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hours on one part of its coast, and that where the coast is volcanic. “I could have wished, (says Mr. Hardy), to see more wood upon its shores, less ruggedness in the aspect of its mountains, and a greater softness and warmth in its general features. The mountains in some places come close to the water; and towards the north we could discover a far higher chain, their dark sides, and still darker bases, presenting a fine contrast to the robe of snow in which their lofty summits were invested." Dr. Morehead's anonymous traveler (Mar. 13) first came in sight of the Lake where he could see only the northern half, and he says "its size disappointed us: but the blue still water, the green hills around, and the high snowy ridge of Jubbul el Shaikh, made a very delightful landscape." "Before it was dark, (he afterwards says), we had a very fine view of the Lake; at the southern part it is narrow, and the sides bold. The sun threw a deep shade on this side, and on the water, while it marked the hills and valleys on the opposite side, with strong light and shade. The northern part is much wider and tamer; but the hills are still high and green and the lofty snowy mountain of Jubbul Shaikh, rising over them, gives great dignity to the landscape. This mountain was very striking, late in the evening, as retaining the sun's rays, after every thing around us was in darkness. In all respects it is the greatest ornament of the Lake."—Here we have a calm delineation of reality; and the mind is satisfied.

5. Palestine NORTH of the Lake of Galilee.

In order to complete our survey of Galilee, and from the Land of Zabulon proceed to that of Nephthalim, we must set out from the mountain (p. xcix.) from which that magnificent view is seen, which so often was, undoubtedly, in sight of the beloved Son of God. We have, however, no longer the glowing delineations of Lamartine, or of Clarke, to present to the reader; and we must be satisfied with a statement of the leading objects which have been observed in the course which we follow.

If those who were traveling in Galilee, had to go from Nazareth or Cana to Capernaum, they would leave the route to Tiberias at the vale of Hutin, go through the Pass of Doves, and then traverse the populous, fertile, and wall-watered region of Gennesaret, already described, at the north-eastern extremity of which the town of Capernaum was situated.-If they had to visit the remarkable city seen from the heights of Hutin, they would bend north-westwards toward the mountain on which Saphet stands. This town is not mentioned in the Gospels; but it assuredly was the place referred to by our Lord, when he said, 'A city placed on a hill cannot be hid'. It

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* The recent destruction of this place has already been mentioned. See p. ci. note.

was held in much estimation among the Jews; for several doctors of the law, before the destruction of Jerusalem, were buried there. lt was strongly fortified, and ruins of its citadel yet remain; as also a large dome and colonnade of massive structure. Van Egmont and Heyman say that, from the dome, there is the finest prospect that can be imagined, extending over the city of Saphet and the circumjacent places, which are very numerous, all the sides of the mountains being full of villages and hamlets. The adjacent country is every where well cultivated. Towards the south, the view is very delightful over the Lake of Galilee. The panorama includes also Mount Tabor, the hills beyond the Plain of Esdraelon, Mount Carmel, and the chains of Lebanon; and even the Mediterranean may sometimes be discerned. "The air of Saphet, from its high situation, is very pure and healthy, and at the same time so fresh and cool, that the heats, which during the summer are very great in the adjacent country, are here hardly felt, a gentle breeze continually refreshing the air. The fruits also are remarkably good, especially the grapes and figs. Here are also great numbers of lemon-trees; for at the foot of the mountains are several fertile valleys laid out into gardens; and the whole country is naturally fertile, and abounds with springs." Mod. Trav. p. 339. Captain Mangles, too, was struck with the extreme beauty of the situation; and says that the country abounds with olives, vines, and almond-trees, which were then (May 26) in full blossom.

From the plain northwards of Saphet, the road descends to the western banks of the valley of Jordan, which it reaches near Jacob's Bridge, so called from the Jordan's having been crossed there by Jacob when he came from Padan Aram. Seetzen, who visited this place in February 1806, says that the bridge is built of fragments of basalt, and is well preserved; and that the river in that place is about thirty five paces in breadth. We follow him thence, on the east of the river, towards the Lake of Galilee.

"The country that we passed through was wild, mountainous, and entirely composed of basalt; it was the western part of the district of Jaulân," obviously the 'Golan in Bashan' of the Old Testament. "From the high ground that we traveled over, we had a very fine view of the Lake of Tiberias. We afterwards passed through the little village of Tallanihie [Pococke's Tellony], probably the ancient Julias, and situated at the edge of a small fertile plain, which extends as far as the Lake, and seems to owe its origin to the Jordan. In the village 1 saw a great number of aloes, which grow there in the open air-a circumstance which I had not remarked before."

It is probable that the plain which Seetzen mentions, was the solitude or desert near Bethsaida, where our Lord wrought the miracle of the Five Thousand. Pococke speaks of this plain as about two miles along the Jordan; and he says that there is a hill where the Jordan enters that

plain; this may have been the mountain up which Jesus went before the miracle, and to which he afterwards returned from the multitude.-Julias was the name given to this Bethsaida, by Philip the Tetrarch, in honour of the daughter of Augustus. It was not the Bethsaida of Peter, Andrew, and Philip; for their birth-place was in Galilee. Julias may have been also called Chorazin, according to the opinion of D'Anville; yet it appears more probable that it was in Galilee, perhaps (see Richardson) between Capernaum and the Jordan.

Returning to Jacob's Bridge, and pursuing our course northwards, chiefly with Dr. Richardson, on the west of the Jordan, we find the river sometimes concealed by shady trees, chiefly of the platanus kind, which grow on each side of it; sometimes passing the hills and rocks as a torrent, but calm in other parts of its course. The mountains on the east are bold, and continue with little interruption the whole of the way. On the west, they commonly recede from the river, leaving a fine undulating and fertile plain, about, about four or five furlongs broad; at other times interrupted by beautiful defiles, irrigated by small streams of water. The plain is very fertile, and bears excellent crops of wheat and barley. As we approach the head of the Vale of Jordan, high mountains still continue to bound it on both sides, and the still loftier Busia (Gibl Sheikh) with its snow-clad summit unites them at its termination; Richardson says that the view of it was delightful, "as the mists retired from the mountain-tops, and the morning sun lighted up the scene, fresh from the dews of night." About half-way between its source and the Lake of Galilee, the Jordan passes through Lake Samochonitis, more anciently the Waters of Merom, now called Bahr el Hoolya, (denoting its formation by the confluence of innumerable mountain streams), surrounded by meadows, plains, and hills. These streams are formed by the rain or the melting of the snow upon the mountains. Gibl Sheikh is the chief of the whole range. Near its base, are the remains of Paneas, which was named Cæsarea, by Philip the Tetrarch, in honour of Tiberius Cæsar; and was termed Cæsarea Philippi, to distinguish it from the Cæsarea on the Mediterranean. The present town of Baneas is small; but there are distinct traces of the more ancient city; and it is conjectured a temple built by Herod the Great may have stood on a projecting summit, high up the side of the mountain, and commanding a grand view of the whole plain of Jordan, where now are the ruins of an ancient fortress. "Having finished our view of this interesting spot," says Dr. Richardson, "we descended again to enjoy the shade under the venerable oaks." This was on the 17th of May: he had before spoken of " the rays of a scorching sun."-One of the sources of the Jordan is near this town. "It is somewhat in the shape of a half-moon," says

Madox, "and the water bubbles out in various places beautifully clear, forming a small pool in the front of a cavern, which also contains water, smooth and still; from which it rushes forwards in two principal streams." It used to issue from the cavern itself; but part of the rock had been thrown down by an earthquake, and this disturbed the fountain.

It was to this region that our Saviour retired, a short time before he finally left Galilee, still to avoid the crafty and cruel Herod, who had been seeking to get him into his power; and there is little room to doubt, that it was on one of the lofty hills in this neighbourhood, that the glorious scene of his Transfiguration occurred.

He had previously withdrawn to the Region of Tyre and Sidon, beyond the north-western borders of Galilee. Sidon lies on the Mediterranean, nearly in the same parallel with Damascus, about forty or fifty miles from Capernaum. It was the most ancient of the two Phoenician cities; and was very early celebrated for its ship-building and its merchandize. More than twenty miles southwards from. it was Tyre, the ancient emporium of the world, a place of immense commerce and navigation, and the subject of the most remarkable prophecy. The ancient city was on the continent. When old Tyre was destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar, the inhabitants built a new city on an adjoining island. This was taken by Alexander, by means of a mound from the continent, and most of the inhabitants were slain or sold into slavery. It soon revived again; and in the days of our Lord, it was populous and flourishing. Its port is now choked with sand and rubbish; and only a miserable village is found, where proud Tyre once stood. As we approach Tyre from the south, the wide expanse of the Mediterranean, and the snowy chains of Lebanon, form a magnificent view. On proceeding onwards along the coast, much nearer to Sidon than to Tyre, are some traces of Sarepta, the city of the widow to whom Elijah was sent.

6. Palestine SOUTH-EAST of the Lake, with the Course of


We now return to the Lake of Galilee, to take a brief survey of the country to the south-east of the Lake, with the course of the Jordan.

The river issues from the Lake, where it is not more than two miles broad, in three currents, which, however, soon unite. Soon after this, there are seen ruined arches of a bridge of Roman architecture; and there was another bridge not far below the confluence of the Hieromax or Jarmuck, which is a considerable stream approaching the Lake from the north-east, and entering the Jordan some miles south of it.-Lamartine thus describes the Jordan on its leaving the Lake

"Although at the end of a dry autumn, it rolls gently in its bed, about a hundred feet wide, presenting a sheet of water from two to three feet deep, clear, limpid, and transparent, (so that pebbles may be counted at the bottom), and of that beautiful colour which enables water to reflect the deep blue firmament of Asia. At from twenty to thirty paces from the river, the shore, which is now dry, is covered with rolling stones, reeds, and a few tufts of rose-laurel which are still in flower. This shore is about five or six feet below the level of the plain; and shows what must be the size of the river when at its height. The spot where we contemplated it, is one of the four fords which the Jordan furnishes in its course."

The beautiful Plain of the Jordan greatly resembles that between the two chains of Lebanon. It is, however, little cultivated, and there are now no villages in it. The river flows in a valley which is considerably lower than the rest of the plain; and this is covered with high trees and a luxuriant verdure which affords a striking contrast with the sandy slopes that border it on both sides. The great number of rivulets which descend from the mountains on the east and the west, form (says Burckhardt) numerous pools of stagnant water, and produce in many places a pleasing verdure, and a luxuriant growth of wild herbage and grass; but the greater part of the ground is a parched desert, of which a few spots only are cultivated. Burckhardt passed it below Scythopolis, in the midst of summer, and found it there about eighty paces broad and about three feet deep. In the winter, it inundates the valley in the bottom of the plain; but it never rises to the level of the plain itself, which is at least forty feet above the level of the river.-Dr. Morehead's anonymous traveler crossed it in the direction from Gerasa to Sychem, after having visited the magnificent remains of that city. In his route westwards from Gerasa, he passed through picturesque mountains, where the rocks and woods were mixed with fine effect; among extensive olive plantations; and through a green and pastoral district. Where he saw the valley of the Jordan, it was "a narrow green plain, separated by the white ravines on the river. These, however, were almost close to the western hills; while on the east side the plain was three miles broad. The hills beyond seemed in two ranges, a low one close to the river, and the high hills behind." Having passed over the plain, they forded the Jordan on horseback, with some difficulty on account of the force of the stream, though the water was not above half-way up their horses' bodies: this is a third ford. The heat was excessive from the time they entered the Plain of Jordan.

. Scythopolis, (now Bisan, more anciently Bethsan), is a few miles from the course of the Jordan, on the west side. It is not spoken of, or referred to, by the Evangelists; but Enon and Salim, two places which are mentioned by St. John, (Harm. p. 29), were not far distant from it. Jerome says that Enon was eight miles to the south of Scythopolis, near the

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