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fanctity of the place, yet nothing was denied me a ftranger. Here being alone, we fell into difcourfe of the English, and of their king. They willingly allowed the English to be truly brave; and now in peace they found alfo, that they were as civil, and well bred, as brave; that no nation had given the king and his court that fatisfaction that the English had done; being curious and inquifitive after all good things; ney did fee a great difference between them and other nations; they did not ftare, and carelessly run about, or hold up their heads, and defpife what they faw; but had a true relish of every good thing, and made a good judgment of what was commendable; and therefore the king took pleasure to have them fhewed every thing. This difcourfe of the English they concluded with a great encomium of King William.

As for their own king they were much in the praife of him, as one may eafily imagine that his retirement hither was moftly for his health; that he left Verfailles every Tuesday night, and came hither with a felect company of lords and ladies; that he returned not till Saturday night, and fometimes intermitted ten or fourteen days; fo that he spent half of his time here in repofe; that he was the most affable prince in the world, and never out of humour, of a pleasant and open converfation where it pleased him; eafy of accefs, and never fent any one away difcontented; the most bountiful mafter in the world, of which there were ten thousand inftances; nothing of merit in any kind, but he most readily and cheerfully rewarded, ever, of late years at least, preferring the virtuous; fo on the other hand, he never spared the rebellious and obftinate; that the government of his people could not be carried on with less severity and ftrictness; nor the taxes which were neceffary to fupport it, raised; that he delighted not in blood or perfecution; but that the art of government had different rules, according to the climate and nature of the people, where and upon whom it was to be put in practice. His great wisdom appeared in nothing more, than in preferving himfelf amidst his troops, his converts, his court and numerous family, all in a manner fit for the throne. The greatness of his mind, and magnificence, in his buildings. This was the fum of the discourse these gentlemen were pleased to entertain me with.

At my return to Paris I was to fee the pipinerie, or royal nursery of plants, in the Fauxbourg of St. Honorie; where I met the mafter or comptroller of it, Monfieur Morley, one of the ufhers of the bed-chamber to the king.

He, like the rest of the French nation, was civil to me; and fhewed me a written almanac of flowering plants for the whole year, which he said was an original; it might indeed, be fo in French, but we have had almanacs for fruit and flowers, for every -month in the year, printed divers times, for above this 30 years, thanks to Mr. Evelyn. This ground inclofed with high walls is vaftly big, as it ought to be, to fupply the kings' gardens; here are several acres of young pines, cypreffes, vues, &c. alfo vaft beds of flock July flowers, of all forts of bulbes, as tulips, daffodills, crocus's, &c. and therefore I could eafily believe him when he told me, he had fent from hence to Marli alone, in four years time, eighteen millions of tulips and other bulbous flowers, for which he offered to fhew me his memoirs.

He further told me, that the furnishing the Trianon (a peculiar house of pleasure, with its parterres at the end of the gardens at Versailles) with flower pots in season, every fourteen days in the fummer, took up no lefs than ninety-two thousand pots from hence.

Alfo from hence he could plant and furnish in fourteen days time, any new garden the king fhould cause to be made.

Here befides the plants common to us and them, I faw a multitude of ditioned of stæchas citrina folio latiufculo.


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Alfo a fort of cotila, which bore large fun flowers or marigolds, propagated by flips; called by him Amaroutre.


In this ground are feveral houfes to lodge the tender winter greens; amongst the rest there is one very large, which I may call the infirmary of fick orange trees; which coming from Genoa by fea, are here depofited in a peculiar green house; and there in it, and then actuany Carrying out into the out into the air, (it was the 22d of May our style) 300 trees in cafes as thick as a man's thigh; but after ten, and fome after feventeen years cherishing, had not yet got heads decent enough to be removed, and to appear at court, they being often forced to lop both tops and root, that they might re


cover them.

After all, it must be faid, that this magnificence, and the number of these palaces and gardens, are the best and most commendable effect of arbitrary government. If these expences were not in time of peace, what would be this king's riches, and the extreme poverty of the people? for it is faid, that every three years, fome fay much oftener, he has all the wealth of the nation in his coffers; fo that there is a neceffity he fhould have as. extravagant and incredible ways of expending it, that it may have its due circulation. amongst the people.

But when this vaft wealth and power is turned to the disturbance and deftruction of mankind, it is terrible; and yet it hath its ufe too: we and all Europe have been taught, by the induftry of this great king, mighty improvements in war; fo that Europe has been thefe twelve years an over-match for the Turk; and we for France by the continuation of the war. The forty millions fterling which the late war hath, and will coft England, before all is paid, was well bestowed, if it had been for no other end, than to teach us the full use and practice of war; and in that point to equal us with our neighbours.

It was obferved by Polybius of the Romans, that wherever they met with an enemy, that had better weapons than themselves, they changed with them; this docility, gained them the empire of the world. On the contrary, those late eastern tyrants have defpifed learning, and confequently muft fubmit to the more refined valour of Europe. I fay, the effects of arbitrary government, both in war and peace, are stupendous.

The Roman Emperors, becaufe abfolute lords of the people, far out-did the common-wealth in magnificent buildings, both public and private. Auguftus left Rome a mar-. ble city, which he found of brick only. Nero burnt it and rebuilt it, and a golden palace for himself, like a city. Vefpafian and Titus built amphitheatres and baths farfurpaffing any buildings now upon the face of the earth; in one of which 120,000 perfons might fee and hear, and be feated with more convenience than upon our stages.. Adrian visited most parts of the world, on purpose to build cities. Trajan had his name on every wall, which he either reftored or built. His pillar, and bridge over the Danube are ftupendous monuments of his expences.

The Egyptian kings built them monuments, wherein they flaved their whole nation, and which are the wonders of the world to this day, the obelisks I mean, and pyramids. The Afiatic Emperors of China and Japan have outdone the Europeans in this kind of immenfe buildings, as the wall in China, the cut rivers, and fluices, and bridges there. In Japan the buildings are no lefs incredibly great..

Of this abfolute dominion we have examples even in those two American empires, of Mexico and Peru. In this laft, mere nature forced impoffibilities without art, tools, or fcience. The Cufco fortress was a mafter-piece, where ftones were laid upon ftones, which no engine of ours could carry, or raife up; or tools better polish, and fit together; where a country near as big as all Europe, was turned into a garden, and cultivated better than Versailles, and water-works brought to play and overfpread fome thousands



thousands of miles, where it never rains. This was the only arbitrary government well applied to the good of mankind, I ever met with in hiftory; where roads and storehoufes of food and raiment were the guides, and numbered the miles for the travellers, and the whole empire turned into an ufeful and intelligible map.

As for the Turks, Perfians, and Mogul, the whole empire is intended folely for the pleasure of one man; and here even tyranny itself is foully abused.

Yet I should be loth to fee them in any kind exemplified in England. In our happy ifland we fee fuch palaces and gardens, as are for the health and ease of man only; and what they want in magnificence, they have in neatness. There is not fuch a thing as a gravel walk in or about Paris, nor a roller of any fort; when it rains the Tuilleries are fhut up, and one walks in dirt fome days after. The grafs plots, or, as they call them bowling greens, are as ill kept, they clip them and beat them with flat beaters as they do their walks. This puts me in mind of what I faw in the garden of the Prince of Condé in Paris; where there was a graffy circle of about four feet wide, round one of the fountains in the middle of the garden; to keep this down, and make it of a finer turf, the gardener had tethered two black lambs, and two white kids, at equal distances, which fed upon it. Whatever the effect was, I thought it looked pretty enough; and the little animals were as ornamental, as the grafs.

All the paintings and prints made of late years of the king make him look very old; which in my mind is not fo; for he is plump in the face, and is well coloured, and feems healthy, and eats and drinks heartily, which I faw him do; this is certainly an injury to him, and poffibly in complaifance to the Dauphin, or worfe. This is the meanest compliment I have known the French guilty of towards their prince; for there are every where expreffions of another nature all over Paris. See the Defcription of Paris, where they are collected and at large. The Romans under Auguftus, (the firft abfolute matter of that people, as this king is of the French) had upon this fubject from the people a much finer thought, and wifh, De noftris annis tibi Jupiter augeat annos.

However it be, the king feems not to like Verfailles fo well as he did; and has an opinion, that the air is not fo good, as elsewhere; he leaves it (as I faid) every week on Tuesday night, and goes moftly to Marli, or Meudon, and fometimes to the Trianon, which is but at the end of the gardens, and returns not to Versailles till Saturday night befides his extraordinary removes to Fontainbleau. I wonder no body puts him in mind of that paradise of France, Languedoc, where he may be with ease in four days, at the rate that kings ufe to travel. I had this difcourfe at table with one of the introducteurs to the ambaffador at Versailles; but he could not bear it, it being against the intereft of all fettled courts to remove, though it were never fo good for their prince's health. I remember but of one inftance in hiftory, and that was Aurenzebe the Great Mogul, who in his middle age fell defperately fick, and long languished at Lahor; but took advice of fome body about him, and went in his own kingdom a progress of one thousand miles to Cafimire, a very mild and temperate climate, where he recovered, and lived to above a hundred years old, and is yet alive for ought I know. The king now feldom or never plays, but contents himself sometimes with looking on; but he hath formerly been engaged, and has loft great fums. Monfieur S. rooked him of near a million of livres at baffet, by putting falfe cards upon him; but was imprisoned and banished for it fome years.

Before I give over the bufinefs of gardens and country, I will add fome remarks, which feemed particular and new to me.

In the kitchen gardens at and near Paris, are a great number of apricot ftandards; but kept low; very full of bloffoms, and good bearers.


They make a conferve of the fruit; which I like above any of their wet fweetmeats; it was made by cutting them into thin flices, and throwing away the ftone; which our people spare fometimes, and leave in the flesh intire, and spoils the sweetmeat, and fets it a fretting.

They employ the stones in brandy, and diftil them in fpirits.

In the beginning of April we had store of afparagus, but they were often fo bitter, to me at least, that there was little pleafure in eating them. It is certain they were much worfe, than ours in England in that particular. Which puts me in mind of the wild afparagus, which grows plentifully with us on the fea coaft in Lincolnfhire. This is very fair to the eye; yet no culture of our gardens, by often transplanting, could make it eatable. I fancy the asparagus recovers fomething of its natural force in a warmer climate; for the sweet tafte is as it were a mark of degeneration. If they would have them good here, they must renew the feed from England or Holland.

The wild afparagus of Languedoc is another plant called Corruda.

I procured out of Languedoc a fort of Præcox vine, about fifty plants, by the Clermont carrier; the which I gave to Mr. London, our king's gardener, for my lord ambaffador. This grape is white, very thin skinned, and clear as a drop of water; it is ufually ripe at St. John's-mafs in July at Montpellier, where it is called Des Unies. ́There are also in this town Præcox grapes, as Dr. Turnefort told me in the physic garden; but whether the fame with the Unies I know not.

I have faid they delight much in figs in pots or cases; but here is another way of preferving the fig trees fet in the ground, which is much practifed; and that is to lap, and tie them up in long ftraw, from top to bottom; for which they are placed at a little distance from the walls. This alfo is practifed to fuch trees as ftand in the middle of the parterre; they did not open them till mid-May.

The exotic trees, which the Parifians molt delight in, for their garden walks, and for the shade in their courts, are the Maroniers, or horse chefnuts, of which they have innumerable; for the fruit ripens very well here, and comes up of itself. Alfo the Acacia Rovini, which is very common, and makes pretty alleys, and which they lop and turn to pollards, with good effect; but of these laft the leaves are late in putting forth, it being the 15th of May our ftyle, when thefe trees were fcarce green.

May 25., When I took my leave of Monfieur Valliant, I found him in his flower garden; he fhewed me a parcel of ranunculufes, in full flower, which he had received but two years before from Conftantinople; they were very beautiful and rare, at least such as I had never feen; as pure white, white and green, white and ftriped with carnation, pure carnation or rofe-colour, ftriped carnation, &c.

Of thefe he had fold fome a piftole a root, and hoped in a year or two to be more plentifully stocked with them, that he might afford them cheaper. I did fee afterwards a few of them in the royal pipinerie, and alfo in the feedfman's garden, Monfieur Le Febre: but both came from him.

I alfo took notice of his iron cradles or hoops over his beds, which were removeable, and to be made higher and lower, according to the height and nature of the flowers they were defigned to cover. This, me thought, was far beyond all the inventions of wooden covers, and might with fail-cloths and mats well ferve for a fort of portable" green house, to the lefs tender plants.

I faw Le Febre's flower-garden, May 9. The tulips were in their prime; indeed, he had a very large and plentiful collection. The panacheé or ftriped tulips were many, and of great variety. He obferved to me, that from his large and numerous beds of felf-flowered tulips, that is, of one colour, as red, yellow, &c. they expected


yearly fome striped ones, which if perfect, that is, striped in all the fix leaves, would but doubtfully continue, and perhaps return to their former state the next year; but if tyhe laboured, or did not finish the ftripings of all the fix leaves the first year, there were better hopes of their continuing in that state.

Though I had no mind to defcend into the ftone pits, which are like our mines, wellfashion, and the ftones wound up with great wheels, to husband the foil over them: yet I went to Vanre, three miles from the town, which is a ridge of hills that runs along to the obfervatory. Here the quarries are open on the fide of the hill, as with us. In those I obferved two or three layers of ftone, two or three foot thick, moftly made up of fhells, or ftones in the fafhion of fhells. Amongit thefe fhell-ftones the moft remarkable for bignefs was a certain fmooth and long buccinum, tapering with very many fpires. I measured one whofe firft fpire was eight inches diameter, the full length I could not fo well come at; yet holding proportion with those of the kind which lay flat, and which we could fee in their full length, it must have been a foot long at leatt. There is no buccinum in any of our feas a quarter fo big. Here are many of this fpecies. Alfo other large turbinated ftones, which come near some of the West India kinds of mufic fhells, of which genus yet there are none in the European feas.

Thefe layers of ftone mixed with fhell-figured bodies, are at certain distances in the rock, and other rocks void of fhells interpofed.

Fanciful men may think what they please of this matter; fure I am, until the hiftory of nature, and more particularly that of minerals and foffils is better looked into, and more accurately diftinguished, all reafoning is in vain. It is to be obferved, where men are most in the dark, there impudence reigns moft, as upon this subject: they are not content fairly to diffent, but to infult every body elfe. In like manner upon the fubject of mineral waters; how many scriblers have there been without any knowledge of foffils?

I know not whether it be worth the noting, but it fhews the humour of the French, that I faw in fome country towns near Paris, the church wall near the top had a two feet broad mourning lift, which compaffed the whole church like a girdle, and on this was at certain distances, painted the arms of the lord of the manor, who was dead.

I fhall conclude what I have to fay further, with the air of Paris, and the state of health and phyfic there.

The air of Paris is drier than that of England, notwithstanding the greateft part of the city is placed in a dirty miry level; the muddy banks of the river Seine witnefs this; alfo the old Latin name of Paris, Lutetia; but fome of them are unwilling to derive it from Lutum, though there are feveral other towns in France, formerly more confiderable than it, of that very name; but from the Greek original, as Tolon, Toloufa, which in that language fignify black dirt. We have an undoubted experiment of the different temper of the air in our Philofophic Tranfactions; where it is demonftrated, that there falls twice as much rain in England, as at Paris; regifters of both having carefully been kept, for fo many years, both here and in France.

From this quantity of rain with us, our fields are much greener; and it was a pleafing furprise to me at my return, failing up the river of Thames, to fee our green fields. and paftures on every fide; but we pay dearly for it, in agues and coughs, and rheuma tic diftempers.

The winter was very rude and fierce, as was ever known in the memory of man; the cold winds very piercing; and the common people walk the ftreets all in muffs, and 7 multitudes

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