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Christ gives up the Ghost.


39 And a superscription also was written over him in let
ters of Greek, and Latin, and Hebrew, THIS IS THE KING

39 And one of the malefactors which were hanged railed
eu him, saying. If thou be Christ, save thyself and us.
4 But the other answering, rebuked him, saying, Dost not
thon fear God, seeing thou art in the same condemnation ?
41 And we indeed justly: for we receive the due reward of
r deeds: but this man hath done nothing amiss.

42 And he said unto Jesus, Lord, remember me when thou
commest into thy kingdom!

43 And Jesus said unto him, Verily, I say unto thee, To-day sumit thou be with me in paradise.

44 And it was about the sixth hour, and there was dark. Degs over all the earth, until the ninth hour.

45 And the sun was darkened, and the vail of the temple was reut in the midst.

46 And when Jesus had cried with a loud voice, he said, Father, into thy hands I commend any spirit: and having said thus, he gave up the ghost.

47 Now when the centurion saw what was done, he

< Matt.27 7. Mark 15.26. John 19, 19 - Mart. 97.44 Merk 15,2-i Matt 27. G Mack 1.33 -k Or, land.-1 Matt.27 51 Mark 15.34m Pra. 31.6. 1 Pet 2.2 -. a Mall 250 Mark 15 37. John 19.3).- Matt 27 54. Mark 13.9.

Joseph begs the body from Pilate glorified God, saying, Certainly this was a righteous man 48 And all the people that came together to that sight, behold. ing the things which were done, smote their breasts, and returned.

49 P And all his acquaintance, and the women that followed
him from Galilee, stood afar off, beholding these things.
50 And behold, there was a man named Joseph, a counsel-
lor; and he was a good man, and a just:

51 (The same had not consented to the counsel and deed of
them;) he was of Arimathea, a city of the Jews, who also
himself waited for the kingdom of God.

52 This man went unto Pilate, and begged the body of Jesus. 53 And he took it down, and wrapped it in linen, and laid it in a sepulchre that was hewn in stone, wherein never man before was laid.

54 And that day was 'the preparation, and the Sabbath drew on. 55 And the women also, "which came with him from Gali. lee, followed after, and beheld the sepulchre, and how his body was laid.

56 And they returned, and and rested the sabbath day,

prepared spices and ointments; according to the commandment p Pra 8 11. Matt.27 55. Mark 15 41. See John 19. 25-q Matt 27.57. Mark 15. 42. John 19 - Mark 15.43, Ch.2.25, 38-s Matt 27.59 Mark 15.46 Matt.2 62-u Ch. 8.2.- Mark 15.47.-w Mark 16.1-x Exod. 2. 10.

tion, some comparatively innocent, others impure. The word paradise is not Greek, but is of Asiatic origin. In Arabic and Persian it signifies a garden, a vineyard, and also the place of the blessed. In the Kushuf ul Loghat, a very celebrated Persian Dictionary, the Jenet al Ferdoos, Garden of Paradise, is said to have been "created by God out of

pass-over: it was written in Latin, that being the language of the government under which he was crucified: and it was written in Hebrew, that being the language of the place in which this deed of darkness was committed. But by the good providence of God, the inscription itself exculpated him, and proved the Jews to be rebels against, and murderers of, their King See the note on Matt. xxvii. 37. It is not to be won-light, and that the prophets and wise men ascend thither." dered at, that they wished Pilate to alter this inscription, John xix. 21. as it was a record of their own infamy.

39. One of the malefactors which were hanged] It is likely that the two robbers were not nailed to their crosses, but only Led to them by cords, and thus they are represented in ancient paintings. If not nailed, they could not have suffered much, and therefore they were found still alive, when the soldiers came to give the coup de grace, which put a speedy end to their lives. Jolin xix. 31-33.

40. Dost not thou fear God] The sufferings of this person had been sanctified to him, so that his heart was open to receive help from the hand of the Lord: he is a genuine penitent: and gives the fullest proof he can give of it, viz. the acknowledgment of the justice of his sentence. He had sinned, and he acknowledges his sin; his heart believes unto righte. ousness, and with his tongue he makes confession unto salvation. While he condemns himself, he bears testimony that Jesus was innocent. Bishop PEARCE supposes that these were not robbers in the common sense of the word, but Jews who took up arms on the principle that the Romans were not to be submitted to, and that their levies of tribute money were oppressive; and therefore they made no scruple to rob all the Romans they met with. These Jews Josephus calls Angrai, rabbers, the same term used by the evangelists. This opinion gains some strength from the penitent thief's confession; we receive the reward of our deeds-we rose up against the government, and committed depredations in the country; but this man hath done nothing amiss-arorov, out of place, discrderly.-nothing calculated to raise sedition or insurrection, nor inconsistent with his declarations of peace and good will towards all men; nor with the nature of that spiritual king. don which he came to establish among inen; though he is now crucified under the pretence of disaffection to the Roman government

42 Lord, remember me, &c.] It is worthy of remark, that this man appears to have been the first who believed in the intercession of Christ.

43. To-day shalt thou be with me in paradise.] Marcion and the Manichees are reported to have left this verse out of their copies of this evangelist. This saying of our Lord is justly considered as a strong proof of the iminateriality of the al; and it is no wonder that those who have embraced the contrary opinion, should endeavour to explain away this meaning. In order to do this, a comma is placed after onepov, to day, and then our Lord is supposed to have meant, Thou halt be with me after the resurrection; I tell thee this, ToDAY." I am sorry to find men of great learning and abilities attempting to support this most feeble and worthless criticism. Such support a good cause cannot need; and, in my opinion, even a bad cause must be discredited by it.

In paradise. The garden of Eden, mentioned Gen. ii. 8. is also called from the Septuagint, the garden of paradise. The word y Eden, signifies pleasure and delight. Several places were thus called; see Gen. iv. 16. 2 Kings xix. 12. Isa. xxxvii. 12 Ezek. xxvii. 28. and Amos i. 5. and such places probably had this name from their fertility, pleasant situation, &c. &c. In this light the Septuagint have viewed Gen. & as they render the passage thus: courcvTEV O Oɛos rapa. Alor cu Boep, God planted a paradise in Eden. Hence the word has been transplanted into the New Testament; and is used to signify a place of exquisite pleasure and delight. From thus the ancient heathens borrowed their ideas of the gardens of the Hesperides, where the trees bore golden fruit. And the gardens of Adonis, a word which is evidently derived from the Hebrew y Eden: and hence the origin of sacred groves, gardens, and other enclosures dedicated to purposes of devo

Paradise was, in the beginning, the habitation of man in his state of innocence, in which he enjoyed that presence of his Maker, which constituted his supreme happiness. Our Lord's words intimate, that this penitent should be immediately taken to the abode of the spirits of the just, where he should enjoy the presence and approbation of the Most High. In the institutes of Menu, chap. Economics, Inst. 243. are the following words: "A man habitually pious, whose offences have been expiated, is instantly conveyed, after death, to the higher world, with a radiant form, and a body of ethereal substance." The state of the blessed is certainly what our Lord here means: in what the locality of that state consists, we know not. The Jews have a multitude of fables on the subject.

44. Darkness over all the earth] See the note on Matt. xxvii. 45. The darkness began at the sirth hour, about our twelve o'clock at noon, and lasted till the ninth hour, which answered to our three o'clock in the afternoon.

45. The sun was darkened] See an examination of the accounts of Phlegon, Thallus, and Dionysius, on Matt. xxvii. 45. The rail-was rent] See Matt. xxvii. 51.

46. Into thy hands I commend my spirit] Or, I will commit my spirit--I deposit my soul in thy hands. Another proof of the immateriality of the soul, and of its separate existence when the body is dead.

48. And all the people] All were deeply affected except the priests, and those whom they had employed to serve their base purposes. The darkness, earthquake, &c. had brought terror and consternation into every heart. How dreadful is the state of those who, in consequence of their long opposition to the grace and truth of God, are at last given up to a reprobate 50, 51. Joseph-of Arimathea] See the notes on Matt. xxvii. 57-60. and those especially on Mark xv. 43.

54. And the Sabbath drew on] Or, the Sabbath was lighting up, EREQwOKE, i. e. with the candles which the Jews light just before six in the evening, when the Sabbath commences. The same word is used for the dawning of the day, Matt. xxviii. 1. Wakefield. The Jews always lighted up candles on the Sab, bath and it was a solemn precept, that "if a man had not bread to eat, he must beg from door to door to get a little oil to set up his Sabbath light." The night of the Sabbath drew on, which the Jews were accustomed to call the light. See Lightfoot. 55. The women also, which came] These were Mary of Magdala, Joanna, and Mary the mother of James, chap. xxiv. 10. To these three, Mark, in chap. xvi. 1. adds Salome, but some think that this was only a surname of one of these Marys. 56. Prepared spices and ointments] This was in order to embalm him; which sufficiently proves that they had no hope of his resurrection the third day.

And rested the Sabbath day] For though the Jewish canons allowed all works, necessary for the dead, to be done, even on the Sabbath, such as washing and anointing, provided they moved not a limb of the dead person; yet as the Jews had put Christ to death, under the pretence of his being a malefactor, it would not have been either prudent or safe to appear too forward in the present business: and therefore they rested on the Sabbath.

Certain copies of the Itala have some remarkable additions in these concluding verses. The conclusion of the 48th verse in one of them, is read thus: beating their breasts and their foreheads, and saying, wo to us because of what is done this day, on account of our sins; for the desolation of Jerusalem is at hand. To ver. 52. another adds, And when Pilate heard that he was dead, he glorified God, and gave the body to Joseph. On the circumstances of the crucifixion, see the observations at the end of Matt. xxvii. and consider how heinous sit must be in the sight of God. when it required such a Sacrifice.

The resurrection


of Christ, &c.

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The women coming early to the sepulchre on the first day of the week, bringing their spices, find the stone rolled away, and the tomb empty, 1-3. They see a vision of angels, who announce Christ's resurrection, 4-8. The women return, and tell this to the eleven, 9, 10. They believe not, but Peter goes and examines the tomb, 11, 12. Christ, unknown, appears to two of the disciples who were going to Emmaus, and converses with them, 13-29. While they are eating together, he makes himself known, and immediately disappears, 30, 31. They return to Jerusalem, and announce his resurrection to the rest of the disciples, 32-35. Jesus himself appears to them, and gives them the fullest proof of the reality of his resurrection, 36-43. He preaches to them, and gives them the promise of the Holy Spirit, 44-49. He takes them to Bethany, and ascends to heaven in their sight, 50, 51. They worship him, and return to Jerusalem, 52, 53. (A. M. 4033. A. D. 29. An. Olymp. CCII. 1.]


upon the first day of the week, very early in the morning, they came unto the sepulchre, bringing the spices which they had prepared, and certain others with them. 2 And they found the stone rolled away from the sepulchre. 3d And they entered in, and found not the body of the Lord Jesus.

4 And it came to pass, as they were much perplexed thereabout, behold, two men stood by them in shining garments: 5 And as they were afraid, and bowed down their faces to the earth, they said unto them, Why seek ye the living among the dead?

6 He is not here, but is risen: remember how he spake unto you when he was yet in Galilee,

7 Saying, The Son of inan must be delivered into the hands of sinful men, and be crucified, and the third day rise again. 8 And they remembered his words.


9 And returned from the sepulchre, and told all these things unto the eleven, and to all the rest.

10 It was Mary Magdalene, and Joanna, and Mary the mo

a Matt 28.1. Mark 16. 1. John 20.2-b Ch. 23 66 Matt 2 Mark 16. 4.A Ver 23. Mark 16 5.-e John 20 12. Acts 1.10.- Or, him that liveth - Matt. 16 21. & 17.3. Mark 8. 31. & 9.31. Ch.9.12.

NOTES.-Verse 1. Bringing the spices] To embalm the body of our Lord: but Nicodemus, and Joseph of Arimathea, had done this before the body was laid in the tomb. See John xix. 39, 40. but there was a second embalming found necessary: the first must have been hastily and imperfectly performed; the spices, now brought by the women, were intended to complete the preceding operation.

And certain others with them.] This clause is wanting in BCL. two others; Coptic, Ethiopic, Vulgate, and in all the Itala except two. Dionysius Alexandrinus, and Eusebius, also omit it. The omission is approved by Mill, Bengel, Wetstein, Griesbach, and others. Bishop Pearce, thinks it should be left out for the following reasons; 1. "They who came to the sepulchre, as is here said, being the same with those who, in chap. xxiii. 55. are called the women which came with him from Galilee, there was no room for Luke (I think) to add as here, and some others came with them; because the words in chap. xxiii. 55. to which these refer, include all that can be supposed to be designed by the words in question. 2. Luke has named no particular woman here, and therefore he could not add, and some others, &c. these words necessa rily requiring that the names of the women should have preceded, as is the case in ver. 10. where, when Mary Magdalene, the other Mary, and Joanna, had been named, it is very rightly added, and other women that were with them."

2. They found the stone rolled away] An angel from God had done this before they reached the tomb, Matt. xxviii. 2. On this case we cannot help remarking, that when persons have strong confidence in God, obstacles do not hinder them from undertaking whatever they have reason to believe he requires ; and the removal of them they leave to him: and what is the consequence? They go on their way comfortably, and all difficulties vanish before them.

3. And found not the body of the Lord] His holy soul was in Paradise; chap. xxiii. 43. and the evangelist mentions the body particularly, to show, that this only was subject to death. It is, I think, evident enough from these and other words of Luke, that the doctrine of the materiality of the soul made no part of his creed.

5. Why seek ye the living among the dead?] This was a common form of speech among the Jews, and seems to be applied to those who were foolishly, impertinently, or absurdly employed. As places of burial were unclean, it was not reasonable to suppose that the living should frequent them; or, that if any was missing, he was likely to be found in such places.

7. Sinful men] Or heathens, av@pwwwv aμаproλov, i. e. the Romans, by whom only he could be put to death; for the Jews themselves acknowledged that this power was now vested in the hands of the Ronan governor alone. See John xix. 15. 8. They remembered his words.] Even the simple recollecion of the words of Christ, becomes often a source of comfort and support to those who are distressed or tempted; for his words are the words of eternal life.

10. And Joanna] She was the wife of Chuza, Herod's steward. See chap. viii. 3.

12. Then arose Peter] John went with him, and got to the tomb before him. See John xx. 2, 3.

The linen clothes laid by themselves] Or, the linen clothes only. This was the fine linen which Joseph of Arimathea bought and wrapped the body in; Mark xv. 46. Small as this circumstance may at first view appear, it is, nevertheless, no mean proof of the resurrection of our Lord. Had the body

ther of James, and other women that were with them, which told these things unto the apostles.

11 And their words seemed to them as idle tales, and they believed then not.

12 Then arose Peter, and ran unto the sepulchre; and stooping down, he beheld the linen clothes kid by themselves, and departed, wondering in himself at that which was come to pass.

13 And behold, two of them went that same day to a village called Emmaus, which was from Jerusalem about threescore furlongs. 14 And they talked together of all these things which had happened.

15 And it came to pass, that while they communed together and reasoned, ° Jesus himself drew near and went with them. 16 But their eyes were holden that they should not know him.

17 And he said unto them, What manner of communications are these that ye have one to another, as ye walk, and are sad i h John 2. 22-i Matthew 28. 8. Mark 16. 10k Chapter 8. 3.—1 Mark 16 11. Ver 25-m John 20. 3, 6-n Mark 16. 12- Matthew is. 20. Ver. -p Jehn 20. 14. & 21. 4.

been stolen away, all that was wrapped about it would have been taken away with it; as the delay which must have been occasioned by stripping it, might have led to the detection of the theft, nor would the disciples have run such a risk if they had stolen him, when stripping the body could have answered no end. This circumstance is related still more particularly by John, chap. xx. 5, 6, 7. Peter seeth the linen clothes lie, and the napkin that was about his head not lying with the linen clothes, but WRAPPED together in a place by itself. All these circumstances prove that the thing was done leisurely; order and regularity being observed through the whole. Hurry and confusion necessarily mark every act of robbery.

13. Behold, two of them] This long and interesting account is not mentioned by Matthew nor John: and is only glanced at by Mark, chap. xvi. 12, 13. One of these disciples was Cleopas, ver. 18. and the other is supposed by many learned men, both ancient and modern, to have been Luke himself. See the sketch of his life prefixed to these notes. Some of the ancient versions have called the other disciple Ammaus and Ammaon, reading the verse thus: Behold two of them, Ammaus and Cleopas, were going in that very day to a village about sixty furlongs distant from Jerusalem. But the Persian says positively that it was Luke who accompanied Cleopes See the inscription to section 140 of this Gospel in the Polyglott. Dr. Lightfoot thinks it was Peter, and proves that Cleopas and Alphens, were one and the same person.

Threescore furlongs.] Some MSS, say 160 furlongs, but this is a mistake; for Josephus assigns the same distance to this village from Jerusalem as the evangelist does. War, b. vii. c. 6. s. 6. Ακμάους απέχει των Ιεροσολύμων σταδίους εξήκοντα, Ammaus is sixty studia distant from Jerusalem, about sever English miles and three quarters. A stadium was about 243 yards, according to Arbuthnot.

15. And reasoned] Enenter, concerning the probability or improbability of Christ's being the Messiah, or of his resurrection from the dead. It was a laudable custom of the Jews, and very common also, to converse about the law in all their journeyings; and now they had especial reason to discourse together, both of the law and the prophets, from the transactions which had recently taken place.

16. Their eyes were holden] It does not appear that there was any thing supernatural here, for the reason why these persons (who were not apostles, see ver. 33.) did not recollect our Lord, is given by Mark, chap. xvi. 12. who says that Christ appeared to them in another form.

8. Cleopas) The same as Alpheus, father of the apostle James, Mark iii. 18. and husband of the sister of the virgin. John xix. 25.

Art thou only a stranger] As if he had said, What has been done in Jerusalem within these few days, has been so public, so awful, and so universally known, that if thou hadst been but a lodger in the city for a single night, I cannot conceive how thou couldst miss hearing of these things: indeed thou appearest to be the only person unacquainted with them. 19. Which was a prophet] Avпp #ponens, a man prophet, a genuine prophet: but this has been considered as a Hebraism: "for, in Exod. ii. 14. a man prince is simply a prince; and in 1 Sam. xxxi. 3. Men archers mean no more than archers." But my own opinion is, that this word is often used to deepen the signification, so in the above quotation, Who made thee a man prince, (i. e. a mighty sovereign,) and a judge over us? Exed, ii. 14. And, the battle went sore against Saul, and the man archers (i. e. the stout or well aiming archers) hit him:

18 And the one of them, whose name was Cleopas, answerIng said unto him, Art thou only a stranger in Jerusalem, and hast not known the things which are come to pass there in these days 1

19 And he said unto them, What things? And they said unto him, Concerning Jesus of Nazareth, which was a prophet mighty in deed and word before God and all the people: 20 And how the chief priests and our rulers delivered him to be condemned to death, and have crucified him.

21 But we trusted that it had been he which should have redeemed Israel; and besides all this, to-day is the third day since these things were done.

22 Yea, and certain women also of our company made us astonished, which were early at the sepulchre;

23 And when they found not his body, they came, saying, that they had also seen a vision of angels, which said that he was alive.

24 And certain of them which were with us went to the sepulchre, and found it even so as the women had said: but him they saw not.

25 Then he said unto them, O fools and slow of heart to be lieve all that the prophets have spoken!

25 Ought not Christ to have suffered these things, and to enter into his glory 1

John (9.25-r Mathew 21. 11. Chapter 7. 16. John 3. 2.& 4. 19. & 6. 14. Acte 222-4 Acts 7. 2-1 Chapter 23 1. Acts 13. 27, 28-u Chapter 1. 68. & 2. 38. As 1.6- Matthew 8 8. Mark 16. 10. Ver.9, 10. John 20. 18-w Ver. 12Ver Acts 17. 3 1 Pet. 1. 11-y Ver. 45.- Gen. 3.15 & 22.18. & 26. 4, & 49. 10. Numb.21.9. Deut. 18. 15-a Pea. 16.9, 10. & 22. & 132.11. lea. 7. 14. & 9.6. & 40.

1 Sam. xxxi. 3. So in PALEPHATUs, de Incredib. c. 38. p. 47. quoted by Kypke, nu avnp Bariλevs peyas, he was a great and eminent king. So avno pоoпrns, here signifies, he was a GENUINE prophet, nothing like those false ones by whom the people have been so often deceived; and he has proved the divinity of his mission by his heavenly teaching and astonishing miracles.

Mighty in-word] Irresistibly eloquent. Powerful in deed, working incontrovertible miracles. See Kypke in loco.

21-24 Cleopas paints the real state of his own mind in these verses. In his relation there is scarcely any thing well connected; important points are referred to, and not explained, though he considered the person to whom he spoke as entirely unacquainted with these transactions: his own hopes and fears he cannot help mixing with the narration, and throwing over the whole that confusion that dwelt in his own heart. The narration is not at all in Lake's style, but as it is probable he was the other disciple who was present, and had heard the words of Cleopas, he gave them in that simple, natural, artless manner, in which they were spoken. Had the account been forged, those simple, natural touches would not have appeared.

To-day is the third day] Our Lord had often said that he would rise again the third day: and though Alpheus had litthe hope of this resurrection, yet he could not help recollecting the words he had heard, especially as they seemed to be confirmed by the relation of the women, ver. 22-24.

25. O fools and slow of heart to believe] Inconsiderate men, justly termed such, because they had not properly attended to the description given of the Messiah by the prophets, nor to his teaching and miracles, as proofs that HE alone was the person they described.

Stow of heart-Backward, not easy to be persuaded of the truth, always giving way to doubtfulness and distrust. This very imperfection in them, is a strong evidence of the truth of the doctrine which they afterward believed, and proclaimed to the world. Had they not had the fullest assurance of these things, they never would have credited them: and it is no small honour to the new covenant Scriptures, that such persons were chosen, first, to believe them, secondly, to proclaim them in the world, and thirdly, to die on the evidence of those truths, the blessed influence of which they felt in their own hearts, and fully exemplified in their lives."

26. Ought not Christ to have suffered] Ovxt edel rade
THY XOLGTON, Was it not necessary that Christ should suffer.
This was the way in which sin must be expicted, and with
out this, no soul could have been saved. The suffering Mes-
siah is he alone by whom Israel and the world can be saved.
27. Beginning at Moses, &c.] What a sermon this must
have been, where all the prophecies relative to the incarna
tion, birth, teaching, miracles, sufferings, death, and resur-
Tertion of the blessed Jesus, were all adduced, illustrated, and
applied to himself, by an appeal to the well-known facts
which had taken place during his life! We are almost irre.
Bistibly impelled to exclaim, What a pity this discourse had
not been preserved? No wonder their hearts burned within
them, while hearing such a sermon, from such a preacher.
The law and the prophets had all borne testimony, either di
rectly or indirectly, to Christ: and we may naturally suppose
that these prophecies and references were those which our
Lord at this time explained and applied to himself. See ver. 32.
28. He made as though he would have gone further.] That
is, he was going on, as though he intended to go further; and
so he doubtless would, had they not earnestly pressed him to
lodge with them. His preaching had made a deep impression
upon their hearts, ver. 32. and now they feel it their greatest
privilege to entertain the preacher.

This is a constant effect of the doctrine of Christ; wherever
at is fell, the Author of it the ever-blessed Jesus, is earnestly

his death and resurrection.

27 And beginning at Moses and all the prophets, he ex-
pounded unto them in all the Scriptures, the things concern
ing himself.

28 And they drew nigh unto the village, whither they went:
29 But they constrained him, saying, Abide with us: for it
and he made as though he would have gone further.
is toward evening, and the day is far spent. And he went in
to tarry with them.

30 And it came to pass, as he sat at meat with them, d he
took bread and blessed it, and brake, and gave to them.
vanished out of their sight.
31 And their eyes were opened, and they knew him; and he

32 And they said one to another, Did not our heart burn
within us, while he talked with us by the way, and while he
opened to us the scriptures?

lem, and found the eleven gathered together, and them that
33 And they rose up the same hour, and returned to Jerusa
34 Saying, The Lord is risen indeed, and hath appeared to
were with them.

35 And they told what things were done in the way, and how
he was known of them in breaking of bread.

36 And as they thus spake, Jesus himself stood in the
midst of them, and saith unto them, Peace be unto you.

21 Mal. 3. 1.& 4.2. See on John 1, 45-b See Gen. 32. 26. & 42. 7. Mark 6. 48.-
10, 11, & 50.6. & 53. Jer. 23.5. & 23. 14, 15. Ezek. 34. 23. & 37.25. Dan. 9.24. Mic.7.
e Genesis 19. 3. Acts 16. 15.- Matthew 14.19.- Or, ceased to be seen of them.
See Chapter 4. 30. John 8. 59-f1 Corinthians 15. 5-g Mark 16. 14. John 20. 19.
1 Corinthians 15. 5,

entreated to dwell in the heart; and he who preaches it, is
amply provided with the necessaries of life by those who have
received his testimony.

29. For it is toward evening] And consequently both inconvenient and unsafe to proceed to another village. Reader! thy day may have already declined, and there is, possibly, it is probably the eve of thy life, whether thou be old or young: Jesus taught thee by his tnord and Spirit to believe in him that but a step between thee and the eternal world! Hath the Lord thou mightest be saved? Is he come into thy heart? Hast thou the witness of his Spirit that thy sin is blotted out through his blood? Rom. viii. 16. Gal. iv. 6. 1 John v. 10, 11, 12. If thou have not, get thee to God right humbly. Jesus is about to pass by, perhaps for ever! O constrain him by earnest faith and prayer to enter into thy soul, and lodge with thee! May And he went in] And so he will to thee, thou penitent soul! God open THY eyes! may he stir up and inflame THY heart! 30. He took bread] This was the office of the master and therefore take courage, and be not faithless but believing. father of a family; and this was our Lord's usual custom feeds, and feeds too with bread that himself hath blessed, and among his disciples. Those whom Christ lodges with, he 31. Their eyes were opened] But we are not to imagine this feeding not only strengthens, but also enlightens the soul. that he administered the holy eucharist at this time; there is meal, and ended before it was well begun. not the most distant evidence of this. It was a mere family

They knew him] His acting as father of the family, in taking, blessing, and distributing the bread among them, caused them to recollect those lips which they had often heard speak, he also threw off the disguise which he had before assumed; and those hands by which they had often been fed. Perhaps and now appeared in his own person.

He vanished out of their sight] Probably during their sur prise, he took the opportunity of withdrawing from the place; leaving them to reflect and meditate on what they had heard and seen.

32. Did not our heart burn within us] His word was in our heart as a burning fire, Jer. xx. 9. Our hearts waxed hot within us, and while we were musing the fire burned, Psal. xxxix. 3. In some such way as this the words of the disciples may the Codex Bezæ; instead of Katoμevn, burned, it has Kekaλvppebe understood: but there is a very remarkable reading here in vn, vailed, and one of the Itala, has, fuit excæcatum, was blinded. Was not our heart vailed, (blinded,) when he con versed with us on the way, and while he unfolded the Scrip tures to us, seeing we did not know him?

34. Saying, the Lord is risen indeed] The meaning here is, that these two disciples found the apostles, and those who were with them, unanimously testifying that Christ had risen from the dead. It is not to the two disciples to whom we are to refer the word Aeyovras, saying; but to the body of the disciples. See the note on Mark xvi. 12.

35. And they] The two disciples who were just come from Emmaus, related what had happened to them on the way, going to Emmaus, and how he had been known unto them in the breaking of bread, while supping together at the above village. See on ver. 31.

36. And as they thus spake] While the two disciples who were going to Emmaus were conversing about Christ, he joined himself to their company. Now while they and the apostles are confirming each other in their belief of his resurrec And it is ever true, that wherever tion, Jesus comes in, to remove every doubt, and to give them the fullest evidence of it. two or three are gathered together in his name, he is in the midst of them.


Peace be unto you.] The usual salutation among the Jews. 245 May you prosper in body and soul, and enjoy every hea venly and earthly good! See the notes on Matt. v. 9. x. 12.

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40 And when he had thus spoken, he showed them his hands and his feet.

41 And while they yet believed not k for joy, and wondered, he said unto them, 1 Have ye here any meat?"

42 And they gave him a piece of a broiled fish, and of a ho neycomb.

43 And he took it, and did eat before them.

44 And he said unto them, "These are the words which I spake unto you, while I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled, which were written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the psalms, concerning me.

h Mark 6. 49 --i John 20. 20, 27-k Glen. 45. 96-1 John 21 5-m Acta 10. 41n Mart 16:21 & 17.22. & 20.18. Mark 8.31. Ch.9.22 18.31. Ver 6-0 Acta 16. 14. Acts 13. 38, 46. 1 John 2 12.

P. Vec. Psa. 22. Isa. 50.6. & 53 2, &c. Acts 17. 3.-q Dan. 9. 24.

37. And supposed that they had seen a spirit.] But if there be no such thing as a disembodied spirit, would not our Lord have shown them their error? Instead of this, he confirms them in their opinion, by saying, A spirit hath not flesh and bones as ye see me have, ver. 39. therefore he says, handle me and see me. They probably imagined that it was the soul only, of our blessed Lord which they saw; but they were soon fully convinced of the identity of his person, and the reality of his resurrection: for, 1. They saw his body. 2. They heard him speak. 3. They handled him. 4. They saw him eat a piece of broiled fish and honeycomb, which they gave him. In these things it was impossible for them to have been de


41. They believed not for joy] They were so overcome with the joy of his resurrection, that they did not for some time, properly receive the evidence that was before them-as we phrase it, they thought the news too good to be true.

44. The law the prophets-the psalms] This was the Jew. ish division of the whole Old Covenant. The LAW contained the five books of Moses; the PROPHETS, the Jews divided into former and latter; they were, according to Josephus, thirteen. "The PSALMs included not only the book still so named, but also three other books, Proverbs, Job, and Canticles. These all," says the above author, "contain hymns to God, and rules for the conduct of the lives of men." Joseph. cont. App. i. 8. This account is imperfect: the common Jewish division of the writings of the Old Covenant is the following, and indeed seems to be the same to which our Lord alludes:

I. The LAW, thorah, including Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy.

II. The PROPHETS, ON nabiaim, or teachers, including Joshua, Judges, the two books of Samuel, and the two books of Kings, (these were termed the former prophets) Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Hoggai, Zachariah, and Malachi: these were termed the latter prophets.

III. The HAGIOGRAPHA, (holy writings) Dɔɔ kethubim, which comprehended the Psalms, Proverbs, Job, Canticles, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, and the two books of Chronicles. The Jews made anciently only twenty-two books of the whole, to bring them to the number of the letters in the Hebrew alphabet: and this they did by joining Ruth to Judges, making the two books of Samuel only one; and so of Kings and Chronicles; joining the Lamentations to Jeremiah, and making the twelve minor prophets only one book.

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the fullest proof of his resurrection

45 Then opened he their understanding, that they might understand the Scriptures,

46 And said unto them, Thus it is written, and thus it be. hoved Christ to suffer, and to rise from the dead the third day: 47 And that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name among all nations, beginning atJerusalem48 Ye are witnesses of these things.

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And he led them out as far as to Bethany, and he lifted up his hands, and blessed them.

51And it came to pass, while he blessed them, he was part ed from them, and carried up into heaven.


And they worshipped him, and returned to Jerusalem with great joy:

53 And were continually in the temple praising and bless ing God. Amen..

r Gen. 19.3. Psa. 22.27. Isa. 49 6,22. Jer 31 34. Hos. 2.23 Mie 42 Mal. 1.1! → s John 15.27. Acts 1 9, 22 & 2.32 & 3. 15.-t isa 44 3 Joel 29 John 14,16,29 & 13. 26 & 16 7. Acts 1. 4. & 2.1, &c. - Acts 1.12-v2 Kings 2.11. Mark 16. 19. John 2 17. Acta 1.9. Ephes. 4.3-w Matt.23.9, 17.-x Acts 2 46. & 5.42.

ALL; and Jesus Christ by his grace has tasted death for EVERY man. Heb. ii. 9.

Beginning at Jerusalem] Making the first overtures of mercy to my murderers! If then the sinners of Jerusalem night repent, believe, and be saved; none, on this side hell, need despair.

48. Ye are witnesses of these things.] He gave them a full commission to proclaim these glad tidings of peace and salvation to a lost world. The disciples were witnesses not only that Christ had suffered and rose again from the dead; but also that he opens the understanding by the inspiration of his Spirit, that he gives repentance, that he pardons sin, and purifies from all unrighteousness, and that he is not willing that any should perish, but that all should come unto the knowledge of the truth and be saved. And these are the things of which their successors in the Gospel ministry must bear witness. As far as a man steadily and affectionately proclaims these doctrines, so far God will bless his labour to the salvation of those who hear him. But no man can with any propriety bear witness of that grace that saves the soul, whose own soul is not saved by that grace. 49. The promise of my Father] That is, the Holy Ghost, promised, John xv. 26. See Acts i. 4. ii. 33.

Until ye be endued with power] The energy of the Holy Ghost was to be communicated to them for three particular purposes. 1. That he might be in them, a sanctifying com forter, fortifying their souls, and bringing to their remem brance whatever Jesus had before spoken to them.

2. That their preaching might be accompanied by his de monstration and power to the hearts of their hearers, so that they might believe and be saved.

3. That they might be able to work miracles, to confirm their pretensions to a divine mission; and to establish the truth of the doctrines they preached.

50. He led them out as far as to Bethany] The difficulties in this verse, when collated with the accounts given by the other evangelists, are thus reconciled by Dr. Lightfoot "I. This very evangelist (Acts i. 12.) tells us, that when the disciples came back from the place where our Lord had ascended, they returned from mount Olivet, distant from Jerusalem a Sabbath day's journey. But now the town of Bethany was about fifteen furlongs from Jerusalem, John x1. 18. and that is double a Sabbath day's journey.

"II. Josephus tells us, that Mount Olivet was but five furlongs from the city, and a Sabbath day's journey was seven furlongs and a half. Antiq. lib. 20. cap. 6. About that time 45. Then opened he their understanding] Ainvoitev, he there came to Jerusalem a certain Egyptian, pretending fully opened. They had a measure of light before, so that himself a prophet, and persuading the people that they should they discerned the Scriptures to be the true word of God, and go out with him to the mount of Olives. O kai ing mudrois an to speak of the Messiah: but they had not light sufficient to TIKρUS KELLEVOV, ȧréxei σrádia #ÉVTE; which being situated on enable them to apply these Scriptures to their Lord and Mas- the front of the city, is distant five furlongs. These things ter; but now, by the influence of Christ, they see, not only the are all true; 1. That the mount of Olives lay but five furlongs prophecies which pointed out the Messiah, but also the Mes distant from Jerusalem. 2. That the town of Bethany was siah who was pointed out by these prophecies. The book of fifteen furlongs. 3. That the disciples were brought by Christ God may be received in general as a divine revelation, but as far as Bethany. 4. That when they returned from the the proper meaning, reference, and application of the Scrip- mount of Olives, they travelled more than five furlongs. And, tures can only be discerned by the light of Christ. Even the 5. Returning from Bethany they travelled but a Sabbath very plain word of God is a dead letter to those who are not day's journey. All which may be easily reconciled, if we enlightened by the grace of Christ: and why ? because this would observe; that the first space from the city was called word speaks of spiritual and heavenly things; and the car- Bethphage, which I have cleared elsewhere from Talmudic nal mind of man cannot discern them. They who receive not authors, the evangelist's themselves also confirming it. That this inward teaching, continue dark and dead while they live. part of the mount was known by that name to the length of 47. Repentance] See its nature fully explained in the notes about a Sabbath day's journey, till it came to that part which on Matt. iii. 1. is called Bethany. For there was a Bethany, a tract of the Remission of sins] Apcow apapriwy, the taking away-mount, and the town of Bethany. The town was distant from removal of sins, in general-every thing that relates to the destruction of the power, the pardoning of the guilt, and the purification of the heart from the very nature of sin.

Should be preached in his name] See the office of a proclaimer, herald, or preacher, explained in the note on Matt. iii. 1. and particularly at the end of that chapter.

In his name-On his authority, and in virtue of the atonement made by him: for on what other ground could the inhabitants of the earth expect remission of sins!

Among all nations] Because God wills the salvation of

the city about fifteen furlongs, i. e. about two miles, or a double Sabbath day's journey; but the first border of this tract (which also bore the name of Bethany) was distant but one mile, or a single Sabbath day's journey.

"Our Saviour led out his disciples, when he was about to ascend, to the very first region or tract of mount Olivet, which was called Bethany, and was distant from the city a Sabbath day's journey. And so far from the city itself did that tract extend itself which was called Bethphage: and when he was come to that place where the bounds of Bethphage and Be



thany met and touched one another, he then ascended; in that very place where he got upon the ass when he rode into Jerusalem, Mark xi. 1. Whereas, therefore, Josephus saith, that mount Olivet was but five furlongs from the city, he ineans the first brink and border of it. But our evangelist must be understood of the place where Christ ascended, where the name of Olivet began, as it was distinguished from Bethphage."

Between the appearance of Christ to his apostles, mentioned in ver. 36, &c. almost all the forty days had passed, before he led them out to Bethany. They went by his order into Galilee, Matt. xxvi. 32. xxviii. 10. Mark xiv. 28. xvi. 7. and there he appeared to them, as is mentioned by Matthew, chap. xxviii. 16, &c. and more particularly by John, chap. xxi. 1, &c. See Bishop PEARCE.

Lifted up his hands] Probably to lay them on their heads, for this was the ordinary way in which the paternal blessing was conveyed. See Gen. xlviii. 8-20.

51. Carried up into heaven.] Avspepero-into that heaven from which he had descended, John i. 18. iii. 13. This was forty days after his resurrection, Acts i. 3. during which time he had given the most convincing proofs of that resurrection, not only to the apostles, but to many others :-to upwards of five hundred at one time, 1 Cor. xv. 6.

As in his life they had seen the way to the kingdom, and in his death the price of the kingdom, so in his ascension they had the fullest proof of the immortality of the soul, the resur rection of the human body, and of his continual intercession at the right hand of God."

There are some remarkable circumstances relative to this ascension, mentioned in Acts i. 4-12.

52 They worshipped him] Let it be observed that this worship was not given by way of civil respect, for it was after he was parted from them, and carried back into heaven, that they offered it to him: but acts of civil respect are always performThey adored him as their ed in the presence of the person. God, and were certainly too much enlightened to be capable of any species of idolatry.

Returned to Jerusalem with great joy) Having the fullest proof that Jesus was the promised Messiah; and that they had a full commission to preach repentance and remission of sins to mankind; and that they should be divinely qualified for this great work by receiving the promise of the Father, ver. 49. 53. Were continually in the temple] Especially till the day of Pentecost came, when they received the promise, mentioned

ver. 49.

Praising and blessing God.] Magnifying his mercy, and speaking good of his name. Thus the days of their mourning were ended; and they began that life upon earth in which they still live in the kingdom of God May the God of infinite love give the reader the same portion in time and in eternity! through the same glorious and ever-blessed Jesus. and Amen.


There are various subscriptions to this book in the MSS. and Versions. The following are the principal. Through the assistance of the Most High God, the Gospel of St. Luke the physician, the proclaimer of eternal life, is Anished. ARAB. The most holy Gospel of Luke the Evan gelist, is completed. SYR. The end of the holy Gospel accord. ing to Luke-written in Greek-published in Alexandria the great,-in Troas, in Rome, in the confines of Achaia and Baotia, in Bithynia,--in Macedonia,-in the Italic (or Lat in) character, fifteen years after the ascension of Christ.


is something new; and no serious reader ever finds, that the
perusal of any one supersedes the necessity of carefully con-
sulting and reading the others. The same facts and doctrines
are exhibited by all in different points of view, which ren-
ders them both impressive and interesting; and this one cir-
cumstance serves to fix the narrative more firmly in the me-
mory. We should have had slighter impressions from the
Goepel history, had we not had the narrative at four different
hands. This variety is of great service to the church of God,
and has contributed very much to diffuse the knowledge of
the facts and doctrines contained in this history. Parallel
passages have been carefully studied, and the different shades
of meaning accurately marked out: and the consequence has
of the faithful. It is not the business of a commentator to
been what the wisdom of God designed, the fuller edification
point out beauties in the composition of the sacred text.-
Many might be selected from the evangelists in general, and
not a few from Luke, who not only tells a true story, but tells
it well; especially when he has occasion to connect the differ.
ent parts of the narration with observations of his own. But
this is his least praise; from his own account we learn, that
he took the utmost pains to get the most accurate and circum-
stantial information relative to the facts he was to relate; see
the note on chap. i. ver. 3. While, therefore, he thus dili
Even he who expected
gently and conscientiously sought for truth, the unerring
Spirit of God led him into all truth.
the revelation of the Almighty, and to be inspired by the Holy
Spirit, that he might correctly, forcibly, and successfully pro-
claim the truth and righteousness of his Maker, must stand
upon his watch, and set himself upon his tower, and watch
to see what God would speak IN him, Hab. ii. 1. In a similar
spirit we may expect the fruits of these revelations. He who
carefully and conscientiously uses the means, may expect
the accomplishment of the end.

I cannot close these observations with a more profitable
word than what is contained in that truly apostolic and sub-
lime prayer for the second Sunday in Advent: and may he
who reads it weigh every word in the spirit of faith and devo-
"Blessed God! who hast caused all Holy Scriptures to
be written for our learning; grant that we may in such wise
hear them, read, mark, learn, and inwardly digest them,
that by patience and comfort of thy holy word, we may em-
brace and ever hold fast the blessed hope of everlasting life,
which thou hast given us in our Saviour Jesus Christ!"

Now to him that loved us, and washed us from our sins in his own blood, and hath made us kings and priests unto God and his Father, to Him be glory and dominion for ever and ever! Amen.

Facts and circumstances related at large by St. Luke, which are either not mentioned at all, or but very transiently, by the other Evangelists.

The conception of Elizabeth, chap. i. 5-25. The salutation of Mary, ibid. 23-83. Mary's visit to Elizabeth, ibid. 39--56. The birth of John the Baptist, ibid. 57-79. The decree of Cesar Augustus, chap. ii. 1-6. Apparition of the angel to the shepherds, ibid 8-2). The circumcision of Christ, ib.d. 21. The presentation of Christ in the temple, ibid. 22-33. Dispute with the doctora when twelve years of age, ibid. 40-52. Chronological dates at the cominencement of our Lord's ministry, chap. ii. 1, 2. Success of the preaching of John the Baptist, ibid. 10-15. Christ's preaching and miraculous escape at Naza James, and John, chap.v. 1-10. The camities that fell on certain Gleans, reth, chap. iv. 15-30. Remarkable particulars in the call of Simnon, Andrew, chap. xiii. 1-9. Mission of the seventy disciples, chap. x. 1-16. The resurn of the seventy disciples, with an account of their success, ibid. 17-24. Story of the good Samaritan, ibid. 25-37. Cure of the woman who had been diseased eighteen years, chap. xiii. 10-20. The question answered, Are there few thai be saved 7 ibid. 22, 23 Curing of the man with the drey, ch ya xiv. 1-24. Dif culties attending the profession of Christianity, to be carefully preconsidered, ibid. 23-35. Parable of the loss sheep, and the los piece of money, chap. xv. 1-10. Parable of the prodigal son, ibid 11-32. Parable of the unjust stew

It is likely the word Amen, was added by the church, on the reading of this book; but there is no evidence that it was affixed by the evangelist. It is omitted by some of the best MSS. and versions. It is evident, that at the conclusion of this Gospel, St. Lukeard, chap. xvi. 1-18. Parable of the rich man and the beggar. ibid. 19-31. passes very rapidly over a number of interesting circunstan ers related by the other evangelists, and particularly by St. John concerning the last forty days of our Lord's sojourning on earth; but to compensate for this, he has mentioned a variety of important particulars which the others have passed It seems by, a list of which I think it necessary to subjoin. as if the providence of God had designed that none of these evangelists should stand alone; each has his peculiar excelThey lence, and each his own style and mode of narration. are all witnesses to the truth in general; and each most pointedly to every great fact of the Gospel history. In each there

Various instructions to his disciples, chip. xvii. 1-10. The refusal of the
Samaritans to receive him into their city, ch. ix. 52-56. xvi. 11. The
cleansing of the ten lepers, chap. xvii. 12-19. The Pharisees ask when the
kingdom of God should come, and our Lord's answer, ibid. 20-38. The
price and the public an, chap. xviii. 1-14. Account of the domestic avo-
cations of Martha and Mary, chap. x. 38-42. The account of Zaccheus,
Pilate sends Jesus to Herod, chap. xxiii. 6-16. Account
chap. xix. 2-10. The parable of the nobleman that went to obtain a king-
dom, ibid. 11-28
particulars concerning the two thieves that were crucified with our Lord,
of the women that deplored our Lord's sufferings, ibid. 27-32. Remarkable
ibid. 33-43. Account of the two disciples going to Eminans, chap. xxiv.
13-35. Remarkable circumstances concerning his appearance to the eleven,
after his resurrection, ibid. 37-49.
LONDON, Feb. 16, 1813.


Joas, the writer of this Gospel, was the son of a fisherman, named Zebedee, and his mother's name was Salome. Compare Matt. xxvii. 56. with Mark xv. 40. and xvi. 1. His father Zebedee was probably of Bethsaida, and with his sons James and John, followed his occupation on the sea of Galilee. The call of these two brothers to the apostleship is related Matt. iv. 21, 22 Mark i. 19, 20. Luke v. 1-10. John is generally supposed to have been about 25 years of age, when he began to follow our Lord.

Theophylact makes him one of the relatives of our Lord, and gives his genealogy thus: "Joseph, the husband of the bleased Mary, had seven children by a former wife; four sons, and three daughters, Martha, (perhaps, says Dr. Lardner,


it should be Mary,) Esther, and Salome, whose son John was;
therefore Salome was reckoned our Lord's sister, and John was
his nephew." If this relationship did exist, it may have been,
at least in part, the reason of several things mentioned in the
Gospels; as the petition of the two brothers, for the two chief
places in the kingdom of Christ; John's being the beloved dis
ciple and friend of Jesus, and being admitted to some freedoms
denied to the rest; and possibly performing some offices about
the person of his Master; and finally, our Lord's committing
to him the care of his mother, as long as she should survive
him. In a MS. of the Greek Testament, in the Imperial Li
brary of Vienna, numbered 34 in Lambecius's Catalogue,
there is a marginal note which agrees pretty much with the

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