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published are now irrecoverably lost, having been sold by the librarian to a rocket-maker about the year 1750*.

A. D. 1516, Erasmus residing at Basle in Switzerland for the purpose of superintending the publication of the works of Jerome, was employed by Froben the printer to publish an edition of the Greek Testament from a few manuscripts which he found in the vicinity of that city, all of which were modern and comparatively of little value. Erasmus was not allowed time sufficient to revise the publication with that attention and care which the importance of the work required: he complains that the persons whom he employed to correct the press, sometimes altered the copy without his permission, and he acknowledges that his first edition was very incorrect. He published a fourth edition A. D. 1527, in which, to obviate the clamour of bigots, he introduced many alterations to make it agree with the edition of Cardinal Ximenes.

A. D. 1550, Robert Stephens, a learned printer at Paris, published a splendid edition of the New Testament in Greek, in which he availed himself of the Complutensian Polyglot, and likewise of the permission granted by the king of France to collate fifteen manuscripts in the Royal Library. Most of these manuscripts are to this day in the National or Imperial Library at Paris, and are found to contain only parts of the New Testament: and few of them are either of great antiquity or of much value. They were collated and the various readings noted by Henry Stephens the son of Robert, a youth about eighteen years of age. This book, being splendidly printed with great professions of accuracy by the editor, was long supposed to be a correct and immaculate work: but upon closer inspection it has been discovered to abound with errors. The text, excepting the Revelation, in which he follows the Complutensian edition, is almost wholly copied from the fifth edition of Erasmus, with very few and inconsiderable variations +.

A. D. 1589, Theodore Beza, professor of theology at Geneva, and successor to John Calvin, published a critical edition of the Greek Testament, in which he made use of Robert Stephens's own copy, with many additional various readings from the manuscripts collated by Henry Stephens. Beza was also in possession of two most ancient and most valuable manuscripts; one of which, containing the Gospels and the Acts in Greek and Latin, he afterwards gave to the University

See Bishop Marsh's edition of Michaelis's Introduction to New Testament, vol. ii. p. 441.

+ Robert Stephens was the person who divided the New Testament into verses. He performed this task while he was upon a journey from Lyons to Paris, in order to adapt it to a Greek Concordance which he was then preparing for the press. He placed the figures in the margin of his page. The first edition in which the verses were printed separate with the number prefixed to each was the English New Testament, printed at Geneva A. D. 1557. The division into chapters had been made in the thirteenth century by Cardinal Hugo, to adapt the New Testament to a Latin Concordance.

of Cambridge: and the other, called the Clermont manuscript, which contained the Epistles of Paul, was transferred to the Royal Library at Paris. Beza took but little pains, and exercised but little judgement, in the correction of the text and the selection of the best readings. Nevertheless the text of Beza being esteemed the most accurate of those which had been then published, was selected as the standard of the English version published by authority. Beza's text however appears in fact to be nothing more than a republication of Robert Stephens's with some trifling variations.

A. D. 1624, an edition of the Greek Testament was published at Leyden at the office of the Elzevirs, who were the most eminent printers of the time. The editor who superintended the publication is unknown. This edition differs very little from the text of Robert Stephens. A few variations are admitted from the edition of Beza, and a very few more upon some unknown authority; but it does not appear that the editor was in possession of any manuscript. This edition however, being elegantly printed, and the Elzevirs being in high reputation for correctness of typography, it was unaccountably taken for granted that it exhibited a pure and perfect text. This therefore became the standard of all succeeding editions, from which few editors till very lately have presumed to vary: and this constitutes the "Received Text."

Thus it appears that the Received Text stands upon the authority of the unknown editor of the Elzevir edition, who copied the text of Robert Stephens, introducing a few variations from that of Beza. The edition of Beza was also taken from that of Robert Stephens, with a few trifling and sometimes even arbitrary alterations. But Robert Stephens's famous edition of A. D. 1550 is a close copy of the fifth edition of Erasmus, with some alterations in the book of Revelation, from the Complutensian Polyglot, and the addition of a few various readings collected by a youth of eighteen from fifteen manuscripts of little value. And, finally, Erasmus's edition itself, which is the prototype of them all, was formed hastily and negligently from a few manuscripts of little authority, which accidentally came into his possession at Basle, where he was engaged by Froben in editing the works of Jerome, and where he had no further assistance than what he could derive from the Vulgate Version, and from inaccurate editions of some of the early ecclesiastical writers.

From the few advantages which were possessed, and from the little care which was taken, by the early editors, it may justly be concluded, not only that the Received Text is not a perfect copy of the apostolic originals, but that it is still capable of very considerable improvement by the same means which are adopted by men of learning and sagacity for correcting and restoring the text of other ancient writers *.

See Griesbach's Prolegomena, sect. 1.; Bishop Marsh's Michaelis, vol. ii. chap. xii. sect. 1.


Means of improving the Received Text.-Ancient Manuscripts.Vatican, Alexandrine, Cambridge, Clermont, Ephrem.

THE books of the New Testament having been more highly valued, more generally circulated, more attentively studied, more accurately transcribed, and more frequently cited, than the works of any other ancient author, the Text is consequently less corrupted, and the means of correcting and restoring it are far more abundant than of any other work of equal antiquity.

I. The first and best source of materials for improving the Text is the collation of Ancient Manuscripts.

The early editors of the New Testament possessed but few manu. scripts; and those of inferior value. Those of the Complutensian editors are destroyed, but they were not numerous, nor of great account. Erasmus consulted only five or six; and R. Stephens fifBeza indeed possessed two of the most ancient and valuable manuscripts now extant, the Cambridge and the Clermont; but he made very little use of them. So that the Received Text rests upon the authority of no more than twenty or thirty manuscripts, most of which are of little note.


But since the Received Text was completed by the Elzevir edition of 1624, upwards of Three Hundred Manuscripts, either of the whole or of different parts of the New Testament, have been collated by learned men with much care, industry and skill. Of these manuscripts some are of far greater antiquity and authority than any of those upon which the Received Text is founded, Beza's manuscripts only excepted. From these manuscripts a vast number of various readings have been extracted, by the assistance of which the Received Text has been greatly improved.

Ancient manuscripts are found to consist of three distinct classes, or editions; the copies of each edition agreeing, in the main, in the readings peculiar to it. The first is the Alexandrine edition, which agrees with the citations of Clement and Origen in the second and third century. To this edition belong the Vatican, Ephrem, and some other valuable manuscripts; also the Coptic, Ethiopic, and other ancient versions. The second is the Western edition. It agrees with the citations of Tertullian and Cyprian, with the Vatican copy of the Gospel of Matthew, also with the Sahidic and old Italian versions, and was in use in Africa and Italy, and in the western provinces of the Roman empire. The third is the edition of Constantinople, and is supported by the Alexandrine and many other manuscripts: it agrees with the citations of the ecclesiastical writers in Greece and

Asia Minor in the fourth and fifth centuries, and it is the edition which most nearly coincides with the modern Received Text *.

Ancient manuscripts are commonly written upon parchment. The most ancient are written in what are called uncial or square capital letters. In some copies the ink has been effaced, and the works of some later author have been written upon the same parchment: but the form of the original letters still remains distinguishable even under the more modern writing. Very few manuscripts contain the whole New Testament; and the most ancient are often mutilated and imperfect, and usually contain many corrections: but whether these corrections are improvements or otherwise, cannot easily be ascertained.

Those manuscripts which are most ancient, and of the highest reputation, are

1. The VATICAN manuscript, which is preserved at Rome in the Vatican Library. The earliest date assigned to this manuscript is the third century; the latest is the fifth or sixth. It is written in large uncial letters, and originally contained the whole of the Old and New Testament. Some of the last leaves are wanting. The ink in some places is faded, and the letters have been retouched by a skilful and faithful hand. The various readings of this manuscript were published at the latter end of the last century, after a very careful collation by Professor Birch of Copenhagen, and form an inestimable addition to the treasure of sacred criticism.

2. The ALEXANDRINE Manuscript was presented by Cyril, patriarch of Alexandria and afterwards of Constantinople, to Charles the First, king of England, and is now deposited in the British Museum. It was probably written in Egypt: it consists of four volumes, containing both the Old Testament and the New, in the large uncial character. Dr. Woide conjectures that it was written in the latter end of the fourth century, but some critics bring it down as low as the sixth. A fac-simile of the New Testament from this manuscript was published by Dr. Woide, A. D. 1786; and the Old Testament has been lately ordered by Parliament to be printed with the same types, under the care of the Rev. H. H. Baber.

3. The CAMBRIDGE manuscript, or CODEX BEZE, contains the four Gospels, and the Acts of the Apostles. It is written very fair, and in the large uncial letters. This manuscript yields in antiquity to none but the Vatican, and is supposed to have been used as a public copy for reading in the church. Theodore Beza made some use of it for his edition of the New Testament, and afterwards gave it to the University of Cambridge, where it is now deposited in the public library. A splendid fac-simile of this manuscript was published A. D. 1796, under the auspices of the University, by Dr. Kipling.

* Griesbach Proleg. sect. iii. p. 72.

4. The CLERMONT Manuscript contains the Epistles of Paul; the Epistle to the Hebrews is written by a later hand. This manuscript also belonged to Beza, who professed to have received it from Clermont in Beauvaisis, and who made use of it in his edition of the Greek Testament. It is now deposited in the Imperial Library at Paris. It was long supposed to be a second volume of the Cambridge manuscript, but this is discovered to be a mistake. It is written in the large uncial letters, and is assigned by critics to the seventh century.

5. The EPHREM manuscript is in the Imperial Library at Paris. It was written upon vellum in large and elegant characters, the ink of which was effaced with great care to make room for the works of Ephrem the Syrian, a writer of some note in the fourth century. The original characters are, however, in many places legible under the writing of Ephrem's Works. This, which Griesbach calls a most ancient and excellent manuscript, lay for many years unnoticed, and was first discovered by Dr. Allix in the beginning of the eighteenth century, since which time it has been repeatedly and accurately examined by the learned, and particularly by Wetstein. The Ephrem manuscript is of high antiquity, at least of the seventh century, and probably much earlier. It originally contained the Old and New Testament, but many leaves are lost; the rest are tacked together in great disorder, and many passages are totally illegible.

Besides these, about twenty other manuscripts, in large letters, of different portions of the New Testament have been collated, and some hundreds in small characters, many of which are in high estimation. But those described above are of the highest antiquity and repute, and are the only manuscripts explicitly referred to in the Notes of this Edition*,


Means of correcting the Received Text continued.-Ancient Versions. -Ecclesiastical Writers.-Critical Conjecture.

II. THE Received Text is corrected by the assistance of the Ancient Versions.

The christian religion having been rapidly propagated through all nations, the writings of the Apostles and Evangelists were soon translated into different languages, and many of these versions are still extant.

Every new version became an additional security to the text. It

* Marsh's Michaelis, vol. ii. chap. viii. sect. 6; Griesbach's Symbolæ Critica, vol. i.

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