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rough, in course and nasty woollen frocks upon boards; to go barefoot in a cold country, to deny themselves the comforts of this life, and the conversation of men; this, I say, is to hazard our healths, to renounce the greatest blessings of this life, and in a manner to destroy ourselves. These men, I say, cannot but be in the main chagrin, and therefore as they are out of humour with the world, so they must in time be weary of such slavish and fruitless devotion, which is not attended with an active life.

The great multitude of poor wretches in all parts of this city is such, that a man in a coach, a-foot, in the shop, is not able to do any business for the numbers and importunities of beggars; and to hear their miseries is very lamentable; and if you give to one, you immediately bring a whole swarm upon you. These, I say, are true monks, if you will, of God Almighty's making, offering you their prayers for a farthing, that find the evil of the day sufficient for the day, and that the miseries of this life are not to be courted, or made a mock of. These worship, much against their will, all rich men, and make saints of the rest of mankind for a morsel of bread.

But let these men alone with their mistaken zeal; it is certainly God's good Providence which orders all things in this world. And the flesh-eaters will ever defend themselves, if not beat the Lenten men; good and wholesome food, and plenty of it, gives men naturally great courage. Again, a nation will sooner be peopled by the free marriage of all sorts of people, than by the additional stealth of a few starved monks, supposing them at any time to break their vow. This limiting of marriage to a certain people only is a deduction and abatement of mankind, not less in a papist country than a constant war. Again, this lessens also the number of God's worshippers, instead of multiplying them as the stars in the firmament, or the sand upon the sea shore; these men willfully cut off their posterity, and reduce God's congregation for the future.

There is very little noise in this city of public cries of things to be sold, or any disturbance from pamphlets and hawkers. One thing I wondered at, that I heard of nothing lost, nor any public advertisement, till I was shewed printed papers upon the corners of streets, wherein were in great letters, Un, Deux, Cinq, Dix jusq; a Cinquante Louis a gagner, that is, from one to fifty louis to be got; and then underneath an account of what was lost. This sure is a good and quiet way; for by this means without noise you often find your goods again; every body that has found them repairing in a day or two to such places. The gazettes come out but once a week, and but few people buy them.

It is difficult and dangerous to vend a libel here. While we were in town, a certain person gave a bundle of them to a blind man, a beggar of the hospital of the Quinzevint, telling him he might get five pence for every penny; he went to Nostredame, and cried them up in the service time; La Vie & Miracles de l'Evesq; de Rheims. This was a trick that was played the archbishop, as it was thought, by the Jesuits, with whom he has had a great contest about Molinas, the Spanish J. doctrines. The libel went off at any rate, when the first buyers had read the title further, and found they were against the present archbishop, duke, and first peer of France.

The streets are lighted alike all the winter long, as well when the moon shines, as at other times of the month; which I remember the rather, because of the impertinent usage of our people at London, to take away the lights for half of the month, as though the moon was certain to shine and light the streets, and that there could be no cloudy weather in winter. The lanthorns here hang down in the very middle of all the streets, about twenty paces distance, and twenty foot high. They are made of a square of glass about two feet deep, covered with a broad plate of iron; and the rope that lets them down, is secured and locked up in an iron funnel and little trunk fastened into

the wall of the house. These lanthorns have candles of four in the pound in them, which last burning till after midnight.

As to these lights, if any man break them, he is forthwith sent to the gallies; and there were three young gentlemen of good families, who were in prison for having done it in a frolic, and could not be released thence in some months, and that not without the diligent application of good friends at court.

The lights at Paris for five months in the year only, cost near 50,0001. sterling. This way of lighting the streets is in use also in some other cities in France. The king is said to have raised a large tax by it. In the preface to the tax it is said, "that considering the great danger his subjects were in, in walking the streets in the dark, from thieves, and the breaking their necks by falls, he for such a sum of money did grant this privilege, that they might hang out lanthorns in this manner."

I have said, that the avenues to the city, and all the streets, are paved with a very hard sand stone, about eight inches square; so they have a great care to keep them clean; in winter, for example, upon the melting of the ice, by a heavy drag with a horse, which makes a quick riddance and cleaning the gutters; so that in a day's time all parts of the town are to admiration clean and neat again to walk on.

I could heartily wish their summer cleanliness was as great; it is certainly as necessary to keep so populous a city sweet; but I know no machine sufficient, but what would empty it of the people too; all the threats and inscriptions upon walls are to little purpose. The dust in London in summer is oftentimes, if a wind blow, very troublesome, if not intolerable; in Paris there is much less of it, and the reason is, the flat stones require little sand to set them fast, whereas our small pebbles, not coming toge ther, require a vast quantity to lay them fast in paving.

But from the people in the streets, to the dead ornaments there. There are an infinite number of bustos of the grand monarch every where put up by the common people; but the noble statues are but few, considering the obsequious humour and capacity of the people to perform.

That in the Place-Victoire is a foot in brass, all over gilt, with Victoire, that is a vast winged woman close behind his back, holding forth a laurel crown over the king's head, with one foot upon a globe. There are great exceptions taken at the gilding by artists; and indeed the shining seems to spoil the features, and give I know not what confusion; it had better have been all of gold brassed over; which would have given its true lights and shadows, and suffered the eye to judge of the proportions. But that which I like not in this, is the great woman perpetually at the king's back; which is a sort of embarras, and instead of giving victory, seems to tire him with her company. The Roman victory was a little puppet in the emperor's hand, which he could dispose of at pleasure. This woman is enough to give a man a surfeit.

The other are statues of three of the last kings of France, in brass on horseback. That on the Pont-neuf is of Henry the Fourth in his armour bare-headed, and habited as the mode of that time was.

The other of Lewis the Thirteenth in the Palace-Royal, armed also after the mode of the age, and his plume of feathers on his head-piece.

The third is of this present king Louis the Fourteenth, and designed for the Place Vendosme. This colossus of brass is yet in the very place, where it was cast; it is surprisingly great, being 22 feet high, the feet of the king 26 inches in length, and all the proportions of him and the horse suitable. There was 100,000 pound weight of metal melted, but it took not up above 80,000 pounds; it was all cast at once, horse and man. Monsieur Girardon told me, he wrought diligently, and with almost daily application at the model eight years, and there were two years more spent in the moulding, and


furnaces, and casting of it. The king is in the habit of a Roman emperor, without stirrups or saddle, and on his head a French large periwig a-la-mode. Whence this great liberty of sculpture arises, I am much to seek.

It is true, that in building precisely to follow the ancient manner and simplicity is very commendable, because all those orders were founded upon good principles in mathematics: but the clothing of an emperor was no more than the weak fancy of the people. For Louis le Grand to be thus dressed up at the head of his army now a-days would be very comical. What need other emblems, when truth may be had; as though the sent age need be ashamed of their modes, or that the Statua Equestris of Henry IV, or Louis XIII, were the less to be valued for being done in the true dress of their times. It seems to me to be the effect of mistaken flattery; but if regarded only as a piece of mere art, it is methinks very unbecoming, and has no graceful air with it.

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dislike of good things; that is, spoils and hides the noble art of the sculpture, for which only they are valuable.

But why should nudity be so offensive, since a very great part of the world yet defies clothes, and ever did so; and the parts they do most affect to cover, is from a certain necessity only.

It is plain by these and many other elegant statues I saw at Versailles, most of which were taken out hence, that the Roman clothing was the most simple thing imaginable; and that a Roman was as soon undressed, as I can put off my gloves and shoes. The men and women went dressed much alike. As for the fashion of the Roman habit, it is evident by these ancient statues (which Oct. Ferrarius has well and reasonably followed in explicating the several garments of the ancients) that the tunica or shirt was without a collar or sleeves, and girt high up under the breasts; also, that the toga or gown was a wide and long garment open at both ends, and let down over the head, and supported by the left hand thrust under the skirts of it, whilst the top of it rested upon the left shoulder. The right hand and arm was naked, and above the gown, so that the gown was ungirt and always loose. Now for the purpose, when a Roman made himself naked for a bath (as he daily did just before eating) he had nothing to do but draw up his left hand, and the gown fell down at his feet; and at the same time to loose the girdle of the tunica, and to draw up both his arms from under the tunica, and that also fell at his feet.

In the first ages of the commonwealth they wore a toga or gown only, afterwards they put on next the skin a tunica or shirt, and never added more in the very splendour and luxury of the empire; all other matters of clothing, of whatever nature soever, have been invented since.

I much admired, that in the great number of ancient statues to be seen in and about Paris, I could never meet any one but what was clothed with a toga pura, and no representation of a bullated one.

This toga and tunica both were made of fine white wool or flannel: they had not a rag of linen about them. This flannel, I say, was very fine; for their folds are small, and it falls into them easily; and seems to be very light, by the handling of it, to raise it by the finger and thumb only, as is the air of some of the statues, and the whole garment to be suspended by the left shoulder. Upon the least straining of it, the breasts and nipples are visible through it; also the proportions of the thighs.

This wearing all woollen in a hot country brought on the use and necessity of frequent bathing otherwise they could never have kept themselves sweet and clean; and the necessity of bathing kept them to this sort of loose garment; and much bathing brought in oils, and oils perfumes infused in them.

But in my mind a fair linen shirt every day is as great a preservative to neatness and cleanness of the skin and health, as daily bathing was to the Romans. It is certain, had they not used either simple oils of olives, sometimes unripe and old, for the astringency, and sometimes ripe and perfumed, the warm water must have much decayed nature, and made the skin intolerably tender and wrinkled. The naked indians and blacks secure their skins by oils at this day from all the injuries of the weather, both from heat and cold. But the best rule of health and long life is to do little to ourselves. People are not aware what inconveniences they bring upon themselves by custom, how they will plead for things long used, and make that pleasant, which is very destructive to their healths; as in the case of clothing, tobacco, strong waters, steel remedies, the drinking mineral waters, bathing, tea, coffee, chocolate, &c.

One little statue I took more particular notice of, for the elegance of the sculpture,


and the humour of the dress; it stood upon a table; it was the figure of a sybil. The face of the old woman was cut very deep into the stone, within the quoifure, like a hood pulled over the forehead, a very emblem of an oracle, which is hid, dark and ambiguous, as the woman herself, who would have neither her face seen, nor her saying easily under. stood that is, she is as it were, ashamed of her cheat.

What was the fancy of the men of the first ages to make old women prophetesses, to utter oracles, and to interpret the will of the gods by the eating of animals; to make them Sage and Veneficæ is reasonable enough; for old age makes all people spiteful, but more the weaker sex. To poison and bewitch are the secret revenges of impotent people. The Jews were impatient of the company of women in their religious rites, lest they should contaminate and spoil all their devotion. The Romans on the contrary thought religion became women better than men, for besides the general parts they had in common with the men in adoration of their gods, they had also peculiar ones, where the men were not concerned. Tully bids his wife supplicate the gods for him; for he tells her, he thought they would be kinder to her than him. Upon some such principle, probably, their prophetesses were in esteem.

I saw the apartment of Monsieur Viviers in the arsenal; it consists in seven or eight ground rooms looking into the great garden; these rooms are small, but most curiously furnished, and have in them the greatest variety and best sorted china ware I ever saw, besides pagods and China pictures: also elegant and rich bureaus, book-cases, and some paintings of the best masters.

That which pleased me most, amongst the paintings, were the pieces of Rembrant's, that incomparable Dutch painter.

A girl with a cage in one hand, and looking up after the bird that had got out, and was flying away over her head: she had fright, amazement, and sorrow, in her looks. The other is an unlucky lad leaning upon a table, and looking with mischief in his eyes, or that he watched to do some unhappy turn. The third is a young gentleman in a fur cap, en dishabille, after his wonted manner. The two first are the most natural thoughts and dress that can be; but nothing certainly ever came near his colouring for flesh and garments. This part he studied passionately all his life, and was ever trying experiments about it; and with what success, these and many other pieces shew. These three pictures of Rembrant are all of young people, and are finished with all the art and perfection of colouring, as smooth as any limning; which makes the judgment of Philibien of him appear not just: for he fitted his paint according to the age and nature of the subjects he wrought. I had the pleasure of seeing them again and again. Monsieur le Nostre's cabinet, or rooms, wherein he keeps his fine things, the controller of the king's gardens, at the side of the Tuilleries, was worth seeing. He is a very ingenious old gentleman, and the ordinance and design of most of the royal and great gardens in and about Paris are of his invention, and he has lived to see them in perfection. This gentleman is 89 years old and quick and lively. He entertained me very civilly. There were in the three apartments, into which it is divided (the uppermost of which is an octagon room with a dome) a great collection of choice pictures, porcellans, some of which were jars of a most extraordinary size: some old Roman heads and bustos, and entire statues; a great collection of stamps very richly bound but he had lately made a draught of his best pictures to the value of 50,000 crowns, and had presented them to the king at Versailles. There was not any thing of natural history in all his cabinet. ingedi


in books;

I was several times with him, and once he carried me into an upper closet, where he had a great collection of medals in four cabinets, most modern; amongst them there

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