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or a dozen other elections were made. In this club, the business that is to be brought into the National Affembly is regularly debated; the motions are read, that are intended to be made there, and rejected or corrected and approved. When these have been fully agreed to, the whole party are engaged to fupport them. Plans of conduct are there determined; proper perfons nominated for being of committees, and prefidents of the Affembly named. And I may add, that fuch is the majority of numbers, that whatever paffes in this club, is almost fure to pass in the Affembly. In the evening at the Duchefs d'Anville's, in whofe houfe I never failed of spending my time agreeably.

One of the moft amufing circumftances of travelling into other countries, is the opportunity of remarking the difference of customs amongst different nations in the com mon occurrences of life. In the art of living, the French have generally been esteemed by the rest of Europe to have made the greatest proficiency, and their manners have been accordingly more imitated, and their cuftoms more adopted than thofe of any other nation. Of their cookery, there is but one opinion; for every man in Europe, that can afford a great table, either keeps a French cook, or one inftructed in the fame manner. That it is far beyond our own, I have no doubt in afferting. We have about half a dozen real English dishes, that exceed any thing, in my opinion, to be met with in Frances by English dishes I mean, a turbot and lobster fauce-ham and chickenturtle-a haunch of venifon-a turkey and oysters-and after these there is an end of an English table. It is an idle prejudice to clafs roast beef among them; for there is not better beef in the world than at Paris. Large handfome pieces were almoft constantly on the confiderable tables I have dined at. The variety given by their cooks, to the fame thing, is aftonifhing; they drefs an hundred difhes in an hundred different ways, and most of them excellent; and all forts of vegetables have a favouriness and flavour, from rich fauces, that are abfolutely wanted to our greens boiled in water. This variety is not ftriking, in the comparison of a great table in France with another in England; but it is manifeft, in an inftant, between the tables of a French and English family of fmall fortune. The English dinner, of a joint of meat and a pudding, as it is. called, or pot luck, with a neighbour, is bad luck in England; the fame fortune in France, gives, by means of cookery only, at leaft four difhes to one among us, and spreads a small table incomparably better. A regular defert with us is expected at a confiderable table only, or at a moderate one, when a formal entertainment is given; in France it is as effential to the smallest dinner as to the largeft; if it confift of a bunch of dried grapes only, or an apple, it will be as regularly ferved as the foup. I 'have met with perfons in England, who imagine the fobriety of a French table carried to fuch a length, that one or two glaffes of wine are all that a man can get at dinner; this is an error: your fervant mixes the wine and water in what proportion you please; and large bowls of clean glafes are fet before the master of the houfe, and fome friends of the family, at different parts of the table, for ferving the richer and rarer forts of wines, which are drunk in this manner freely enough. The whole nation are fcrupulously neat in refufing to drink out of glasses used by other people. At the houfe of a carpenter or blacksmith, a tumbler is fet to every cover. This refults from the com. mon beverage being wine and water; but if at a large table, as in England, there were porter, beer, cyder, and perry, it would be impoffible for three or four tumblers or goblets to ftand by every plate; and equally fo for the fervants to keep fuch a number separate and distinct. In table-linen, they are, I think, cleaner and wifer than the Ength; that the change may be inceflant, it is every where coarfe. The idea of dining without a napkin feems ridiculous to a Frenchman, but in England we dine at the tables


of people of tolerable fortune, without them. A journeyman carpenter in France has his napkin as regularly as his fork; and at an inn, the fille always lays a clean one to every cover that is fpread in the kitchen, for the loweft order of pedestrian travellers. The expence of linen in England is enormous, from its fineness; furely a great change of that which is coarfe, would be much more rational. In point of cleanlinefs, I think the merit of the two nations is divided; the French are cleaner in their perfons, and the English in their houses; I fpeak of the mafs of the people, and not of individuals of confiderable fortune. A bidet in France is as univerfally in every apartment, as a bafon to wash your hands, which is a trait of personal cleanliness I wish more common in England; on the other hand their neceffary houfes are temples of abomination; and the practice of spitting about a room, which is amongst the highest as well the lowest ranks, is deteftable; I have feen a gentleman fpit fo near the clothes of a duchefs, that I have ftared at his unconcern. In every thing that concerns the ftables, the English far exceed the French; horfes, grooms, harnefs, and change of equipage; in the provinces you fee cabriolets of the last century; an Englishman, however fmali his fortune may be, will not be seen in a carriage of the fashion of forty years paft; if he cannot have another, he will walk on foot. It is not true that there are no complete equipages at Paris, I have seen many; the carriage, horses, harness, and attendance, without fault or blemish;-but the number is certainly very much inferior to what are seen at London. English horfes, grooms, and carriages, have been of late years largely imported. In all the articles of fitting up and furnishing houses, including thofe of all ranks in the estimate, the English have made advances far beyond their neighbours. Mahogany is fcarce in France, but the use of it is profufe in England. Some of the hotels in Paris are immense in fize, from a circumftance which would give me a good opinion of the people, if nothing else did, which is the great mixture of families. When the eldest fon marries, he brings his wife home to the house of his father, where there is an apartment provided for them; and if a daughter do not wed an eldest fon, her husband is also received into the family, in the fame way, which makes a joyous number at every table. This cannot altogether be attributed to economical motives, though they certainly influence in many cafes, because it is found in families poffefling the first properties in the kingdom. It does with French manners and customs, but in England it is fure to fail, and equally fo amongst all ranks of people: may we not conjecture, with a great probability of truth, that the nation in which it fucceeds is therefore better tempered? Nothing but good humour can render fuch a jumble of families agreeable, or even tolerable. In dress they have given the ton to all Europe for more than a century; but this is not among any but the highest rank an object of fuch expence as in England, where the mass of mankind wear much better things (to ufe the language of common converfation) than in France: this ftruck me more amongst ladies who, on an average of all ranks, do not dress at one half of the expence of English women. Volatility and changeableness are attributed to the French as national characteristics,-but in the cafe of dress with the groffeft exaggeration. Fashions change with ten times more rapidity in England, in form, colour, and affemblage; the viciffitudes of every part of drefs are fantastic with us: I fee little of this in France; and to inftance the mode of dreffing the gentlemen's hair, while it has been varied five times at London, it has remained the same at Paris. Nothing contributes more to make them a happy people, than the chearful pliancy of difpofition with which they adapt themselves to the circumftances of life: this they poffefs much more than the high and volatile spirits which have been attributed to them; one excellent confequence is, a greater exemption from the extravagance of liv ing beyond their fortunes, than is met with in England. In the highest ranks of life, there

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are instances in all countries; but where one gentleman of small property, in the provinces of France runs out his fortune, there are ten fuch in England that do it. In the blended idea I had formed of the French character from reading, I am difappointed as to three circumstances, which I expected to find predominant. On comparison with the English, I looked for great talkativeness, volatile fpirits, and univerfal politenefs. I think, on the contrary, that they are not so talkative as the English; have not equally good spirits, and are not a jot more polite: nor do I fpeak of certain claffes of people, but of the general mass. I think them, however, incomparably better tempered; and I propofe it as a question, whether good temper be not more reasonably expected under an arbitrary, than under a free government.

The 19th. My last day in Paris, and, therefore, employed in waiting on my friends, to take leave; amongst whom, the Duke de Liancourt holds the first place; a nobleman, to whofe uninterrupted, polite, and friendly offices I owe the agreeable and happy hours which I have paffed at Paris, and whose kindness continued fo much, to the last, as to require a promife, that if I fhould return to France, his houfe, either in town or country, fhould be my home. I fhall not omit obferving, that his conduct in the revolution has been direct and manly from the very beginning; his rank, family, fortune, and fituation at court, all united to make him one of the firft fubjects in the kingdom; and upon public affairs being fufficiently embroiled, to make affemblies of the nobility neceffary, his determined refolution to render himfelf mafter of the great questions which were then in debate, was feconded by that attention and application which were requifite in a period, when none but men of bufinefs could be of importance in the ftate. From the first affembling of the States General, he refolved to take the party of freedom; and would have joined the tiers at first, if the orders of his constituents had not prevented it; he defired them, however, either to confent to that step or to elect another representative; and, at the fame time, with equal liberality, he declared, that if ever the duty he owed his country became incompatible with his office at court, he would refign it; an act that was not only unneceffary, but would have been abfurd, after the King himfelf had become a party in the revolution. By efpoufing the popular caufe, he acted conformably to the principles of all his ancestors, who in the civil wars and confufions of the preceding centuries, uniformly opposed the arbitrary proceedings of the court. The decifive fteps which this nobleman took at Verfailles, in advifing the King, &c. &c. are known to all the world. He is, undoubtedly to be esteemed one of those who have had a principal fhare in the revolution, but he has been invariably guided by conftitutional motives; for it is certain, that he has been as much averfe from unneceffary violence and fanguinary measures, as those who were the most attached to the ancient government. With my excellent friend Lazowski, I spent my last evening; he endeavoured to perfuade me to refide upon a farm in France, and I enticing him to quit French buftle for English tranquillity.

The 20th-25th. By the diligence to London, where I arrived the 25th; though in the most commodious feat, yet languishing for a horfe, which, after all, affords the best means of travelling. Paffing from the first company of Paris to the rabble which one fometimes meets in diligences, is contraft fufficient,-but the idea of returning to England, to my family and friends, made all things appear fmooth,272 miles.

The 30th. To Bradfield; and here terminate, I hope, my travels. After having furveyed the agriculture and political refources of England and Ireland, to do the fame with France, was certainly a great object, the importance of which animated me to the attempt and however pleasing it may be to hope for the ability of giving a better account of the agriculture of France than has ever been laid before the public, yet the


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