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He hath in the Louvre alfo two rooms, in one of which are many ancient marble ftatues, and in the other are brafs ftatues and Vafa, and a hundred other things relating to antiquity. There is nothing in Paris deferves more to be feen.

In this last, I saw a fort of Egyptian Janus, with Silenus on one fide, and a Bacchus on the other with many other Egyptian figures well defigned; all of them with a hole in the crown of the head.

Alfo a lion of Egypt very large of brafs; but the defign rude, and more like an Indian Pagod. This also had a large fquare hole in the back, near the neck. The Siamites, that came in an embafly to Paris, were well pleased to fee this figure, and faid it was not unlike one of theirs; and that that hole ferved to put the incenfe in, that the fmoak might come out of the body and noftrils of the lion. I doubt not but that alfo was the use of the open crowns of the reft of the Egyptian figures, which I had feen elfewhere, as well as here; and their heads ferved for perfúming pots for themfelves: and hence alfo might arife, that other ornament of radiated heads; in imitation of a bright flame kindled within, and cafting rays out of and round the head.

There was alfo a fmall image of a lean man, caft bent, in a fitting posture, with a roll of parchment spread open upon his knees, and he looking down upon it, reading it. This was of folid brafs, the head and all this was found inclofed in a mummy. He seemed to have a thin linen garment on, perhaps fuch as the Egyptian priests used to


Alfo he fhewed us the mummy of a woman intire. The fcent of the hand was to me not unpleasant; but I could not liken it to any perfume now in ufe with us; though I make no question, but naptha was the great ingredient; which indeed is fo unufual a fmell, that the mineral waters of Hogfden near London, (wherein the true naptha is fubftantially, and of which I have fome ounces by me, gathered off thofe waters) have impofed upon the ignorant in natural hiftory; who would make them come from a chance turpentine effufion, or the mifcarriage of a chymical experiment.

Here were alfo great variety of urns and funeral vafa of all materials and fashions. Allo an antient writing pen coiled up, with two ends erected both alike, reprefenting the head of a snake.

The antient heads and buftos in brafs are numerous and of great value. This gentleman is exceeding courteous to all strangers; especially to fuch, as have the leaft good relish of things of this nature, to whom he fhews them gladly. It cannot be otherwife, that a man educated in that noble art of fculpture, who fhall daily ftudy fo great a variety of originals of the best masters, but must far excel the rest of mankind, who practice without good example, and by fancy moftly.

I was to fee Monfieur Baudelot, whofe friendship I highly value: I received great civilities from him. He is well known by his books about the utility of voyages: he has a very choice and large collection of books of Greek and Roman learning. I made him feveral vifits, and had the pleasure of perufing his cabinet of coins, and small images of copper, which are many and of good value: as Egyptian, Phrygian, Grecian,

and Roman.

Amongst his Egyptian, the most curious was a Deus Crepitus of admirable workmanship, with a radiated crown: it was an Ethiopian, and therefore bespoke its great antiquity; for they very ufually represented their kings under the figures of their gods. There was alfo the fkeleton of a woman of folid copper, found in the body of a mummy, in a fitting posture; not unlike that other mentioned above in Monfieur Gi rardon's closet.

An Apis or a heifer in copper.


A Phry.

A Phrygian Priapus of elegant workmanship: the Phrygian Cap pointed and hanging down behind, as our caps in difhabille are now worn.

Of all which, and many more, this learned antiquary intends to write.

In his cabinet of medals I could not find one of Palmyra, for which I carefully enquired; for I was willing to add what could be found in France upon this fubject.

He has alfo many marbles from Greece; most of which have been published by Spon; fave one, and that is the most antient and most curious of all; concerning which he is ready to publish a differtation. It is a catalogue in three columns, of the names of the principal perfons of Erecheis, one of the chiefeft tribes of Attica, that were killed in one and the fame year in five feveral places, where the Athenians fought under two ge nerals, as in Cyprus, in Egypt, in Phoenicia, in Egina, in Halies. Here are 177

names in the three columns.

The Mantis clofes the column, who died in Egypt, that is, the phyfician. Magic and phyfic went together in those days: nay, the very comedians and poets, thofe neceffary men of wit, fought; for none were exempt from being inrolled that were born in the kingdom or republic of Attica.

The antiquity of this marble, befides the known hiftory and names which justify the time of thofe men: the figure of the letters are an undoubted argument; for there are no double letters here; non, now, but all graved with e, o; alfo the letters, L, P, II, R, S, are very Roman. So that it is also an evidence, that the Romans borrowed their letters from the antient Greek alphabet.

The invention and borrowing of letters was a great happiness to mankind. The embarras in which writing is in China, is owing to the misfortune of wanting an alphabet; fo that the Chinese are forced to exprefs every fentence and thought by a different character, which has multiplied their writing to 120,000 characters; of which yet they have lefs need, than we in Europe, who perform all with 24 letters, (whereof five add life to the other 19, faith Hippocrates, which is an argument of the age he wrote in: the knowledge of grammar, i. e. reading and writing, depends upon feven figures, de Dieta. 1.) The Chinese know much lefs than we; they have no other morals, they have lefs philofophy, lefs mathematics, fewer arts, and yet much narrower knowledge of natural history, because they can have the knowledge only of that part of nature which they have at home: in what therefore fhould they employ this multitude of characters; It is, I fay, their misfortune not to have thought of an alphabet: their common language is as eafily learnt, and confequently might as easily be writ as any in Europe.


But to return to Monfieur Budelot's ftores. In this cabinet I alfo faw fome bafferelieves one of Praxiteles well defigned; one of Mufos the comedian: amongst the reft of the marbles there is a baffe-relief, very extant, and finely finifhed, of a cupid afleep, leaning his head upon his left arm; in his hand he holds two poppy heads. It is probable the poppies were emblematic from the power they have in love-affairs. Indeed moft poisons affect thofe parts chiefly, being the great fluce of the habit of the body, or circle of the blood; and no people ufe poppy more, and stand more in need of it, than the men who delight in polygamy, the Mahometans, or understand it better; as Olearius teftifies.

He had an antic bufto of Zenobia in marble, with a thick radiated crown; of which he very obligingly gave me a copy, well designed from the original: this was brought out of Afia by Monfieur Thevenot,

He fhewed me a differtation he had written out fair for the press, about a certain ancient Intaglia of Madames, of Ptolomæus Auletes, or the player upon the flute; In

this the thin mufler is the most remarkable thing, which covers the mouth and nofe. This head is engraved upon an amethyst.

I enjoyed this gentleman's company very often; and had much difcourfe with him about his books of the utility of voyages; and in one converfation took the freedom to diffent from him about the interpretation of that coin in Monfieur Seguin, which he calls Britannick.

Monfieur Boudelot reads it thus, Jovi Victori Saturnali Io! or Jovi Victoria Sat. To! I had rather read it thus, Io! Sat. Victoria Io! upon the occasion of his returning with the foldiers, filling their head-pieces with the fhells they had gathered off the fea-fhore; and the little ufe of his new invented letter the digamma, which he instituted or borrowed from the Eolique to exprefs V confonant.

The fhells were a triumph much like this fmall addition to the alphabet; which lafted no longer than his time: that is victory enough: (for fo ftupid a prince as Claudius) let us return with the spoils of the ocean, and adorn his new invented letter with a palm branch: the reverse of this coin being a laurel-crown: both the figns of victory.

About the Bouftrophedon way of writing, mentioned by Suidas and Paufanias, or turning again as the ox ploughs, or the racers about the meta in the cirque, in my opinion it could be nothing else, but the ferpentine manner of writing found in Swedeland in runique letters.

He fhewed me also a stone taken lately out of the body of a horse at Paris, which was his death; and dying ftrangely, they diffected him, that is, certain ignorant people; in the lower part of the body, (probably the bladder) was found this ftone: it weighs, as I guess, two pound; it is as round as a cannon ball; it is laminated like an onion; for the first couche was broke up in fome places, of a dark hair colour, and transparent; or like fome cloudy agats which I have feen: it was very ponderous. Such like tranfparent ftones I had a patient voided often in Yorkshire. I faw another transparent one, which was cut out of the buttock of an alderman at Doncafter; he was twice cut in the fame place, at fome years' distance. Another I had in fome measure tranfparent, voided by a patient, which was of the very colour of a coffee berry when burnt; but of this horse stone Monfieur Boudelot wrote me a letter before I left Paris, which I defign to publish.

I was by invitation from Monfieur Caffini at the Obfervatoire Royal, built on a rifing ground just without the city walls. This building is very fine, and great art is used in the vaulted cut roofs and winding staircases. The ftones are laid infide, outside, with the most regularity I ever faw in any modern building. In all this building there is neither iron nor wood, but all firmly covered with stone, vault upon vault. The plat form a-top is very spacious, and gives a large and fair view of all Paris, and the country about it; it is paved with black flint in small squares, which I make no doubt are fet in cement or tarras, that is, the Pulvis Puteolanus.

We were fhewed a room well furnished with models of all forts of machines; and a very large burning glass, about three feet diameter, which at that time of the year, viz. in the beginning of February, did fire wood into a flame, in the very moment it came into and paffed through the focus.

I was indifpofed, and fo could not accept of the favour which was offered me of seeing the moon in their telescopes; and to go down into the vault, which was contrived for seeing the stars at noon-tide, but without fuccefs. I was told by Monfieur Roman afterwards, that he faw there a rock formed in the cave by the dropping of a spring of petrifying water; of which nature are all the wells in Paris.




In the floor of one of the octagon towers they have defigned with great accurate nefs and neatnefs with ink an univerfal map in a vaft circle. The north pole is in the centre. This is a correction of other maps upon the latest and best obfervations.

His nephew Monfieur Moraldi was with him; as for his only fon, he was in London at that time: I afterwards was with him at his father's, a very hopeful young gentleman, and well inftructed by his father in the mathematics, and all other useful learning.

The triumphal arch out of the gate of St. Antoine is well worth feeing; for in this the French pretend not only to have imitated the ancients, but to have out-done them. They have indeed, ufed the greatest blocks of stone that could be got, and have laid them without mortar, and the leaft fide outward, after the manner of the ancients; but I am afraid their materials are very fhort of the Roman, and their stone is ill chofe, though vaftly great.

Indeed the defign is moft magnificent; it is finished in plaister, that is, the model of it, in its full beauty and proportions.

I fuppofe it was intended for a gate of entrance into the city: for it fronts the great ftreet of the fuburbs, and has a vaft walk planted with trees leading from it towards Bois de Vincennes.

There is nothing more built but the four parts of the foundation of the true building, raifed only to the feet of the pedeftals; the foundation is laid twenty-two feet deep. Amongst the vast blocks of stone, which take up a great compass before the building, I found feveral forts, all brought from the quarries not far from Paris; all of them are of a kind of coarfe grit, which will not burn into lime. They diftinguish these ftones into four forts; 1. Pierre d'arcueil, for the first two or three couches or lays above the foundation. This is the beft, and hardest of all. 2. That of St. Clou, which is good, and the next beft. I did not find by the blocks defigned either for the walls of the building; or the rounds of the pillars; that the beds of ftone of St. Clou are above two feet thick. 3. That of S. Lieu; this is but indifferent, but yet much better than that stone, which is taken up out of the ftone pits in and about Paris, which makes the fourth fort of ftone. If it be wrought up into walls, as it is taken out of the pits, it is very apt to be flawed by the froft: but if it be laid in the air, and kept under cover for two years, then it becomes dry and more durable.

I faw but one piece in Paris of the ruins of an old Roman building; it was in La Rue de la Harpe. The vaults are very high and large. The manner of building is near the fame I formerly caufed exactly to be figured and defcribed at York, and which is published in the Philofophic Tranfactions: that is, the infide and outfide of the walls are compofed of fix rows of fmall fquare ftones, and then four rows of flat, thin and broad Roman bricks, and fo alternatively from the top to the bottom. Which makes it probable it was built after Severus's time for this was the African manner of building, as Vitruvius tells us; and therefore might well be, what tradition here fays of it, viz. part of Julian the emperor's palace or thermæ.

St. Innocent's church-yard, the public burying-place of the city of Paris for a 1000 years, when intire (as I once faw it) and built round with double galleries full of fkulls and bones, was an awful and venerable fight: but now I found it in ruins, and the greatest of the galleries pulled down, and a row of houfes built in their room, and the bones removed I know not whither: the reft of the church-yard in the most neglected and nafticft pickle I ever faw any confecrated place. It is all one, when men, even the Roman catholics have a mind, or it is their intereft, to unhallow things or places, they can do it with a good stomach; and leave the tombs of chancellors and other great

men without company or care. What nobody gets by, nobody is concerned to repair: but it is trange amongst fo many millions of dead men, not one wonder-working faint fhould fart up to preferve itself and neighbours from contempt and scandal. That fo much holy earth, brought, as it is faid, fo far off, fhould never produce one faint, but rather fpew up all its inhabitants, to be thus fhuffled and diffipated.

Amongst the many cabinets of Paris there is nothing finer than the collection of Monfieur Buco, Garde Rolles du Parlement. You pafs through a long gallery, the one fide of which is a well furnished library, and alfo well difpofed in wired cafes. This gallery leads into two rooms very finely adorned with pictures, Vafa's, ftatues and figures in brafs, alfo with china, and the famous enammel veffels, formerly made in Poitu, which are not now to be had; a thousand other curious things.

I very particularly examined his large quantity of fhells, confifting in near fixty drawers. There were indeed very many of a fort, and but few but what I had feen before, and figured. He very obligingly lent me thofe I had not feen, to have the defigns of them done. He had many very perfect and large ones of land and fresh-water buccina; but yet a great number were wanting of those very tribes which I have published in my Synopfis Conchyliorum.

Here were alfo two or three very fair ones of that fort of compreft fnail, which have their tail on the fame fide with their mouth; and the vulgar name, by which those men of cabinets distinguish them, is not amifs, viz. des lampes.

He fhewed me a bivalve, which is not uncommon (a large blood red fpondille) for which the late duke of Orleans gave 900 livres, which is above 50l. fterling; and he alfo affured me, that the fame perfon offered a Parifian for thirty-two fhells 11000 livres. Which fum was refufed; but the duke replied, that he knew not who was the greater fool, he that bid the price, or the man that refufed it.

I alfo faw in this collection an hippocampus about four inches long, the tail fquare thick bellied and breast like a miller thumb, winged not unlike a fort of flying fish, but the fins were spoiled; the membranes being tore from the bones of the wings, the head long and fquare like the tail, with a fort of tufted muffel. This fifh I took to be of the Hippocampus kind; and (as he told me) it was given him by my Lady Portsmouth, poffibly out of King Charles's collection, who had many curious prefents made him (as one of the fhells from the States of Holland, many of which I have feen in other hands, but he suffered them all to be diffipated and loft.

Here alfo was a Vefpetum Canadenfe of a moft elegant figure, and admirable contrivance; of which I have a drawing. This is intire in all its parts; it is as big as a middle-fized melon, pear-fafhion, with an edge running round, where it is thickest, from which edge it fuddenly declines and leffens into a point; at the very end of the point, on one fide, is a little hole, with pulvinated or fmooth edges inclined inward; otherwise it is whole, and wrought upon the twig of a tree, of a very smooth fattin-like fkin.

Alfo the ftriated fkin of an African afs, fupple and well cured, which I had never feen before. It is certainly a moft beautiful animal; and, I admire, after so many ages that it has been known to the people of Europe, it could never be tamed, and made of common use, as the rest of the horse kind. This was only of two colours, viz. broad lifts of white and bay or chefnut colour drawn from the back down the fides to the belly, which was all white: the lifts were parted at the back by a very narrow ridge of fhort hair; which lifts also went round the legs like garters. The hair coloured ftripes of the African afs were, near the back, three or four fingers broad, alfo the lift down the back was very broad.

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