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Befides thefe, here are alfo the white wines of Orleans, Bourdeaux, Claret, and thofe excellent wines from Cahors: alfo Cabreton, white and red, from about Bayone, strong and delicious wines: and all forts of Spanish wines, as fack, palme, mountaine, malaga, red and white, fherries, and indeed the French are, of late, very defirous to drink of the strongest wines.

Befides wines, there is no feafting without the drinking at the defert all forts of strong waters, particularly ratafia's; which is a fort of cherry brandy made with peach and apricot stones, highly piquant, and of a moft agreeable flavour.

The pungent and acrimonious quality of thefe and fuch like kernels was not unknown to the ancients, and very poifonous to fome animals. Diofcorides tells us, a paste made of the kernels of bitter almonds will throw hens into convulfions, and immediately kill them. Birds have but little brain, and fo are the stronglier affected with this volatile Not unlike effects it is poffible ratafia may have in some tender and more de licate constitutions, and weak and feeble brains, and may be one cause of so many sudden deaths, as have been obferved of late.

venom.

Vattee is a fort of perfumed strong water from Provence, made (as it is pretended) of mufcat wine diftilled with citron pills and orange flowers.

Fenoulliet de l'Ile de Ree is valued much, it is much like our annifeed water. These and many more forts of strong waters, and strong wines, both of France and Italy and Spain, are wont to be brought in at the latter end of the defert in all great feasts, and they drink freely of them. Which cuftom is new: when I was formerly in France, I remember nothing of it. But it is the long war that has introduced them; the nobility and gentry fuffering much in thofe tedious campaigns, applied themselves to thefe liquors to fupport the difficulties and fatigues of weather and watchings; and at their return to Paris, introduced them to their tables. Sure I am, the Parifians, both men and women, are ftrangely altered in their conftitutions and habit of body; from lean and flender, they are become fat and corpulent, the women especially which, in my opinion, can proceed from nothing fo much as the daily drinking strong liquors. Add to these drinks the daily use of coffee with fugar, tea, and chocolate, which now is as much in ufe in private houses in Paris, as with us in London: and these sugared liquors alfo add confiderably to their corpulency.

I must not forget, that amongst the drinks that are in ufe in Paris, cyder from Normandy is one. The best I drank of that kind, was of the colour of claret, reddish or brown; the apple that it was made of was called Frequins, which is round and yellow, but fo bitter that it is not to be eaten; and yet the cyder that is made of it, is as sweet as any new wine. It keeps many years good, and mends of its colour and taste. I drank it often at a private houfe of a Norman gentleman, of whofe growth it was; otherwife, if I had not been affured to the contrary, I could not have believed, but that it had been mixed with fugar.

There are also very many public coffee-houses, where tea alfo and chocolate may be had, and all the strong waters and wine above-mentioned, and innumerable ale-houses. I wonder at the great change of this fober nation in this particular; but luxury like a whirlpool draws into it the extravagances of other people.

It was neceffity, and the want of wine, (either naturally, as in a great part of Perfia and the Indies; or from their religion, as in Turkey,) that put men upon the invention of thofe liquors of coffee and tea: chocolate, indeed, was found out by the poor ftarved Indians, as ale was with us. But what elfe but a wanton luxury could difpofe these people, who abound in excellent wines, the most cordial and generous of all drinks, to ape the neceffity of others.

Mighty things indeed are faid of thefe drinks, according to the humour and fancy of the drinkers. I rather believe they are permitted by God's providence for the leffening the number of mankind by fhortening life, as a fort of filent plague. Those that plead for chocolate, fay, it gives them a good stomach, if taken two hours before dinner. Right! who doubts it? you fay, you are much more hungry having drank chocolate, than you had been if you had drunk none; that is, your ftomach is faint, craving, and feels hollow and empty, and you cannot ftay long for your dinner. Things that pafs thus foon out of the ftomach, I fufpect, are little welcome there, and nature makes hafte get fhut of them. There are many things of this fort which impofe upon us by procuring a false hunger.

The wild Indians, and fome of our people, no doubt digeft it; but our pampered bodies can make little of it, and it proves to moft tender conftitutions perfect phyfic, at least to the stomach, by cleansing that into the guts; but that wears it out, and decays

nature.

It is very remarkable with what greedinefs the Spaniards drink it, and how often in a day, five times, fays Gage, at least. The women drank it in the churches, and the diforder could scarce be remedied. This fhews how little it nourishes.

The old Romans did better with their luxury; they took their tea and chocolate after a full meal, and every man was his own cook in that case. Cæfar refolved to be free, and eat and drink heartily, that is, to excefs, with Tully; and for this purpose Cicero tells his friend Atticus, that before he lay down to table, Emeticen agebat, which I conftrue, he prepared for himself his chocolate and tea; fomething to make a quick riddance of what they eat and drank, fome way or other.

There are two forts of water which they drink at Paris; water of the river Seine, which runs through the town; and the water brought in by the aqueduct of Arcueil, which, by the by, is one of the most magnificent buildings in and about Paris, and worth going to fee. This noble canal of hewn ftone conveys the water fifteen miles to Paris.

The river water is very pernicious to all strangers, not the French excepted, that come from any distance, but not to the natives of Paris, causing looseness, and fomėtimes dyfenteries. I am apt to think the many ponds and lakes that are let into it to supply the fluices upon the canal De Briare, are in part the cause of it. But those who are careful of themselves purify it by filling their cifterns with fand, and letting it fink through it; which way clears it, and makes it very cool and palateable.

As for the fpring water from the Maifon des Eaux, it is wholesome in this refpect, and keeps the body firm; but it is very apt to give the stone, which the people of this town are infinitely fubject to. An inftance of this I had by chance, when coming from feeing the aqueduct of Arcueil, in the very road near the wall of the aqueduct, a great number of earthen pipes, which had ferved to convey that water to fome house, were caft to mend the highways. I obferved, that of four inches diameter the hollow of the pipes were all stopped up to the breadth of a fhilling, with a firm stone petrified; so that they were forced to break up the pipes being altogether ufelefs. Now what petrifies in the water-pipes is apt in fome weak conftitutions to petrify alfo in the kidneys and bladder. I think I have put this beyond dispute in my treatise De Calculo Humano,

and elsewhere.

In the next place we will fee how the Parifians divert themselves; which confifts chiefly in plays, gaming, walking, or coaching.

The plays here are divided into two houses: one for the operas, and the other for the comedies.

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I did not fee many operas, not being fo good a Frenchman as to understand them when fung. The Opera, called l'Europe Gallante, I was at feveral times, and it is looked upon as one of the very best. It is extremely fine, and the mufic and finging admirable: the ftage large and magnificent, and well filled with actors: the scenes well fuited to the thing, and as quick in the removal of them as can be thought: the dancing exquifite, as being performed by the best masters of that profeffion in town: the cloathing rich, proper, and with great variety.

It is to be wondered, that these operas are fo frequented. There are great numbers of the nobility that come daily to them, and fome that can fing them all. And it was one thing, that was troublesome to us ftrangers, to disturb the box by these voluntary fongs of fome parts of the opera or other; that the fpectators may be faid to be here as much actors, as thofe employed upon the very stage.

The comedies have another houfe in another part of the town; for the operas are under the roof of Monfieur, and it is part of the Palais Royal.

The difpofition of the theatre is much the fame; but fomething lefs. And here the stage itself is to be let; where for ftrangers, the places are most commodious to hear and fee.

I heard many tragedies, but without guft for want of language: but after them, the little plays were very diverting to me, particularly thofe of Moliere, Vendange de Surefne, Pourcegnac, Crifpin Medecin, le Medecin malgre luy, le Malade Imaginaire, &c.

In this all agree, that though Moliere's plays have lefs of intrigue in them; yet his characters of perfons are incomparable, fo true and juft, that nothing can be more. And for this reason, so many of them are only of two or three acts; for without an intrigue well laid, the characters would have failed him, in which was his excellency. However, this is now fo much become a custom on the French stage; that you ever have one of these little pieces tacked to the tragedy, that you may please yourself according to your appetite.

It is faid Moliere died fuddenly in acting the Malade Imaginaire: which is a good inftance of his well perfonating the play he made, and how he could really put himself into any paffion he had in his head. Alfo of the great danger ftrong and vehement paffions may cause in weak conftitutions, fuch as joy and fear; which history tells us, have killed many very fuddenly. He is reported to have faid, going off the ftage, Meffieurs, J'ay joué le Malade Imaginaire; mais je fuis veritablement fort Malade; and he died within two hours after. This account of Moliere is not in his life by Perault, but it is true: and he yet has blamed him for his folly, in perfecuting the art of phyfic, not the men, in divers of his plays.

Moliere fent for Dr. M▬▬▬, a phyfician in Paris of great esteem and worth, and now in London, a refugé. Dr. M- fent him word, he would come to him, upon two conditions; the one, that he should anfwer him only to fuch questions as he should ask him, and not otherwise discourse him; the other, that he fhould oblige himfelf to take the medicines he should prefcribe for him. But Moliere finding the doctor too hard for him, and not easily to be duped, refufed them. His business, it feems, was to make a comical scene in expofing one of the most learned men of the profeffion, as he had done the quacks. If this was his intention, as in all probability it was, Moliere had as much malice as wit; which is only to be used to correct the viciousness and folly of men pretending to knowledge, and not the arts themselves. This I muft needs fay, that obfcenity and immorality are not at all upon the French stage, no more than in the civil conversation of people of fashion and good breeding. Оне

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One afternoon in Lent, I was to hear a fermon at La Charite, preached by an abbot, a very young man. His text was about the angel's defcent into the pool of Bethefda, and troubling the waters. I am not fo good a Frenchman as to understand all he said, but he had many good arguments about the neceffity of grace, and the means to attain it. I was strangely furprised at the vehemency of his action, which to me appeared altogether comical, and like the actors upon the stage, which I had feen a few days before: befides, his expreffions feemed to be in too familiar a ftile. I always took a fermon to the people to require a grave and ornate kind of eloquence, and not verba quotidiana, with a certain dignity of action; but it is poffible this way here beft fuits with the customs and manners of the people; who are all motion, even when they say the easiest and most intelligible things.

Gaming is a perpetual diverfion here, if not one of the debauches of the town: but games of mere hazard are strictly forbid upon fevere fines to the master of the house, as well private as public, where fuch playing fhall be difcovered. This was done upon the account of the officers in the army; who, during the winter ufed to lose the money, which was given them to make their recruits, and renew their equipages in the fpring. And indeed, fuch quick games, as baffet, hazard, &c. where fortune in a manner is all in all, are great temptations to ruin, by the fudden paffions they are apt to raise in the players. Whereas games, where skill, and cunning, and much thought are employed, as well as luck, give a man time to cool, and recover his wits, if at any time great lofs fhall have difmounted his reafon: for he must quickly come to himself again, or forfeit his skill and reputation in conducting the game, as well as husbanding his money.

We were in Paris at the time of the fair of St. Germain. It lafts fix weeks at least; ' the place where it is kept well befpeaks its antiquity; for it is a very pit or hole, in the middle of the Faubourg, and belongs to the great abbey of that name. You defcend into it on all fides, and in fome places above twelve fteps; fo that the city is raised above it fix or eight foot.

The building is a very barn, or frame of wood, tiled over; confifting of many long allies, croffing one another, the floor of the allies unpaved, and of earth, and as uneven as may be: which makes it very uneafy to walk in, were it not the vast croud of people which keep you up. But all this befpeaks its antiquity, and the rudeness of the firft ages of Paris, which is a foil to its politenefs in all things elfe now.

The fair confifts of moft toy-fhops, and Bartholomew-fair ware; alfo fiance and pictures, joiner's work, linen and woollen manufactures; many of the great ribband fhops remove out of the Palais hither; no books; many fhops of confectioners, where the ladies are commodiously treated.

The great rendezvous is at night, after the play and opera are done; and raffling for all things vendible is the great diverfion; no fhop wanting two or three raffling boards. Monfieur, the Dauphin, and other princes of the blood come, at least once in the fair-time to grace it.

Here are alfo coffee-fhops, where that and all forts of ftrong liquors above-mentioned are fold.

Knavery here is in perfection as with us; as dexterous cut-purfes and pick-pockets. A pick-pocket came into the fair at night, extremely well clad, with four lacqueys with good liveries attending him: he was caught in the fact, and more fwords were drawn in his defence than against him; but yet he was taken, and delivered into the hands of justice, which is here fudden and no jeft. I was

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I was furprized at the impudence of a booth, which put out the pictures of fome Indian beasts with hard names; and of four that were painted, I found but two, and those very ordinary ones, viz. a leopard, and a racoun. I asked the fellow, why he deceived the people, and whether he did not fear cudgelling in the end: he anfwered with a fingular confidence, that it was the painter's fault; that he had given the racoun to paint to two masters, but both had miftaken the beaft; but however, (he faid) though the pictures were not well defigned, they did nevertheless ferve to grace the booth and bring him cuftom.

I faw here a female elephant betwixt eight and nine foot high, very lean and ill kept. Nothing could be more docile, than this poor creature. I obferved, fhe bent the joints of her legs very nimbly in making her falutes to the company: alfo that the nails of her fore-toes were large, and almost five inches long. This was from the con tinent, having the ears entire. I had feen one about thirteen years ago in London much lefs, from the island of Ceylon, of another fpecies with fcallopt ears, and the tail with two rows of large, thick, and stiff black hairs.

Coaching in vifits is the great and daily bufinefs of people of quality: but in the evenings, the Cours de la Reyne is much frequented, and a great rendezvous of people of the best fashion. The place indeed is very commodious and pleasant, being three alleys fet with high trees of a great length, all along the bank of the river Seine, inclofed at each end with noble gates; and in the middle a very large circle to turn in. The middle alley holds four lines of coaches at least, and each fide alley two a piece: thefe eight lines of coaches may, when full, fuppofing them to contain near eighty coaches a-piece, amount to about fix or feven hundred. On the field fide, joining close to the alleys of the coaches, there are several acres of meadow planted with trees, well grown, into narrow alleys in quincunx order, to walk in the grafs, if any have a mind to light; and this muft needs be very agreeable in the heats of fummer, which we staid not to enjoy.

One thing this Cours is fhort of ours in Hyde-park, for if full, you cannot in an hour fee the company twice you have a mind to fee, and you are confined to your line; and oftentimes, the princes of the blood coming in, and driving at pleasure, make a strange ftop and embarras.

Befides, if the weather has been rainy, there is no driving in it, it is fo miry and ill gravelled.

Thofe, who have a mind to drive further out of town for the air, have woods, one to the west, and another to the east, most convenient. I mean, the Bois de Bologne, and the Bois de Vincennes; this laft is very opaque and pleasant. There are fome ancient Roman ftatues in the first court of this houfe.

But for the castle in the Bois de Bologne, called Madrid, it was built by Francis the First, and it is altogether morefque, in imitation of one in Spain: with at least two rows of covered galleries running quite round, on the outfide the four faces of the houfe; which fure in a very hot country are greatly refreshing and delightful: and this is faid to be built on purpofe for a defence against a much hotter climate, than where it stands; which that king had no mind to vifit a fecond time.

But let us return to Paris. Towards eight or nine o'clock in June most of them return from the Cours, and land at the garden gate of the Tuilleries, where they walk in the cool of the evening. This garden is of the best ordinance, and now in its full beauty, fo that Monf. Le Noftre has feen it in its infancy, for it is all of his invention, and he enjoys his labours in perfection. Certainly the moving furniture of it at this

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