he hath declared the former voids. Now that which is declared void and groweth old, is ready to disappear.



CH. IX. Now the first covenant also had ordinances of wor2 ship, and a worldly sanctuary. For the first tabernacle was prepared, which is called Holy; in which was the can3 dlestick, and the table, and the shew-bread. And behind the second veil, the tabernacle which is called the Holy of 4 Holies having the golden censer, and the ark of the covenant covered all over 10 with gold, in which was the golden pot that had the manna, and Aaron's rod that budded, and 5 the tables of the covenant: and above which were 11 the cherubim of glory, shadowing the mercy-seat of which 6 things we cannot at present speak particularly. Now these things having been thus prepared, the priests enter always


Or, complete, or execute. See Wakefield. 2 his neighbour, R. T. 3" of them" omitted in N. t. 4 Gr. unrighteousnesses, the plur. for sing. superlative. Sn. 5 he maketh the first old. N. See Schleusner. 6 decayeth, N. 7 the first tabernacle, R. T. 8 Or, the outer division of the tabernacle was fitted up. See Newcome's note. 9 Or, the setting forth of loaves. 10 Wakefield. overlaid round about, N. "above in the tabernacle were," &c. N'

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into the first tabernacle', performing the services of God: 7 but into the second the high-priest alone entereth once every year, not without blood, which he offereth for himself, and 8 for the sins of ignorance of the people: the holy spirit sig.

nifying this, that the way into the most Holy Place is not 9 yet laid open, while the first tabernacle yet standeth3: which tabernacle is a figure for the present time, in which gifts and sacrifices are offered, which cannot make him that wor 10 shipeth perfect as concerning his conscience: consisting only in meats and drinks, and different washings, and carnal ordinances, imposed till the time of reformation. 11 But Christ, a high-priest of the future good things, being come, entered once for all into the most Holy Place, through the greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made 12 by hands, that is, not of this present building; nor by the blood of goats and calves, but by his own blood; having ob13 tained' an everlasting redemption. For if the blood of bulls and of goats, and the ashes of a heifer sprinkling the 14 unclean, sanctify to the cleansing of the flesh; how much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the everlasting spirit offered himself spotless to God, cleanse your conscience from dead works +, that ye may serve the living 15 God? And for this cause Christ is the mediator of the new covenant; that, death having taken place for the redemption of the transgressions under the first covenant", those

Or, the outer tabernacle. So Macknight. the errors of the people: N. 3 Or, while the outer tabernacle is still standing. 4 But Christ having become a high-priest of future good things, entered once into the most Holy Place, N. 5 having obtained for us, N. 6 "our conscience," Mss. 7 N. supplies the words, "by his death.”

* who offered himself with a spotless mind unto God, Wakefield, who, with the Ethiopic, leaves out aw, “everlasting." The Clermont and some other copies read ¿y,“ the holy spirit," which is supported by the Coptic and the Vulgate versions. The phrase "everlasting spirit" is very unusual; but if admitted as genuine, it must signify that Christ offered himself by divine appointment.

i.e. release you from the condemning sentence of the law. Dead works are those, the non-performance of which exposes the delinquents to legal con demnation. See ch. vi. 1.

who are called might receive the promise of the everlasting 16 inheritance. For where a covenant is, there is a neces17 sity for the death of that which establisheth the covenant *.

For a covenant is firm over the dead: whereas it is of no force while that which establishes the covenant' liveth. 18 Wherefore neither was the first covenant confirmed with19 out blood. For when Moses had spoken to all the people every commandment according to the law, he took the blood of calves and of goats, with water, and scarlet wool, and hyssop, and sprinkled both the book and all the people, 20 saying, "This is the blood of the covenant which God hath 21 enjoined unto you." Moreover, in like manner he sprinkled

with blood the tabernacle also, and all the vessels of the 22 ministry. And, according to the law, almost all things are

cleansed with blood; and without the shedding of blood 23 there is no remission +. It was therefore necessary that the patterns of things in the heavens should be cleansed by these things; but the heavenly things themselves, with better 24 sacrifices than these. For Christ hath not entered into the most Holy Place made with hands, which answereth to the true one; but into heaven itself, now to appear in the pre25 sence of God for us: nor was it necessary that he should


offer himself often, as the high-priest entereth into the most

"when the covenanter," N. See ver. 16. 2 Or," and the book and sprinkled all the people," N. m. 3 See ver. 25. Sn. Holy, N. 4 See ch. vii. 27,


* That is, of the victim by which the covenant is ratified. See Wakefield and Doddridge. The Primate's version is, “there is a necessity that the death of the covenanter should be brought in." Theol. Repos. vol. i. p. 215, 216; vol. iv. p. 139-152.

+ Observe here, that even inanimate things, the books, the tabernacle, the vessels, &c. are represented as in a sinful state till they obtain remission by the shedding of blood: i. e. they are ceremonially impure and unholy till they are ceremonially consecrated. See ch. vii. 27, note.

The patterns of heavenly things are things under the legal dispensation; heavenly things themselves are things under the Christian dispensation, of which the former was a type. The writer alludes to the celestial pattern shown to Moses in the Mount, ch. viii. 5, which he here represents as the true taberpacle, of which Jesus is the high-priest, and in which he is gone to officiate.


26 Holy Place every year with the blood of others; (for then he must have suffered often since the foundation of the world;) but now he hath been manifested once at the end of 27 the ages', to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself. And as it is appointed unto men to die once, and after this the 28 judgement; so Christ also was offered once to bear away the sins of many; and to those who wait for him he will appear a second time without a sin-offering to salvation. CH. X. For the law having a shadow of future good things, and not the very image of the things, can never make those who come to the altar perfect by the same sacrifices which 2 are offered year by year continually. For then would, they not have ceased to be offered? because the worshipers once cleansed would have had no more consciousness of 3 sins. But in those sacrifices there is a remembrance made 4 of sins every year. For it is impossible + that the blood of bulls and of goats should take away sins.


Wherefore, when Christ cometh into the world, he saith, "Sacrifice and offering thou wouldest not; but a body thou 6 hast prepared me. In burnt-offerings and sacrifices for sin 7 thou hadst no pleasure. Then I said, 'Behold, I come (in the volume of the book it is written of me) to do thy will, 8 O God.'" Above he saith, "Sacrifice, and offering, and burnt-offerings, and sacrifices for sin, thou wouldest not, and hadst no pleasure in them ;” (namely those which are offered 9 according to the law ;) then he saith, "Behold, I come to do thy will"." He taketh away the first, that he may esta

1 i. e. 3 R. T. omits "also."

dispensations, N. m. q. d. the last age. Sn.

4 to bear the sins, N.
6 Gr. they offer.

ing for him to salvation.
saying before. 9 thy will, O God. R. T.

2 Or, for a removal of sin. 5 Or, to those who are wait7 the holy book, N.

& Or,

In what sense the death of Christ is a sin-offering, see ch. vii. 27, note. That is, legally impossible; for the law limited the efficacy of these sacrifices to one year. After which new sacrifices were to be offered upon the annual day of atonement for sins of ignorance only, which, however free from moral turpitude, would exclude from the benefit of the Mosaic covenant, if not cancelled by the appointed sacrifices. See ch, ix. 7.

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