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The Pharisees question our Lord concerning divorce, 1-12. Little children are brought to him, 13–16. The person who inquired how he might inherit eternal life, 17-22. How difficult it is for a rich man to be saved, 23-27. What they shall receive who have left all for Christ and his Gospel, 23-31. He foretels his death, 32-34. James and John desire places of pre-eminence, 35-41. Christ shows them the necessity of humility, 42-45. Blind Bartimeus healed, 46–52. [A. M. 4033. A. D. 29. An. Olymp CCIL. 1.]

AND he arose from thence, and cometh into the coasts of

Judea by the further side of Jordan: and the people resort unto him again; and, as he was wont, he taught then again. 2b And the Pharisees came to him, and asked him, Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife? tempting him.

3 And he answered and said unto them, What did Moses command you?

4 And they said, Moses suffered to write a bill of divorcement, and to put her away.

5 And Jesus answered and said unto them, For the hardness of your heart he wrote you this precept.

6 But from the beginning of the creation & God made them

male and female.

7 For this cause shall a man leave his father and mother, and cleave to his wife;

8 And they twain shall be one flesh: so then they are no more twain, but one flesh.

9 What therefore God hath joined together, let not man put asunder.

10 And in the house his disciples asked him again of the

same matter.

11 And he saith unto them, f Whosoever shall put away his
wife, and marry another, committeth adultery against her.
12 And if a woman shall put away her husband, and be mar-
ried to another, she committeth adultery.

131 And they brought young children to him, that he should touch them: and his disciples rebuked those that brought them. 14 But when Jesus saw it, he was much displeased, and said unto them, Suffer the little children to come unto me, and forbid them not: for hof such is the kingdom of God.

15 Verily I say unto you, i Whosoever shall not receive the
kingdom of God as a little child, he shall not enter therein.
16 And he took them up in his arms, put his hands upon
them, and blessed them.

17 And when he was gone forth into the way, there came
one running, and kneeled to him, and asked hiin, Good Mas-
ter, what shall I do that I may inherit eternal life?

a Matt. 13. 1 John 10, 40, & 11. 7-b Matt 19. 3.- Deut. 24. 1. Mart. 5. 31. & 19. 7. Gen. 1. 27, & 5. 2.-e Gen. 2. 24. 1 Cor. 6. 16. Ephes, 31 - Matt. 3.22. 19 9. Luke 16. 19. Rom. 7. 3. 1 Cor. 7. 10, 11.-g Mait. 19. 13. Luke 19. 13.h1 Cor. 14. 9. 1 Pet. 2. 9.

18 And Jesus said unto hilo, why callest thou me good ?

there is none good, but one, that is, God.

19 Thou knowest the commandments, 1 Do not commit adul tery, Do not kill, Do not steal, Do not bear false witness, Defraud not, Honour thy father and mother.

20 And he answered and said unto him, Master, all these have I observed from my youth.

21 Then Jesus beholding him, lovea him, and said unto him, One thing thou lackest go thy way, sell whatsoever thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have "treasure in heaven, and come, take up the cross, and follow me.

22 And he was sad at that saying, and went away grieved: for he had great possessions.

23 "And Jesus looked round about, and saith unto his disciples, How hardly shall they that have riches enter into the kingdom of God!

21 And the disciples were astonished at his words. But Je
sus answereth again, and saith unto them, Children, how hard
is it for them that trust in riches to enter into the kingdom
of God!

25 It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle,
than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God.
26 And they were astonished out of measure, saying among
themselves, Who then can be saved?

27 And Jesus looking upon them, saith, With men it is im-
possible, but not with God; for P with God all things are pos

28¶Then Peter began to say unto him, Lo, we have left all, and have followed thee.

29 And Jesus answered and said, Verily I say unto you, There is no man that hath left house, or brethren, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or lands, for my sake, and the gospel's ;

30But he shall receive a hundred-fold now in this time, houses, and brethren, and sisters, and mothers, and children, and lands, with persecutions: and in the world to come, eter nal life.

Matt. 18. 3.-k Matt. 19. 16. Luke 19, 19.-1 Exod. 20. 14. Rora. 13. 9.m Matt. 6. 19, 0 & 19. 21. Luke 12.33. & 16.9-n Mat. 19. 21 Lake 18. 4-6 Job 31.4. Psa. 52 7. & 62 10. 1 Tim. 6. 17-p Jer 2. 17. Matt. 19. 6. Luke 1. 37. - Matt 19. 27. Luke 18. 28-r2 Chron. 2. 9. Luke 18. 30.

NOTES.-Verse 1. He arose] Kakɛidev avasaç may be trans-heathenish and barbarous, to see parents who profess to belated, he departed thence. The verb avisnut has this sense in some of the purest Greek writers. See Kypke. Many transactions took place between those mentioned in the preceding chapter, and these that follow, which are omitted by Matthew and Mark; but they are related both by Luke and Jolm. See Lightfoot, and Bishop Newcome.

lieve in that Christ who loves children, and among them those whose creed does not prevent them from using infant baptism, depriving their children of an ordinance by which no soul can prove that they cannot be profited; and through an unaccountable bigotry or carelessness withhold from them the privilege of even a nominal dedication to God; and yet these very persons are ready enough to fly for a minister to baptize their child when they suppose it to be at the point of death! It would be no crime to pray, that such persons should never have the privilege of hearing my father! or my mother! from the lips of their own child. See on Matt. iii. 6. and on Mark xvi. 16.

17. There came one running] See the case of this rich young man largely explained on Matt. xix. 16, &c. 21. Then Jesus beholding him] Looking earnestly, cußde as, or affectionately upon him, loved him, because of his youth, his earnestness, and his sincerity.

2. Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife? See this question about divorce, largely explained on Matt. xix. 3-12. 12. And if a woman shall put away her husband] From this it appears that in some cases, the wife assumed the very same right of divorcing her husband, that the husband had of divorcing his wife; and yet this is not recorded any where in the Jewish laws, as far as I can find, that the woman had such a right. Indeed where the law which gives the permission all on one side, it would be unjust and oppressive, but where it is equally balanced, the right being the same on each side, it must serve as a mutual check, and prevent those evils it is intended to cure. Among the Jews there are several instances of the women having taken other men, even during the life of their own husbands. Nor do we find any law by which they were punished. Divorce never should be per-bourer in the Lord's vineyard. See Matt. xix. 21. To say that mitted but on this ground, "The parties are miserable to gether, and they are both perfectly willing to be separated," Then, if every thing else be proper, let them go different ways, that they may not ruin both themselves and their hapless offspring.

13. And they brought young children] See on Matt. xix. 13-15.

16. And he took them up in his arms] One of the Itala reads in sinu suo-" in his bosom " Jesus Christ loves little children; and they are objects of his most peculiar care. Who can account for their continual preservation and support while exposed to so many dangers, but on the ground of a peculiar and extraordinary providence?

And blessed them] Then, though little children, they were capable of receiving Christ's blessing. If Christ embraced them, why should not his church embrace them? Why not dedicate them to God by baptism? whether that be performed by sprinkling, washing, or immersion; for we need not to dispute about the mode: on this point let every one be fully persuaded in his own mind. I confess it appears to me grossly

One thing thou lackest] What was that? A heart disengaged from the world, and a complete renunciation of it and its concerns; that he might become a proper and successful la

it was something else he lacked, when Christ explains here his own meaning, is to be wise above what is written.

22. And he was sad at that saying] This young man had perhaps been a saint, and an eminent apostle, had he beer poor! From this and a multitude of other cases, we may learn, that it is oftentimes a misfortune to be rich-but who is aware of this? and who believes it?

29. And the Gospel's] Read, for the sake of the Gospel. 1 have with Griesbach adopted Eveker, for the sake, on the an thority of BCDEGHKMS. V. sixty others, and almost all the Versions.

30. In this time] Ev To Knipo rovre, in this very time. Though Jews and Gentiles have conspired together to destroy both me and you; my providence shall so work that nothing shall be lacking, while any thing is necessary.

And Fathers This is added by K. upwards of sixty others, Ethiopic, Gothic, Slavonic, Saron, Armenian, Coptic, and in one of my own MSS, of the Vulgate.

Some have been greatly embarrassed to find out the lite ral truth of these promises, and some in flat opposition te

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31 But many that are first shall be last; and the last first. 32 And they were in the way going up to Jerusalem; and Jesus went before them: and they were amazed; and as they followed, they were afraid. And he took again the twelve, and began to tell them what things should happen unto him, 33 Saying, Behold we go up to Jerusalem; and the Son of man shall be delivered unto the chief priests, and unto the stribes; and they shall condeinn him to death, and shall deliver him to the Gentiles:

34 And they shall mock him, and shall scourge him, und shall spit upon him, and shall kill him: and the third day he shall

11se again.

35 And James and John, the sons of Zebedee, come unto him, saying, Master, we would that thou shouldést do for us whatsoever we shall desire.

36 And he said unto them, What would ye that I should do for you 1

37 They said unto him, Grant unto us that we may sit, one on thy right hand, and the other on thy left hand, in thy glory. 38 But Jesus said unto them, Ye know not what ye ask can ye drink of the cup that I drink of and be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with?

39 And they say unto him, We can. And Jesus said unto then, Ye shall indeed drink of the cup that I drink of; and with the baptism that I ain baptized withal shall ye be baptized: 40 But to sit on my right hand and on my left hand, is not mine to give; but it shall be given to them for whom it is prepared.

41 And when the ten heard it, they began to be much displeased with Jaines and John.

a Mai. 13. T. & 29. 15. Luke 13. 31-b Mart. 30. 17. Luke 18. 31.-e Ch. 8, 31.& 11 Luke 9 & 18.31. - Matt. 20, 20.-e Matt. 20. 24.- Luke 22. 25-g Ur, think good

the text have said, they are all to be understood spiritually. But thus far is plain, that though those who have left all for the sake of Christ,do find among genuine Christians, spiritual relatires, which are as dear to them as fathers, mothers, &c. yet they have the promise of receiving a hundred fold, often literally fulfilled for wherever a Christian travels among Christians, the shelter of their houses, and the product of their lands, are at his service as far as they are requisite. Besides, these words were spoken primarily to the disciples, and pointed out their itinerant manner of life; and how, travelling about from house to house, preaching the Gospel of the grace of God, they should, among the followers of Christ, be provided with every thing necessary in all places, as if the whole were their own. I have often remarked that the genuine messengers of God in the present day, have, as noted above, this promise literally fulfilled. With persecutions] For while you meet with nothing but kindness from true Christians, you shall be despised, and of ten atlicted by those who are enemies to God and goodnessbut for your comfort ye shall have in the world to come, atwri Totoro, the coming world, (that world which is on its way to meet you) eternal life.

And he took again the twelve] Or thus: For having again taken the twelve, &c. I translate xa, for, which sig. nification it often bears, see Luke i. 22. John xii. 35. and elsewhere. This gives the reason of the wonder and fear of the disciples, FOR he began to tell them on the way, what was to tefal him. This sense of kat I find is also noticed by Rosenmüller. See on Matt. xx. 17-19.

35. And James and John-come unto him] The request here mentioned, Matthew says, chap. xx. 20. was made by Salome, their mother: the two places may be easily reconciled thus. The mother introduced them, and made the request as if from herself; Jesus knowing whence it had come, immediately addressed himself to James and John, who were standing by; and the mother is no further concerned in the busiDess. See the note on Matt. xx. 20.

37. In thy glory.) In the kingdom of thy glory-three MSS. Which kingdom they expected to be established on earth. 3. And be baptized) OR be baptized. Instead of xai, and, n or, is the reading of BCDL. fire others, Coptic, Armenian, latter Syriac in the margin, Vulgate, all the Itala, and Ori gen. See the note on Matt. xx. 22.

40. Is not mine to give] See on Matt. xx. 23. 41. When the ten heard it] See on Matt. xx. 24-28. 46. Blind Bartimeus] bar, in Syriac, signifies son. It appears that he was thus named because Timens, Talmeus, or Talmai, was the name of his father, and thus the son would be called Bar-talmeus, or Bartholomew. Some sup previos Tipatov, the son of Timeus, to be an interpolation. Bartimens the son of Timeus, o rupλos, The blind man. It was because he was the most remarkable, that this evangelist mentions him by name as a person probably well known in those parts.

50. And he, casting away his garment] He cast off his outward covering, a blanket, or something of the kind, which kept him from the inclemency of the weather; that he might have nothing to hinder him from getting speedily to Christ. If every penitent were as ready to throw aside his self-righteousness, and sinful incumbrances, as this blind man was to throw side his garment, we should have fewer delays in

for pre-eminence.

42 But Jesus called them to him, and saith unto them, Ye know that they which are accounted to rule over the Gentiles, exercise lordship over them; and their great ones exercise authority upon them.

43 But so shall it not be among yon· but whosoever will be great among you, shall be your minister: 44 And whosoever of you will be the chiefest, shall be ser vant of all.

45 For even the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and k to give his life a ransom for many. 46 And they caine to Jericho: and as he went out of Jericho with his disciples and a great number of people, blind Bartimeus, the son of Timeus, sat by the highway-side begging.

47 And when he heard that it was Jesus of Nazareth, he be gan to cry out, and say, Jesus, thou son of David, have mercy on me!

48 And many charged him that he should hold his peace: but he cried the more a great deal, Thou son of David, have mercy on me!

49 And Jesus stood still, and commanded him to be called. And they call the blind inan, saying unto him, Be of good comfort, rise; he calleth thee.

50 And he, casting away his garinent, rose, and came to Jesus. 51 And Jesus answered and said unto him, "What wilt thou that I should do unto thee? The blind man said unto him, Lord, that I might receive my sight.

52 And Jesus said unto him, Go thy way; "thy faith hath made thee whole. And immediately he received his sight, and followed Jesus in the way.

h Matt. 20.2, 28. Ch.9.35. Luke 9 48.-i John 13, 14. Phil 2.7-k Matt 20.29. 1 Tim 2.6. Tit. 2.141 Matt, 20.29. Luke 18. 35-m Mart, 20.22, 34. Luke 7. 22.n Matt. 9 Ch.5.34.-o Or, saved thee.

conversions than we now have: and all that have been convinced of sin would have been brought to the knowledge of the truth. The reader will at least pardon the introduction of the following anecdote, which may appear to some as illustrative of the doctrine grounded on this text.

A great revival of religion took place in some of the American states, about the year 1773, by the instrumentality of some itinerant preachers sent from England. Many, both whites and blacks, were brought to an acquaintance with God, who bought them. Two of these, a white man and a negro, meeting together, began to speak concerning the goodness of God to their souls, (a custom which has ever been common among truly religious people.) Among other things, they were led to inquire how long each had known the salvation of God; and how long it was after they were convinced of their sin and danger, before each got a satisfactory evidence of pardoning mercy. The white man said, "I was three months in deep distress of soul, before God spoke peace to my troubled, guilty conscience." "But it was only a fortnight," replied the negro, "from the time I first heard of Jesus, and felt that I was a sinner, till I received the knowledge of salvation by the remission of sins." "But what was the reason," said the white man, "that you found salvation sooner than I did?" "This is the reason," replied the other, "you white men have much clothing upon you, and when Christ calls, you cannot run to him; but we poor negroes have only this, (pointing to the mat or cloth which was tied round his waist,) and when we hear the call, we throw it off instantly, and run to him."

Thus the poor son of Ham illustrated the text without in tending it, as well as any doctor in the universe. People who have been educated in the principles of the Christian religion, imagine themselves, on this account, Christians; and when convinced of sin, they find great difficulty to come as mere sinners to God, to be saved only through the merits of Christ. Others, such as the negro in question, have nothing to plead but this, we have never heard of thee, and could not believe in thee of whom we had not heard; but this excuse will not avail now, as the true light is come-therefore they cast off this covering, and come to Jesus. See this miraculous cure explained at large on Matt. xx. 29-34.

51. Lord, that I might, &c.] The Coder Beza, and some copies of the Itala, have Kopie paßße, O Lord, my teacher.

52. Followed Jesus in the way.] Instead of rw Incov, Jesus, several eminent critics read avros, him. This is the reading of ABCDL, fourteen others; Coptic, Ethiopic, Armenian, latter Syriac in the margin, two Persic, Vulgate, all the Itala, and Origen, once. JESUS is the common reading, but this sacred name having occurred so immediately before, there could be no necessity for repeating it here, nor would the repetition have been elegant.

This very remarkable cure gives us another proof, not only of the sovereign power, but of the benevolence of Christ; nor do we ever see that sovereign power used, but in the way of benevolence. How slow is God to punish! how prone to spare. To his infinite benevolence can it be any gratification to destroy any of the children of men? No! We must take great heed not to attribute to his sovereignty, acts which are inconsistent with his benevolence and mercy. I am afraid this is a prevailing error; and that it is not confined to any religious party exclusively.

Christ sends his disciples



for an ass and her colt.

Christ rides triumphantly into Jerusalem, 1—11. The barren fig-tree cursed, 12-14. He cleanses the temple, 15-17. The scribes and chief priests are enraged, 18. Reflections on the withered fig-tree, 19-23. Directions concerning prayer and forgiveness, 24-26. The chief priests, &c. question him by what authority he did his works, 27, 28. He answers, and confounds them, 29–33. [A. M. 4033. A. D. 29. An. Olymp. CCII. 1.]

ND when they came nigh to Jerusalem, unto Bethphage

A and Bethany, at the mount of Olives, he sendeth forth two

of his disciples,

151 And they come to Jerusalem and Jesus went into the

temple, and began to cast out them that sold and bought in the temple, and overthrew the tables of the money-changers, and the seats of them that sold doves; 16 And would not suffer that any man should carry any ves

2 And saith unto them, Go your way into the village over
against you and as soon as ye be entered into it, ye shall find
colt tied, whereon never man sat; loose hin, and bring him.sel through the temple.
3 And if any man say unto you, b Why do ye this? say ye
that the Lord hath need of him; and straightway he will send

him hither.

4 And they went their way, and found the colt tied by the door without, in a place where two ways met: and they loose him. 5 And certain of them that stood there said unto them, 4 What do ye, loosing the colt ?

6 And they said unto them even as Jesus had commanded : and they let them go.

7 And they brought the colt to Jesus, and cast their garments on him; and he sat upon him.

8 And many spread their garments in the way and others cut down branches off the trees, and strewed them in the way. 9 And they that went before, and they that followed, cried, saying, Hosanna! Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord:

10 Blessed be the kingdom of our father David, that cometh in the name of the Lord: Hosanna in the highest!

11 And Jesus entered into Jerusalem, and into the temple: and when he had looked round about upon all things, and now the eventide was come, he went out unto Bethany with the twelve. 12 And on the morrow, when they were come from Bethany, he was hungry :

13 And seeing a fig-tree afar off having leaves, he came, if haply he might find any thing thereon: and when he came to it, he found nothing but leaves; for the time of figs was not yet. 14 And Jesus answered and said unto it, No man eat fruit of thee hereafter for ever. And his disciples heard it.

a Matt 211. Luke 19 29. John 12.14.-b Matt. 21.3.6.e Luke 19. -d Luke 19 33-e Malt - Ps 113 25.-g Psa 149.1-h Matt. 21.12-i Matt. 21.18.k Matt 21, 19-1 Mart 21 12 Luke 19.45. John 2.14-m Isa. 50.6, 7.-n Or, a house of prayer for all nations 7-o Jer. 7.11.

NOTES-Verse 1. He sendeth-two of his disciples] This was done but a few days before the pass-over. See our Lord's entry into Jerusalem illustrated, on Matt. xxi. 1—17.

2. Whereon never man sut] No animal was allowed to be employed in sacred uses, even among the heathen, that had previously been used for any domestic or agricultural pur pose; and those which had never been yoked, were consider ed as sacred. See several proofs of this in the note on Numb. xix. 2. and add this from Ovid, Met. lib. iii. v. 10.

Bos tibi, Phoebus ait, solis occurret in arvis, Nullum passa juguin currique immunis aratri. The Delphic oracles this answer give: Behold among the fields a lonely cow, Unworn with yokes, unbroken to the plough. 3. And straitway he will send him hither. From the text, think it is exceedingly plain, that our Lord did not beg, but borrow the colt, therefore the latter clause of this verse should be understood as the promise of returning him. Is not the proper translation the following? And if any one say to you, Why do ye this? Say; The Lord hath need of him, and will speedily send him back hither-Kai evocans αυτόν αποτελλει ώδε. Some eminent critics take the same view of the passage.

6. And they let them go] Having a full assurance that the beast should be safely and speedily restored.

10. In the name of the Lord] Omitted by BCDLU. some others, and several Versions. Griesbach leaves it out. Hosanna in the highest!] See on Matt. xxi. 9.

11. When he had looked round about upon all things] He examined every thing-to see if the matters pertaining to the divine worship were properly conducted, to see that nothing was wanting-nothing superfluous.

And now the erentide was come] The time in which he usually left Jerusalem to go to Bethany.

13. For the time of figs was not yet] Rather, For it was not the season of gathering figs yet. This I am fully persuaded is the true sense of this passage, ου γαρ ην καιρος σύκων. For a proof that Kapos here signifies the time of gathering the figs, see the LXX. in Psal. i. 3. He bringeth forth his fruit Ev Kaip avrov, in his season; i. e. in the time in which fruits should be ripe, and fit for gathering. See also Mark xii. 2. And at the season, Tw kaipo, the time of gathering the fruits of the vineyard. Matt. xxi. 34. When the time of the fruit drew near; o kalpos TV Kapoor, the time in which the fruits were to be gathered, for it was then that the Lord of the vineyard sent his servants to receive the fruits; i. e. so, much of them as the holder of the vineyard was to pay to the Owner by way of rent; for in those times rent was paid in ind. To the above may be added, Job v. 26. Thou shalt Come to thy grave in FULL AGE, like as a shock of corn cometh in his season; kara kaipov, in the time in which it should be reaped. When our Lord saw this fig-tree by the way-side, apparently

17 And he taught, saying unto them, Is it not written, My house shall be called "of all nations, the house of prayer? but ye have made it a den of thieves.

is And P the scribes and the chief priests heard it, and songit
how they might destroy him; for they feared him, because
all the people was astonished at his doctrine.

19 And when even was come, he went out of the city.
20 And in the morning as they passed by, they saw the
fig tree dried up from the roots.

21 And Peter calling to remembrance, saith unto him, Mas
ter, behold, the fig-tree which thon ensedst is withered away.
22 And Jesus answering saith unto them, Have faith in God
23 For verily I say unto you, That whosoever shall say un-
to this mountain, Be thou removed, and be thou cast into the
sea; and shall not doubt in his heart, but shall believe that
those things which he saith shall come to pass; he shall have
whatsoever he saith.

24 Therefore I say unto you, "What things soever ye desire, when ye pray, believe that ye receive them, and ye shall have them. 25 And when ye stand praying, forgive if ye have aught against any that your father also which is in heaven may forgive you your trespasses.

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26 But if ye do not forgive, neither will your Father which is in heaven forgive your trespasses.

27 And they come again to Jerusalem: and as he was walking in the temple, there come to him the chief priests, and the scribes, and the elders,

p Matt. 21.45, 46. Luke 19.47.- Matt, 7. 28. Ch.122. 1- Or, Have the faith of God-t Matt, 17.90, & 21, 21. Luke 11.9. John 14, 13, & 15, 7. & 16. 4. James 1. 5, 6.w Matt. 18. 36.-x Matt. 21. 23. Luke 20, 1.

Luke 4 2 → Mat. 21 Luke 17. 6.-0 Mart. 7.7 Matt. 6. 11. Col. 3 13—

flourishing, he went to it to gather some of the figs-being on the way-side it was not prirate, but public property: and any traveller had an equal right to its fruit. As it was not as yet the time for gathering in the fruits, and yet about the time when they were ready to be gathered, our Lord with propriety expected to find some. But as this happened about five days before that pass-over on which Christ suffered, and the pass. over that year fell on the beginning of April, it has been asked, "how could our Lord expect to find ripe figs in the end of March?" Answer, because figs were ripe in Judea as early as the pass orer. Besides, the fig tree puts forth its fruit first, and afterward its leaves. Indeed this tree, in the climate which is proper for it, has fruit on it all the year round, as I have often seen. All the difficulty in the text may be ea sily removed by considering that the climate of Judea is widely different from that of Great Britain. The summer begins there in March, and the harrest at the pass-over, as all travellers into those countries testify: therefore as our Lord met with this tree five days before the pass-over, it is evident, 1st. That it was the time of ripe figs; and 2dly, That it was not the time of gathering thein, because this did not begin till the pass-over, and the transaction here mentioned took place five days before.

For further satisfaction on this point, let us suppose, L That this tree was intended to point out the state of the Jewish people. 1. They made a profession of the true religion, 2. They considered themselves the peculiar people of God, and despised and reprobated all others. 3. They were only hypocrites, having nothing of religion but the profession, leaves, and no fruit.

II. That our Lord's conduct toward this tree is to be considered as emblematical of the treatment and final perdition which was to come upon this hypocritical and ungodly nation. 1. It was a proper time for them to have borne fruit: Jesus had been preaching the doctrine of repentance and salvation among them for more than three years: the choicest influences of heaven had descended upon them, and every thing was done in this vineyard that ought to be done, in order to make it fruitful. 2. The time was now at hand in which God would require fruit, good fruit, and if it did not produce such, the tree should be hewn down by the Roman axe. Therefore, 1. The tree is properly the Jewish nation. 2. Christ's curse, the sentence of destruction which had now gone out against it; and, 3. Its withering away, the final and total ruin of the Jew. ish state by the Roinans. His cursing the fig tree was not occasioned by any resentment at being disappointed at not finding fruit on it, but to point out unto his disciples the wrath which was coming upon a people who had now nearly filled up the measure of their iniquity.

A fruitless soul that has had minch cultivation bestowed on it, may expect to be dealt with as God did with this unrighte ous nation. See on Matt. xxi. 19, &c.

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answer me

a Or, thing.

15. And they come) Several MSS, and Versions have raw, again. This was the next day after our Lord's triumphal en try into Jerusalem, for on the evening of that day he went to Bethany, and lodged there, ver. 11. and Matt. xxi. 17. and returned the next morning to Jerusalein.

16. Should carry any ressel) Among the Jews the word keli, vessel, had a vast titude of meaning, it signified arma, Jer. xxi. 4. Ezek. ix. 1. clothes, Deut. xxii. 5. and instruments of music, Psal. lxxi. 22. It is likely that the evangelist uses the Greek word akvog in the same sense, and by it points out any of the things which were bought and sold in the temple.

17. And he taught them] See on Matt. xxi. 12. 19. He went out of the city.] To go to Bethany.

wicked husbandman.

31 And they reasoned with themselves, saying, If we shall say,
From heaven; he will say, Why then did ye not believe him?
32 But if we shall say, Of men; they feared the people: for
33 And they answered and said unto Jesus, We cannot tell.
ball men counted John, that he was a prophet indeed.
by what authority I do these things.
And Jesus answering saith unto them, Neither do I tell you

b Matt.2.5. & 14. 5. Ch. 6. 2o.

WE fear the people.] Eav, if, before Einwuev, we shall say,
is omitted by ABCEFGHLS, and more than fifty others. Ben-
gel leaves it out of the text, and puts a note of interrogation
after E avoponov; and then the whole passage reads thus:
But shall we say of men? They feared the people, &c. This
change renders the adoption of poßovμev, we fear, unneces
sary. Several critics prefer this mode of distinguishing the
the scribes, chief priests, and elders, were worse puzzled with
text. However the critics may be puzzled with the text,
our Lord's question. They must convict themselves, or tell a
the present.
most palpable falsehood. They told the lie, and so escaped for

1. Envy, malice, and double-dealing have always a difficult part to act, and are ultimately confounded by their own pro22. Have faith in God.] ExtTE IV Ocov is a mere Hebra-jects, and ruined by their own operations. On the other hand, ism; have the faith of God, i. e. have strong faith or the strong. simplicity and sincerity are not obliged to use a mask, but alest faith, for thus the Hebrews expressed the superlative de- ways walk in a plain way. gree; so the mountains of God, mean exceeding great moun tains, the hail of God, exceeding great hail, &c.

25. When ye stand praying] This expression may mean no more than, When ye are disposed, or have a mind to pray, ie. whenever ye perform that duty. And it is thus used and explained in the Koran, Surat v ver. 7. See on Matt. xxi. 20 But the Pharisees loved to pray standing, that they might be seen of men.


26. At the end of this verse, the 7th and 8th verses of Matt. vii. Ask and ye shall receive, &c. are added by M. and sixteen other MSS.

2. The case of the barren fig-tree, which our Lord cursed, has been pitifully misunderstood and misapplied. The whole account of this transaction, as stated above, I believe to be corHe was ever acting the rect: it is so much in our Lord's usual manner, that the propriety of it will scarcely be doubted. part of the philosopher, moralist, and divine, as well as that of the Saviour of sinners. In his hand every providential occurrence, and every object of nature, became a means of instruction: the stones of the desert, the lilies of the field, the ful trees, with every ordinary occurrence, were so many fowls of heaven, the beasts of the forest, fruitful and unfruit

The 26th verse is wanting in BLS. seven others, some edi-grand texts, from which he preached the most illuminating tions, the Coptic, one Itala, and Theophylact. 27-33. See on Matt. xxi. 23-27.

and impressive sermons, for the instruction and salvation of his audience. This wisdom and condescension cannot be sufficiently admired. But shall the example of the fruitless fig tree, be lost on us, as well as on the Jews? God forbid! Let God should say, Let no fruit appear on thee hereafter for us therefore take heed, lest having been so long unfruitful, ever! and in consequence of this, we wither and die away! CHAPTER XII.

32 They feared the people] Or rather, We fear, &c. Instead of Bouvro, they feared; the Coder Beza, seven others, latter Syriac, Arabic, Coptic, Ethiopic, Armenian, Vulgate, and all the Itala, read φοβουμεν, or, φοβούμεθα. The common reading appears to me quite improper.

The Pharisees and Herodians question him about The parable of the vineyard let out to wicked husbandmen, 1-12. Christ asks the Scribes, why the Messiah is called David's son, paying tribute to Casar, 13-17. The Sadducees question him about the resurrection, 18-27. A scribe questions him concerning the chief commandment of the law, 23-34. 3-37. He warns his disciples against the Scribes, 38-40. Of the widow that cast two mites into the treasury, 41-44. [A. M. 4033. A. D. 29. An. Olymp. CCII. 1.]


ND he began to speak unto them by parables. A certain | 11 This was the Lord's doing, and it is marvellous in our A man planted a vineyard, and set a hedge about it, and dizzed a place for the wine-fat, and built a tower, and let it ont to husbandmen, and went into a far country.

2 And at the season, he sent to the husbandmen a servant, that he might receive from the husbandmen of the fruit of the vineyard.

3 And they caught him, and beat him, and sent him away apty.

4 And again he sent unto them another servant; and at him They cast stones, and wounded him in the head, and sent him away shamefully handled.

5 And again he sent another; and him they killed, and many others; beating some, and killing some.

6 Having yet therefore one son, his well-beloved, he sent ham also last unto them, saying, They will reverence my son. 7 But those husbandmen said among themselves, This is the heir; come, let us kill him, and the inheritance shall be ours. And they took him, and killed him, and cast him out of the vineyard.

2 What shall therefore the Lord of the vineyard do? he will cone and destroy the husbandinen, and will give the vineyard

to others.

1) And have ye not read this scripture; The stone which the builders rejected is become the head of the corner:

Mart. 21 31. Luke 22 9.-b Pa. 118 22-e Matt. 21, 45, 46. Ch. 11. 18. John 7.5.311 Mart 22 13 Lake 29 90.

NOTES-Verse 1. A certain man planted a vineyard] See
as parable explained, Matt. xxi. 33—41.

4. At him they cast stones, and wounded him in the head]
Or rather, as most learned men agree, they made short work
@fit, tr:badatoray. We have followed the Vulgate, illum in
apite vulneraverunt, in translating the original, wounded
tan in the head, in which signification I believe the word is
fand in no Greek writer. Avaxepadaιoopat signifies to sum
p. to comprise, and is used in this sense by St. Paul, Rom.
ii. 9.
From the parable we learn, that these people were
determined to hear no reason, to do no justice, and to keep the
session and the produce by violence; therefore they ful-
led their purpose in the fullest and speediest manner, which
seems to be what the evangelist intended to express by the
word in question. Mr. Wakefield translates, they speedi-
sent him away; others think the meaning is, they shaved
heir heads, and made them look ridiculously; this is much

12 And they sought to lay hold on him, but feared the peo. ple for they knew that he had spoken the parable against 13d And they sent unto him certain of the Pharisees and of them: and they left him, and went their way. the Herodians, to catch him in his words.

14 And when they were come, they say unto him, Master, we know that thou art true, and carest for no man: for thou regardest not the person of men, but teachest the way of God 15 Shall we give, or shall we not give? But he, knowing in truth: Is it lawful to give tribute to Cæsar, or not? their hypocrisy, said unto them, Why tempt ye me ? bring me a penny, that I may see it. 16 And they brought it.


And he saith unto them, Whose is this image and superscription? And they said unto him, Cæsar's.

17 And Jesus answering said unto them, Render to Cæsar God's. And they marvelled at him. the things that are Cæsar's; and to God the things that are

18 Then come unto him the Sadducees, which say there 19 Master, Moses wrote unto us, If a man's brother die, and is no resurrection; and they asked him, saying, brother should take his wife, and raise up seed unto his brother. leave his wife behind him, and leave no children, that his e Valoing of our money sevenpence half-penny, as Matt. 18. 23.- Matt. 22. 23. Luke 27-gets 13. 8-h Veu. 25. 5.

Dr. Lightfoot, De Dieu, and others, agree in the sense given to the same purpose, but I prefer, They made short work of it. above; and this will appear the more probable, if the word Moẞoλnoavres, they cast stones, be omitted, as it is by BDL. the Coptic, Vulgate, and all the Itala.

7. This is the heir] So they appear to have acknowledged in The inheritance shall be ours] By slaying him we shall their consciences that this was the Messiah,theheirof all things. 9. And will give the vineyard unto others.] The vineyard maintain our authority, and keep possession of our revenues. must not perish with the husbandmen; it is still capable of producing much fruit, if it be properly cultivated. I will give it into the care of new vine-dressers, the evangelists and apostles.-And under their ministry, multitudes were brought 13. And they sent unto him) See this and to ver. 17. largely to God before the destruction of Jerusalem. 161 explained on Matt. xxii. 15-22


Question about the resurrection.


20 Now there were seven brethren: and the first took a wife, and dying left no seed.

21 And the second took her, and died, neither left he any seed: and the third likewise.

22 And the seven had her, and left no seed: last of all the
woman died aiso.

23 In the resurrection therefore, when they shall rise, whose
wife shall she be of them ? for the seven had her to wife.
24 And Jesus answering said unto them, Do ye not therefore
err, because ye know not the Scriptures, neither the power of
God 3
25 For when they shall rise from the dead, they neither mar
ry, nor are given in marriage; but are as the angels which

are in heaven.

26 And as touching the dead, that they rise: have ye not read in the book of Moses, how in the bush God spake unto him, saying, I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob?

27 He is not the God of the dead, but the God of the living:
ye therefore do greatly err.

28 And one of the scribes came, and having heard them
reasoning together, and perceiving that he had answered them
well, asked him, Which is the first commandment of all ?
29 And Jesus answered him, The first of all the command-
ments is, d Hear, O Israel; The Lord our God is one Lord:
30 And thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart,
and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind, and with all thy
strength; this is the first commandment.

31 And the second is like, namely this, Thou shalt love thy
neighbour as thyself. There is none other commandment
greater than these.

32 And the scribe said unto him, Well, Master, thou hast said a Cor. 13 42, 49, 52-b Exod. 3. 6-e Matt. 22. -d Den. 6. 4. Luke 10, 27.• Lev. 19. 18. Matt. 22 39. Rom. 13. 9. Gal. 5 14. Jarues 2. 3-f De. 4. 9 Isa 45 6, 14. & 46. 9 g 1 Sam. 15. 22. Hos. 6.6. Mic. 6. 6, 7, 8.-h Matt. 22. 46.I Matt. 22. 41. Luke 9. 41.

15. Shall we give, or shall we not give ?] This is wanting in the Codex Beze, and in several Versions.

18. See this question concerning the resrurection explained in detail on Matt. xxii. 23-32.

23. When they shall rise] This clause is wanting in BCDL. four others, Syriac, latter Arabic, latter Persic, Coptic, Suxon, and two of the Itala. Griesbach leaves it doubtful.

27. But the God of the living] Ocos, God, is left out by ABCDKL., and in more than forty others, Syriac, one Arabic, one Persic, Coptic, Armenian, Gothic, Saron, Vulgate, Ita la, and Origen. Griesbach has omitted it.

30. Thou shalt love the Lord] On the nature and proper. ties of the love of God and man, and the way in which this commandment is fulfilled; see the notes on Matthew xxii.

37, &c.

32. And the scribe said] The answer of the scribe contained in verses 32, 33, 34. is not found either in Matthew or Luke. This is another proof against Mark's supposed abridgment. 34. Thou art not far from the kingdom of God.] This scribe appears to have been a prudent, sensible, and pious man; al most a Christian, so near the kingdom of God, that he might have easily stepped in. It is very probable that he did at last believe in and confess Jesus.

35. How say the scribes] See Matt. xxii. 41, &c.

How is Christ the son of David

the truth: for there is one God; f and there is none other but he
33 And to love him with all the heart, and with all the un-
derstanding, and with all the soul, and with all the strength,
and to love his neighbour as himself, is more than all whole
burnt-offerings and sacrifices.

34 And when Jesus saw that he answered discreetly, he said
unto him, Thou art not far from the kingdom of God. And
no man after that durst ask him any question.
35 And Jesus answered and said, while he taught in the
temple, How say the scribes that Christ is the son of David?
36 For David himself said by the Holy Ghost, The LORD
said to my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, till I make thine
enemies thy footstool.

37 David therefore himself calleth him Lord; and whence is
he then his son 1 And the common people heard him gladly.
38 And he said unto them in his doctrine, Beware of
the scribes, which love to go in long clothing, and love salu.
tations in the market-places,
39 And the chief seats in the synagogues, and the uppermost

rooms at feasts:

40 P Which devour widows' houses, and for a pretence make
long prayers: these shall receive greater damnation.
41 And Jesus sat over against the treasury, and beheld
how the people cast money into the treasury: and many
that were rich cast in much.

42 And there care a certain poor widow, and she threw in
two mites which make a farthing.

43 And he called unto him his disciples, and saith unto them, Verily I say unto you, That this poor widow hath cast more in, than all they which have cast into the treasury:

44 For all they did cast in of their abundance; but she of her want did cast in all that she had, eren all her living.

k 2 Sam. 3.2-1 Pea. 110. 1.-m Chap. 4.2-n Matt. 23, 1, &c. Luke 90, 46. o Luke 13-p Matt. 23. 14-q Luke 21, 1-r A piece of brass money: See Mart 10.9-2 Kings 12.9 it is the ses enth part of one piece of that brass money. u 2 Cor. 8. 12.- Deu. 24. 6. 1 John 3. 17.

much; and he was well acquainted with the poverty and desolate state of the widow who had given her all, though that was but little in itself. What an awful thought for the rich! "God sees every penny I possess, and constantly observes how I lay it out." What a comfortable thought for the poor and desolate! The eye of the most merciful and bountiful Jesus continually beholds my poverty and distress, and will cause them to work for my good. 3. Christ sees all the mo tives which lead men to perform their respective actions; and the different motives which lead them to perform the same action: he knows whether they act through vanity, self-love, interest, ambition, hypocrisy, or whether through love, charity, zeal for his glory, and a hearty desire to please him. 4. He observes the circumstances which accompany our actions; whether we act with care or negligence, with a ready mind or with reluctance. 5. He observes the judg ment which we form of that which we do in his name; whether we esteem ourselves more on account of what we have done, speak of it to others, dwell on our labours, sufferings, expenses, success, &c. or whether we humble ourselves because we have done so little good, and even that little in so imperfect a way. II. See the judgment Christ forms of our actions. 1. He appears surprised that so much piety should be found with so much porerty in this poor widow. 2. He shows that works 37. The common people heard him gladly.] And were doubt of charity, &c. should be estimated, not by their appearance, less many of them brought to believe and receive the truth. but by the spirit which produces them. 3. He shows by this By the comparatively poor the Gospel is still best received. that all men are properly in a state of equality; for thougli 38. Beware of the scribes] See on Matt. xxiii. 1, &c. there is, and ought to be, a difference in outward things, yet 41. Cast money into the treasury] It is worthy of observa God looks upon the heart, and the poorest person has it in his tion, that the money put into the treasury, even by the rich, power to make his mite as acceptable to the Lord, by simpli is termed by the evangelist xaλkov, brass money, probably city of intention and purity of affection, as the millions gi. that species of small brass coin which was called pru- ven by the affluent. It is just in God to rate the value of an tah among the Jews, two of which make a farthing, and twen-action by the spirit in which it is done. 4. He shows that ty-four an Italian assarius, which assarius is the twenty-men should judge impartially in cases of this kind, and not fourth part of a silver penny. We call this mite, from the permit themselves to be carried away to decide for a person French miete, which signifies a crumb, or very small morsel. by the largeness of the gift on the one hand, or against him The prutah was the smallest coin in use among the Jews: and by the smallness of the bounty on the other. Of the poor there is a canon among the rabbins that no person shall put widow, it is said, she has cast in more than all the rich. less than two prutahs into the treasury. This poor widow cause, 1. She gave more--she gave her all, and they gave only would not give less, and her poverty prevented her from giv-a part. 2. She did this in a better spirit, having a simple deing more. And whereas it is said that many rich persons sire to please God. Never did any king come near the libe. cast in MUCH, Toλλa (many,) this may only refer to the numrality of this widow-she gave all that she had, or rov Bior her of the prutahs which they threw in, and not to the value. avrns, her whole life, i. e. all that she had to provide for one What opinion should we form of a rich man, who, in a col-day's sustenance, and could have no more, till by her labour lection for a public charity, only threw in a handful of half. she had acquired it. What trust must there be in the Divine pence? See Luke xxi. I. and see the note on Matt. v. 26. Providence to perform such an act as this! The whole of this account is lacking in Matthew. Another proof that Mark did not abridge him.

Let us examine this subject a little more closely; Jesus prefers the widow's two mites to all the offerings made by the rich, In the preceding account, ver. 41. it is said, Jesus beheld how the people cast money into the treasury. To make this relation the more profitable, let us consider Christ the observ. er and judge of human actions. 1. Christ observes all men and all things, all our actions are before his eyes; what we do in public and what we do in private are equally known unto him. 2. He observes the state and situation we are in; his eye was upon the abundance of the rich who had given


Two important lessons may be learnt from her conduct. 1. A lesson of humiliation to the rich, who, by reason of covetousness on the one hand, and luxury on the other, give but little to GoD and the poor. 2. A lesson of reproof to the poor, who, through distrust of God's providence, give nothing at all. Our possessions can only be sanctified by giving a por tion to God. There will be infallibly a blessing in the remain. der, when a part has been given to God and the poor. If the rich and the poor reflect seriously on this, the one will learn pity, the other liberality, and both be blessed in their deed. He must be a poor man indeed, who cannot find one poorer than himself.

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