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John denies that he is the

25 And they asked him, and said unto him, Why baptizest thou then, if thou be not that Christ, nor Elias, neither that prophet? Ag

26 John answered them, saying, "I baptize with water: but there standeth one among you, whom ye know not;

27 He it is, who coming after me is preferred before me, whose shoe's latchet I am not worthy to unloose.

23 These things were done in Bethabara beyond Jordan, where John was baptizing.

291 The next day John seeth Jesus coming unto him, and saith, Behold, the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world. we

30This is he of whom I said, After me cometh a man which is preferred before me: for he was before me.

3 And I knew him not: but that he should be made manifest to Israel, therefore am I come baptizing with water.

Messiah, and announces Jesus

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Matt 3 11- Mal 3. 1-p Ver. 15.3). Acts 194- Judges 7.24. Ch. 1040-4.10. Rev. 1.5-t Or, beareth.-u Ver. 15. 27-v Mal. 3.1. Matt, 8.6. Luke 1. 17, Exod, 12. 3. Isa 53.7 Ver.36. Acts S. 32. 1 Pet 1. 19. Rev. 5,6,&c.-s Isa. 51.11. 1 Cor. 15.3 Gal.1.4. Heb.1.3.& 2. 17. & 9.99. 1 Pet. 2.24.& 3.18. 1 John 2.2.& 3.5. & a tradition that Jeremiah was to return to life, and restore the pot of manna, the ark of the covenant, &c. which he had hid den, that the Babylonians might not get them. Besides this, they had a general expectation that all the prophets should come to life in the days of the Messiah.

I am not.] I am not the prophet which you expect, nor Elijah: though he was the Elijah that was to come; for in the spirit and power of that eminent prophet he came, proclaiming the necessity of reformation in Israel. See Matt. xi. 14.

22 That we may give an answer to them that sent us] These Pharisees were probably a deputation from the grand sanhedrim; the members of which hearing of the success of the Baptist's preaching, were puzzled to know what to make of him and seriously desired to hear from himself, what he professed to be.

23. I am the voice of one crying] See the notes on Matt. iii. 3. Mark i. 4, 5.

25. Why baptizest thou then ?] Baptism was a very common ceremony among the Jews, who never received a proselyte into the full enjoyment of a Jew's privileges, till he was both baptized and circumcised. But such baptisms were never performed except by an ordinance of the sanhedrim, or in the presence of three magistrates: besides, they never baptized any Jew or Jewess, nor even those who were the children of their proselytes; for as all these were considered as born in the Covenant, they had no need of baptism, which was used only as an introductory rite. Now, as John had, in this respect, altered the common custom so very essentially, admitting to his baptism the Jews in general; the sanhedrim took it for granted, that no man had authority to make such changes, unless especially commissioned from on high: and that only the prophet, or Elijah, or the Messiah himself, could have authority to act as John did. See the observations at the conclusion of Mark.

26. I baptize with water] See on Mark i. 8. I use the common form, though I direct the baptized to a different end, viz. that they shall repent of their sins, and believe in the Messiah.

There standeth one among you] That is, the person whose forerunner I am, is now dwelling in the land of Judea, and will shortly make his appearance among you. Christ was not present when John spoke thus, as may be seen from ver. 29. 2. Is preferred before me] Os Eurрoobεv pov yeyovEv, who was before me. This clause is wanting in BC L., four others, the Coptic, Ethiopic, Slavonic, and two copies of the Itala; Griesbach has left it and in some of the primitive Fathers. out of the text. It is likely that is was omitted by the above, because it was found in verses 15. and 30. At the end of this verse, EG. and ten others, with some copies of the Slavonic, add, He shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost and with fire. 28. These things were done in Bethabara] It is very probable that the word Bethany should be inserted here instead of Bethabara. This reading in the judgment of the best critics, is the genuine one. The following are the authorities, by which it is supported; ABCEGHLMSX. BV. of Matthaï, upwards of a hundred others, Syriae, Armenian, Persic, Coptic, Slavonic, Vulgate, Saxon, and all the Itala, with some of the most eminent of the primitive Fathers, before the time of Origen, who is supposed to have first changed the reading. Bethahara signifles literally, the house of passage; and is thought to be the place where the Israelites passed the river Jordan, under Joshua. There was a place called Bethany about two miles from Jerusalem, at the foot of the mount of Olives. But there was another of the same name, beyond Jordan, in the tribe of Reuben. It was probably of this that the evangelist speaks; and Origen, not knowing of this second Bethany, altered the reading to Bethabara. See Rosenmuller. 29. The next day] The day after that on which the Jews had been with John, ver. 19.

38. What seek ye?] These disciples might have felt some Behold the Lamb of God, &c.] This was said in allusion to embarrassment in addressing our blessed Lord, after hearing what was spoken Isa. kii. 7. Jesus was the true Lamb or Sac- the character which the Baptist gave of him: to remove or rifice required and appointed by God, of which those offered prevent this, he graciously accosts them, and gives them an daily in the tabernacle and temple, Exod. xxix. 38, 39. and opportunity of explaining themselves to him. Such questions especially the paschal lamb, were only the types and repre- we may conceive the blessed Jesus still puts to those who in See Exod. xii. 4, 5. 1 Cor. v. 7. The continual simplicity of heart desire an acquaintance with him. A ques sentatives. morning and evening sacrifice of a lamb under the Jewish tion of this nature we may profitably ask ourselves: What 253 law, was intended to point out the continual efficacy of the seek ye 7 In this place? In the company you frequent? In the 23

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39 He saith unto them, Come and see. They came and saw where he dwelt, and abode with him that day: for it was about the tenth hour.

40 One of the two which heard John speak, and followed him, was Andrew, Simon Peter's brother.

41 He first findeth his own brother Simon, and saith unto him, we have found the Messias, which is, being interpreted, the Christ.

42 And he brought him to Jesus. And when Jesus beheld him, he said, Thou art Simon, the son of Jona: 4 thou shalt be called Cephas, which is, by interpretation, A stone.

43 The day following Jesus would go forth into Galilee, and findeth Philip, and saith unto him, Follow me.

That was two hours before night-b Matt. 4. 16-e Or, the anointed. -d Matt. If 18.--e Or, Peter.- Ch.12 21.-g Ch. 21.2-h Gen. 3. 15. & 49, 10, Deut. 14, 18. Sen on Luke 24. 27.-i Isa. 4. 2. & 7. 14. & 9. 6. & 54 2 Mic. 3. 2. Zech. 6. 12. &

conversation you engage in? In the affairs with which you are occupied? In the works which you perform? Do ye seek the humiliation, illumination, justification, edification, or sanctification of your soul? The edification of your neighbour? The good of the church of Christ? Or, the glory of God? Questions of this nature, often put to our hearts in the fear of God, would induce us to do many things which we now leave undone; and to leave undone many things which we now perform.

Rabbil Teacher. Behold the modesty of these disciples-we wish to be scholars, we are ignorant-we desire to be taught; we believe thou art a teacher come from God. Where dwellest thou ?] That we may come and receive thy instructions.

39. Come and see] If those who know not the salvation of God would come at the command of Christ, they should soon see that with him is the fountain of life, and in his light they should see light. Reader, if thou art seriously inquiring where Christ dwelleth, take the following for answer: He dwells not in the tumult of worldly affairs, nor in profane assemblies, nor in worldly pleasures, nor in the place where drunkards proclaim their shame, nor in carelessness and indolence. But he is found in his temple, wherever two or three are gathered together in his name, in secret prayer, in self-denial, in fast ing, in self-examination. He also dwells in the humble, contrite spirit, in the spirit of faith, of love, of forgiveness, of universal obedience; in a word, he dwells in the heaven of heavens, whither he graciously purposes to bring thee, if thou wilt come and learn of him, and receive the salvation which he has bought for thee by his own blood.

The tenth hour.] Generally supposed to be about what we call four o'clock in the afternoon. According to chap. xi. 9. the Jews reckoned twelve hours in the day, and of course each hour of the day, thus reckoned, must have been some thing longer or shorter, according to the different times of the year in that climate. The sixth hour with them, answered to our twelve o'clock, as appears from what Josephus says in his Life, chap. liv. that on the Sabbath-day it was the rule for the Jews to go to dinner at the sixth hour, (ikrŋ opa.) The Romans had the same way of reckoning twelve hours in each of their days. Hence, what we meet with in Hor. lib. ii. sat. vi. 1. 34. ante secundam, signifies, as we should express it, before eight o'clock. And when, in lib. i. sat. vi. 1. 122. he says, ad quartam jaceo, he means that he lay in bed till ten o'clock. See Bishop Pearce on this place. Dr. Macknight, however, is of opinion, that the evangelist is to be understood as speaking of the Roman hour, which was ten o'clock in the morning and as the evangelist remarks, they abode with him that day, it implies there was a considerable portion of time spent with our Lord, in which, by his conversation, he renoved all their scruples, and convinced them that he was the Messiah. But had it been the Jewish tenth hour, it would have been useless to remark their abiding with him that day, as there were only two hours of it still remaining. Harmony, vol. i. p. 52.

Philip, and Nathanae..

44 Now (Philip was of Bethsaida,the city of Andrew and Peter. 45 Philip findeth Nathanael, and saith unto him, We have found him, of whom b Moses in the law, and the i prophets, did write, Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph. 46 And Nathanael said unto him, Can there any good thing come out of Nazareth? Philip saith unto him, Come and see 47 Jesus saw Nathanael coming to him, and saith unto him. Behold an Israelite indeed, in whom is no guile!

48 Nathanael saith unto him, Whence knowest thou me? Jesus answered and said unto him, Before that Philip called thee, when thou wast under the fig-tree, I saw thee.

49 Nathanael answered and saith unto him, Rabbi, "thou art the Son of God; thou art the King of Israel.

9. 9. See more on Luke 24. 27.-k Matt. 2.21 Luke 2. 4-1 Ch.7. 41,42, 52-m Pra 322 & 7.1 Ch.8.39 Rom 2. 95, 9. & 9. 6-n Mati, 14. 33 - Matt, 2.5. &C 11, 42. Ch. 18. 37. & 19.3.

preached in the two Phrygius; and Eusebius says he was buried in Phrygia Pacatiana. He must not be confounded with Philip the Deacon, spoken of Acts vi. 5. 45. Nathanael This apostle is supposed to be the same with Bartholomew, which is very likely, for these reasons: 1. That the evangelists who mention Bartholomew, say nothing of Nathanael; and that St. John, who speaks of Nathanael, says nothing of Bartholomew. 2. No notice is taken any where of Bartholomew's vocation, unless his and that of Nathanael mentioned here, be the same. 3. The name of Bartholomew is not a proper name: it signifies the son of Ptolemy: and Nathanael might have been his own name. 4. St. John seems to rank Nathanael with the apostles, when he says that Peter and Thomas, the two sons of Zebedee, Nathanael, and two other disciples, being gone a fishing, Jesus showed himself to them, John xxi. 2-4.

Moses in the law] See Gen. iii. 15. xxii. 18. xlix. 10. Deut. xviii. 18.

And the prophets] See Isa. iv. 2. vii. 14. ix. 5. xl. 10. liii. 1. &c. Jer. xxiii. 5. xxxiii. 14, 15. Ezek. xxxiv. 23. xxxvii. 24. Dan. ix. 24. Mic. v. 2. Zach. vi. 12. ix. 9. xii. 10.

46. Can there any good thing come out of Nazareth?] Bishop Pearce supposes that the 7 ayabor of the evangelist has some particular force in it: for in Jer. xxiii. 14. God says, I will perform that good thing which I promised, &c. and this in ver. 15. is explained to mean, his causing the branch of righteousness, (i. e. the Messiah) to grow up unto David, from whom Jesus was descended in this view, Nathanael's question seems to imply, that not Nazareth, but Bethlehem, was to be the birth-place of the Messiah, according to what the chief priests and scribes had determined, Matt. ii. 4, 5, 6. If this conjecture be not thought solid, we may suppose that Nazareth, at this time, was become so abandoned, that no good could be expected from any of those who dwelt in it; and that its wickedness had passed into a proverb; Can any thing good be found in Nazareth? Or, that the question is illiberal, and full of national prejudice.

Come and see] He who candidly examines the evidences of the religion of Christ, will infallibly become a believer. No history ever published among men, has so many external and internal proofs of authenticity as this has. A man should judge of nothing by first appearances, or human prejudices. Who are they who cry out, The Bible is a fable? Those who have never read it, or read it only with the fixed purpose to gainsay it. I once met with a person, who professed to dis believe every tittle of the New Testament, a chapter of which he acknowledged, he had never read: I asked him had he ever read the Old? He answered, No! and yet this man had the assurance to reject the whole as an imposture! God has mercy on those whose ignorance leads them to forin prejudi ces against the truth: but he confounds those who take them up through envy and malice, and endeavour to communicate them to others.

47. Behold an Israelite indeed] A worthy descendant of the patriarch Jacob, who not only professes to believe in Israel's God, but who worships him in sincerity and truth, according to his light.

41. Findeth his own brother Simon] Every discovery of the Gospel of the Son of God produces benevolence, and leads those to whom it is made, to communicate it to others. Those In whom is no guile !] Deceitfulness ever has been, and who find Jesus, find in him a treasure of wisdom and know- still is, the deeply marked characteristic of the Jewish peoledge, through which they may not only become rich them-ple. To find a man living in the midst of so much corruption, selves, but be instruments in the hand of God, of enrich- walking in uprightness before his Maker, was a subject worthy ing others. These disciples having tasted the good word of the attention of God himself. Behold this man! and while Christ, were not willing to eat their bread alone, but went and you see and admire, imitate his conduct. invited others to partake with them. Thus the knowledge of Christ became diffused, one invited another to come and see: Jesus received all, and the number of disciples was increased, and the attentive hearers were innumerable. Every man who has been brought to an acquaintance with God, should endeavour to bring, at least, another with him and his first attention should be fixed upon those of his own household. 42. Cephas, which is, by interpretation, A stone.] Пerpos, signifies a stone, or fragment of a rock. The reason why this name was given to Simon, who was ever afterward called Peter, may be seen in the notes on Matt. xvi. 18, 19. and par-shade of this fig-tree, was perhaps the ordinary place of reicularly in Luke, at the end of chap. ix.

43. Philip] This apostle was a native of Bethsaida in Galilee Eusebius says he was a married man, and had several dangnters. Clemens Alexandrinus mentions it as a thing universally acknowledged, that it was this apostle who, when commanded by our Lord to follow him, said, Let me first go and bury my father, Matt. viii. 21, 22. Theodoret says he

48. Whence knowest thou me ?] He was not yet acquainted with the divinity of Christ, could not conceive that he could search his heart, and therefore asks how he could acquire this knowledge of him, or who had given him that character. It is the comfort of the sincere and upright, that God knows their hearts; and it should be the terror of the deceitful and of the hypocrite, that their false dealing is ever noticed by the all-seeing eye of God.

Under the fig-tree] Probably engaged in prayer with God for the speedy appearing of the salvation of Israel; and the

treat for this upright man. It is not a fig tree, but ray oven, THE fig-tree, one particularly distinguished from the others, There are many proofs that the Jewish rabbins chose the shade of trees, and particularly the fig tree, to sit and study under. See many examples in Schoettgen. How true is the saying, The eyes of the Lord are through all the earth, beholding the evil and the good. Wheresoever we are, whatso

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50 Jesus answered and said unto him, Because I said unto thee, I saw thee under the fig tree, believest thou? thou shalt see greater things than these.

p Gen 29. 12. Matt. 4. 11.

ever we are about, may a deep conviction of this truth rest upon our hearts, Thou, God, seest ME.

49. Rabbi) That is, Teacher! and so this word should be Translated.

Thou art the Son of God The promised Messiah. Thou art the King of Israel] The real descendant of David, who art to sit upon that spiritual throne, of which the throne of David was the type.

30. Because I said-I saw thee, &c.] As thou hast credited my divine mission on this simple proof, that I saw thee when and where no human eye, placed where mine was, could see thee; thy faith shall not rest merely upon this, for thou shalt see greater things than these-more numerous and express proofs of my eternal power and Godhead.

between Christ and Nathanael.

51 And he saith unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto you, P Hereafter ye shall see heaven open, and the angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of man.

Luke 2. 9, 13. & 22. 43. & 24. 4. Acts 1.10.

like the Greek word Aoyos, it has other acceptations in certain places. See Lightfoot.

2. Testimonies concerning the personality, attributes, and influence of the WORD of GOD, taken from the Zend Avesta and other writings attributed to Zoroaster.

"Let thy terrible WORD which I pronounce, O Oruusd! elevate itself on high. May it be great before thee, and satisfy my desires." ZEND AVESTA, vol. i. Vendidud Sade, p. 104. Zoroaster consulted Ormusd, and spoke thus to him: " "0 Ormusd, absorbed in excellence, just Judge of the world, pure, who existest by thy own power, what is that great wORD given by God, that living and powerful WORD; O Ormusd, tell me plainly, which existed before the heavens, before the water, be fore the earth, before the flocks, before the fire, the CHILD of ORMUSD, before men, before the whole race of existing beings, before all the benefits, and before all the pure gerins given by Ormusd?" Ormusd replied: "Pronounce that great wORD well, that WORD which existed before heaven was made, be fore the water, before the earth, before brute animals, before men, and before the holy angels (amschuspands.) I pro which are, and which have been, and which shall be, were formed. I continue to pronounce it in its utmost extent, and abundance is multiplied." Ibid. p. 138, 139.

"By his original WORD, Ormusd created the world, and van quished Ahriman, the genius of evil." Ibid. p. 140. not. 1. "The saints in heaven and earth pronounce the sacred WORD:-under the character of Honover, (i. e. pure desire,) it is worshipped." Ibid. 141.

51. Verily, verily] Amen, amen. The doubling of this word probably came from this circumstance: that it was written in both Hebrew DN and in Greek aun, signifying, it is true. Heaven open] This seems to be a figurative expression: 1. Christ may be understood by this saying to mean, that a clear and abundant revelation of God's will should be now made unto men; that heaven itself should be laid as it were open, and all the mysteries which had been shut up, and hid-nounced that word with majesty, and all the pure beings den in it from eternity, relative to the salvation and glorification of man, should be now fully revealed. 2. That by the angels of God ascending and descending, is to be understood, that a perpetual intercourse should now be opened between heaven and earth, through the medium of Christ, who was God manifested in the flesh. Our blessed Lord is represented in his mediatorial capacity as the ambassador of God to men: and the angels ascending and descending upon the Son of man, is a metaphor taken from the custom of despatching couriers or messengers from the prince to his ambassador in a foreign court, and from the ambassador back to the prince. This metaphor will receive considerable light, when com pared with 2 Cor. v. 19, 20. God was in Christ reconciling the world unto himself:-we are ambassadors for Christ, as though God did beseech you by us, we pray you in Christ's stead to be reconciled to God. The whole concerns of human salvation shall be carried on, from henceforth, through the Son of man; and an incessant intercourse be established between heaven and earth. Some have illustrated this passage by the account of Jacob's vision, Gen. xxviii. 12. But though that vision may intimate, that God had established at that tune, a communication between heaven and earth, through the medium of angels; yet it does not appear that our Lord's saying here has any reference to it; but that it should be un

derstood as stated above.

What a glorious view does this give us of the Gospel dispen sation! It is heaven opened to earth; and heaven opened on earth. The church militant and the church triumphant be. come one, and the whole heavenly family in both, see and adore their common Lord. Neither the world nor the church is left to the caprices of time or chance. The Son of man go verns as he upholds all. Wherever we are praying, studying, hearing, meditating his gracious eye is upon us. He notes our wants, our weakness, and our petitions; and his eye af fects his heart. Let us be without guile, deeply, habitually sincere, serious, and upright; and then we may rest assured, that not only the eye, but the hand of our Lord, shall be ever upon us for good. Happy the man whose heart can rejoice in the reflection, Thou, God, seest me!

1. Testimonies concerning the Logos, or word of God; from the Chaldee Targums.

"Ormusd, together with the luminous and excellent woRD, is invoked, to defend the true worshipper from the oppression of evil spirits." Ibid. p. 174.

"Man is healed by the Supreme WORD." Ib. 324.

"By this wORD all defiled places are rendered pure: fire, water, earth, trees, flocks, men, women, stars, moon, sun, and the primeval light, with all the blessings given by Ormusa, are purified by it." Ibid. p. 368,

The word of Ormusd is termed, "Ezem baté, I AM:" and is represented as "putting every thing in a safe state-as the author of abundance; the source of all productions: the holy, pure, precious, and desirable word, which watches over all the creation." Ibid. Jescht Rashne Rast, vol. ii. p. 239.

It is called "the excellent, elevated, and victorious word; the source of light; the principle of action, which smites and triumphs; which gives health, discomfits wicked men and spirits; which exists through all the world, destroying the evil, and fulfilling the desires of the good." Ibid. Jescht of Ormusd, vol. ii. p. 145.

The Word is invoked as "The pure word--the most pure word; the strong--the most strong: the extended and ancient -the most extended and the most ancient: the victorious

the most victorious: the salutary-the most salutary: which gives health-is the abundant source of health, and cures wounds and diseases of all kinds." Ibid. Jeschi of Ardebehesht, vol. ii. p. 157.

It is termed "the creator, or creating principle." Ibid. Jescht of Farvardin, vol. ii. p. 252.

"Prayer is made to the soul of the excellent wORD, the body of which is supremely luminous." Ibid. p. 262.

"Through the whole government of Ormusd, men are com manded to invoke that most pure and excellent WORD." Ib.p.264. That the word in the above places, does not mean the Sacred books of the Parsees, it is expressly said, that "The Law of the Mazdejesnans (the disciples of Zoroaster) comes from this super-excellent Word." Ibid. Si-Rouzé; Mansrespand, p. 323, 354.

"The WORD proceeds from the first principle, time without bounds, i. e. eternity; it is before all created beings, and by it all the creation of God has been formed." Ibid. vol. ii. p. 592. I find a word of the same import used in exactly the same sense, in the Zend Avesta, attributed to the ancient Persian lawgiver, Zoroaster.

The person here styled the Logos, is called 27 debar Yehovah, the word of Jehovah, Gen. xv. 1, 4. 1 Sam. iii. 7, 21. x 10. 1 Kings xiii. 9, 17. xix. 9, 15. Psal. evii. 20. and the Targums, or Chaldee paraphrases, frequently substitute "The Law is the body under which the primitive woRD, meymra d'yay, the word of the Lord, for Jeho-which created the world, is manifested. The primitive WORD, vak himself. Thus the Jerusalem Targum in Gen. iii. 22. therefore, is worshipped in reading and reverencing that and both that and the Targum of Jonathan ben Uzziel, in Law; and the effects produced in the soul by it, are no less Gen. xix. 24. And Onkelos, on Gen. iii. 8. for the voice of the than a new creation, in some sort similar to that, which this Lord God, has, the voice of the WORD of the Lord. The Jerusa- omnific Word formed in the beginning." Ibid. vol. ii. p. 595. lem Targum on Gen. i. 27. for, And God created man, has, The WORD of Jehovah created, &c. Compare Targum Jonathan, on Isa. xlv. 12. xlviii. 13. Jer. xxvii. 5. And on Gen. xxii. 14. that of Jerusalem says, Abraham invoked beshem momra d'yay, in the name of the WORD of the Lord, and said, THOU urt Jehovah. So Onkelos, Gen. xxviii. 20, 21. If the WORD of Jehovah will be my help-then, the WORD of Jehovah shall be my God. See Parkhurst under the word AOгoz. After a serious reading of the Targums, it seems to me evi. dent that the Chaldee term meymira, or WORD, is taken personally, in a multitude of places in them. When Jonathan ben Uzziel speaks of the Supreme Being, as doing or saying any thing, he generally represents him as performing the whole by this Meymra, or woRD, which he considers not as a speech or word spoken, but as a person distinct from the Most High, and to whom he attributes all the operations of the Deity. To attempt to give the word any other meaning than this, in various places throughout the Targums, would, in my opinion, be flat opposition to every rule of construction; though

One might suppose that Mohammed had the first chapter of St. John's Gospel in his eye when he wrote ver. 33 of Sorat. xix. of his Koran :

Fall his for calls zalyka Isa ibno Mareema Kaw-
lolhokki, this is Jesus the son of Mary, the WORD of TRUTH.
Some may understand the Arabic differently: This is a true
word, that Jesus is the Son of Mary.
3. Testimonies concerning the Logos, or word of God; from
Philo Judeus.

After I had begun my collections from Philo Judæus, relative to the Logos; I casually met with a work of the late very learned Mr. Jacob Bryant, entitled, The sentiments of Philo Judæus concerning the AOгOΣ, or WORD of GOD 8vo

Various testimonies concerning


Cambridge, 1797. From this valuable tract, I shall make a few extracts, and beg leave to refer the reader to the pamphlet itself. "Philo Judæus speaks at large in many places, of the Word of God, the Second Person, which he mentions as (devrepos Osos) the second divinity, the great cause of all things, and styles him, as Plato, as well as the Jews, had done before, the LOGOS. Of the divine Logos or Word, he speaks in many pla ces, and maintains at large the divinity of the Second Person, and describes his attributes in a very precise and copious manner, styling him * τον δεύτερον Θεόν ός εσιν εκεί νου (Θεού πρώτου) Λόγος, the second Deity, who is the word of the supreme God; : Πρωτόγονον υιον, his first-begotten Son ; ' Εικων Θεον, the Image of God : and a Ποιμήν της ιεράς αγέλης, the Shepherd of his holy flock. In his treatise upon Creation, he speaks of the WORD, as the divine operator by whom all things were disposed: and mentions him as f superior to the angels and all created beings, and the image and likeness of God, and says, that this Image of the true God was esteemed the same as Gods ως αυτον (Θεόν) κατανοούσι. h This LOGOS, the Word of God, says he, is superior to all the world, and more ancient; being the productor of all that was produced. The eternal word of the everlasting God is the sure and fixed foundation, upon which all things depend. He mentions man as in need of redemption, and says, what intelligent person, who views mankind engaged in unworthy and wicked pursuits, but k must be grieved to the heart, and call upon that only Saviour God, that these crimes may be extenuated, and that, by a ransom and price of redemption being given for his soul, it may again obtain its freedom? It pleased God therefore to appoint his Logos to be a Mediator. To his WORD, the chief and most ancient of all in heaven, the Great Author of the world, gave this especial gift, that he should stand as a medium, (or intercessor) between the Creator and the created; and he is accordingly the advocate for all mortals. The same m WORD is the intercessor for man, who is always tending to " corruption; and he is the appointed messenger of God, the governor of all things, to man in subjection to him. He therefore exhorts every person, who is able, to exert himself in the race which he is to run, to bend his course without Premission to the divine WORD above, who is the fountain of all wisdom; that by drinking at this sacred spring, he, instead of death, may obtain the reward of everlasting life.' He repeats continually, that the Logos is the express image of God.

the LOGOS, or WORD of God.

Mr. Bryant thinks that Philo derived all this knowledge concerning the Logos, from the apostles, and the works and conversation of Christian writers; for it is very probable, that Philo was contemporary with our Lord himself. Mr. B. is so well satisfied that Philo derived all this knowledge from these sources, that he goes on to ask :

"Whence else could he have obtained so many terms, which bear such an analogy with the expressions and doctrines in the apostolical writings? Such are Yios Otov, Aayos =pwτόγονος, πρεσβύτατος, αίδιος, Λόγος Αρχιερεύς, μέσος, μεθόριος, ἱκέτης του θνητού, δημιουργός, Ποιμήν της Ιερας αγελής, Υπαρ χος Θεού, σφραγις, είκων Θεού, φως, πνεύμα Θεού, πνευμα πο σοφον. We read further concerning redemption, and-Aurea kai ows pa, the price and ransom for the soul, avri Savarde, on aidior, and vous av@pou vans Ocov. To these, other instances might be added equally significant; few of which are to be found in the Greek version, or in any Jewish doctrines, at least in the acceptation given. They were obtained either from the conversation or from the writings of the first Christians; or rather from both, page 202.”

At p. 105. Mr. B. gives "A recapitulation of the characters and attributes of the Logos, with the collateral evidence from Scripture." This, with some other matters of a collateral import, he argues in 52 particulars, from which I have extracted the following, as being most closely allied to the subject, in serting the original words along with the translation. The references, in all cases, are to Dr. Mangey's edition of Philo, 2 vols. folio, London, 1742.

4. A list of some of the particular terms and doctrines found in Philo, with parallel passages from the New Testament. 1. The Logos is the Son of God-vios Oɛw. De Agric. vol. i. p. 308. De Profug. ib. p. 562. compare Mark i. 1. Luke iv. 41. John i. 34. Acts viii. 37.

2. The second divinity-devrepos Ocos Aoyos. Fragm. vol. ii. p. 625. comp. John i. I. 1 Cor. i. 24.

3. The first-begotten of God-Anyos πPWToyovos. De Somniis, vol. i. p. 653. comp. Heb. i. 6. Coloss. i. 15.

4. The image of God-cirov rov Ocov. De Mundi Opific. vol. i. p. 6, 414, 419, 656. comp. Col. i. 15. Heb. i. 3. 2 Cor. iv. 4. 5. Superior to angels-υπεράνω πάντων, (αγγέλων) Λόγος Octos. De Profugis, vol. i. p. 561. comp. Heb. i. 4, 6. 6. Superior to all the world-Ο Λογος-υπεράνω παντός έξι. De Leg. Allegor. vol. i. p. 121. comp. Heb. ii. 8.

7. By whom the world was created-Tov Octov Aoyov tov Tavтa diaкоoμпravта. De Mund. Opif. vol. i. p. 4. comp John i. 3. 1 Cor. viii. 6. Heb. i. 2, 10.

8. The great substitute of God-napxos rov Ocov. De Agricult. vol. I p. 308. comp. Jn. i. 3. and xvii. 4. Eph. iii. 9. Phil. 11. 7. 9. The light of the world-dos Kooμs:-and intellectual sun nλtos vONTUS. De Somniis, vol. i. p. 6, 414, 632, 633. comp John i. 4, 9. and viii. 12. 1 Pet. ii. 9.

10. Who only can see God μονῳ τον Θεόν εξέτι καθοράς. De Confus. Linguar. vol. i. p. 418. comp. John i. 18. and vi. 46. 11. Who resides in God-εν αυτώ μόνω κατοικήσει. De Profug. vol. i. p. 561. comp. John i. 18. and xiv. 11.

24. 2 Tim. i. 9. Heb. i. 2.

The WORD, by which the world was made, is the image of the supreme Deity. As we perceive the sun's light, though the sun itself is not seen; and behold the brightness of the moon, though its orb may not appear to the eye; so men look up to, and acknowledge, the likeness of God, in his minister the Locos, whom they esteem as God.' He attempts to describe his nature by representing him as, not uncrea ted, like God; nor yet created, as man: but of a divine substance. For the WORD of God, which is above all the host of heaven, cannot be comprehended by human wisdom, hav. ing nothing in his nature that is perceptible to mortal sense. For being the image of God, and the eldest of all intelligent beings, he is seated immediately next to the one God, without 12. The most ancient of God's works, and before all things— any interval of separation.' This, in the language of ScripрEOBUTаTOS Taw boa yeyorɛ, De Confus. Linguar. vol. i. p. ture, is sitting on the right hand of God. He adds, "For 427. De Leg. Allegor. ib. p. 121. comp. John í. 2. and xvii. 5, not being liable to any voluntary, or involuntary change, or falling off, he has God for his lot and portion, and his residence is in God.' The like is mentioned in another place, where he is represented again as sinless, and as the great High-priest of the world. We maintain, that by the (true) High-priest, is not meant a man, but the divine WORD, who is free from all voluntary and involuntary transgressions; being of heavenly parentage, born of God, and of that divine Wisdom, by which all things were produced.' He speaks to the same purpose in another place, where he makes mention of the WORD. * Ενσώ και Αρχιερευς, ὁ πρωτογονος αυτού (Θεού) Θειος Λόγος, in which presides that High priest, the holy WORD, the first-born of God; at other times styled πρεσβυταTos vios Ocov, the Son of God, antecedent to all creation. * Τούτον μεν γαρ πρεσβυτατον ύιον ὁ των οντων ανέτειλε Πατηρ αν ετέρωθι πρωτογόνον ωνόμασε. It is manifest, that every attribute which the sacred writers have given to Christ, in his mediatorial capacity, Philo has attributed to him in his divine character, antecedent to creation." page 15-22.

13. Esteemed the same as God-Aoyor is avroV (ŠLOV) KATAvovet. De Somniis, vol. i. p. 656. comp. Mark ii. 7. Rom. ix. 5. Phil. ii. 6.

14. The Logos is eternal-5 aïdios Aoyos. De Plant No, vol. i. p. 332, and vol. ii. p. 601. comp. John xii. 34. 2 Tim. i. 9. and iv. 18. Heb. i. 8. Rev. x. 6.

15. Beholds all things-οξυδερκέστατος, ως παντα εφοράν είναι iKavos. De Leg. Allegor. vol. i. p. 121. comp. Heb. iv. 12, 13. Rev. ii, 23.

16. He unites, supports, preserves, and perfects the world ὁ τε γαρ του όντος λόγος δεσμος ων των απάντων-συνέχει τα μέρη πάντα, και σφιγγει περιέχει τα όλα και πεπληρωκεν. De Prof. vol. i. p. 562. Fragm. vol. ii. p. 655. comp. John iii. 35. Col. i. 17. Heb. i. 3.


17. Nearest to God without any separation-6 cyyetaro) un devos OVTOS μEduplov čiasпuaris. De Profug, vol. i. p. comp. John f. 18. and x. 30. and xiv. 11. and xvii. 11.

18. Free from all taint of sin, voluntary or involuntaryανευ τρίπης εκουσίου και της ακουσίου. De Profug. vol. i. p. 561. comp. John viii. 46. Heb, vii. 26. and ix. 14. Pet. iv. 22′ 19. Who presides over the imperfect and weak-ouros yap To av av ein Gros. De Leg. Allegor, vol. i. p. 128. comp. Matt, xi. 5. Luke v. 32. 1 Tim. I. 15. 20. The Logos, the fountain of wisdom-Aoyov Oclar, es rodias 151 nyn. De Profug, vol. i. p. 560, 566. comp. John iv. 14. vii. 38. 1 Cor. i. 24. Col. ii. 3.

Philo. Fragm. vol. ii. p. 625. bDe Agricult. vol. i. p. 303. De Mundi Opif. vol. i. p. 6. d De Agricult. vol. i. p. 308. De Mundi Opif. vol. 1. p. 4. f De Profugis. vol. i. p. 561. De Somniis, vol. i. p. 656. h De Leg. Alleg. vol. i. p. 121. i De Plantatione. Naë. vol. i. p. 331. De Confus. Ling. vol. i. p. 418. 1. 50. Quis Rerum Divin. Hares. vol. i. p. 501, 502. Ibid. p. 501. 1. 49. "For KпpatvorтUS αEL TONS TO αφθαρτον, we should certainly read προς το φθαρτον. • De 21. A messenger sent from God πρεσβευτής του ηγεμόνος Profugis. vol. 1. p. 560. 1. 31. The present reading is anλcups TO UTOKOOV. Quis Rer. Div. Hares. vol. i. p. 501, comp. st, the meaning of which I do not comprehend. The true reading is probably arvevs, from arvev50s, without remission -indesinenter, without stopping to take breath. De Monarchia, vol. ii. 1. ii. p. 225. Tov de aoparov Kaι vonroy Octov Λόγον εικόνα λέγει Θεου. De Mundi Opif. vol. i. p. 6. De Son.niis, vol. i. p. 656. 1. 33. Quis Rer. Dirin. Hares, vol. i. p. 502. De Profugis, vol. i. p. 561. 1. 16 "Ibid. 224. Ibid. p. 562. 1. 13. De Somniis, vol. i. p. 653. fus. Ling. vol. 1. p. 414.

De Con.

John v. 36. viii. 29, 42. 1 John iv. 9.

22. The advocate for mortal man-ikerns μev esi tov Suntor. Quis Rer. Dir. Hær, vol. i. p. 501. comp. John xiv. 16 xvii. 20. Rom. viii. 34. Heb. vii. 25.

23. He ordered and disposed of all things-dictλe kai dioveipe πάντα. Ib. p. 506. comp. Col. i. 15, 16. Heb. xi. 3.

24. The shepherd of God's flock—rov opdov avrov Anyor,— ως την επιμέλειαν της ιερας ταύτης αγέλης. De Agricul, vol. i. p 303. comp. John x. 14. Heb. xiii. 20. 1 Pet. li. 25.

Cana in Galilee. 25. Of the power and royalty of the Logos-o rov ytpovos | 5. Testimonies concerning a Trinity among the Chinese, Λόγος και βασιλικη δυναμις αυτου. De Profug. vol. 1. p. 561 comp. 1 Cor. xv. 25. Eph. i. 21, 22. Heb. i. 2, 3. Rev. xvii. 14. 26 The Logos is the physician, who heals all evil-Tou ayys Aar (os est Aayos) WORεp larpov Rakov. De Leg, Allegor. vol. p. 122 comp. Luke iv. 18. vii. 21. 1 Pet. ii. 24. James i. 21. 27. The Logos is the seal of God-o de-esiv n oopayis. De Profug, vol. 1. p. 547, 548. De Plant. No, ib. p. 332. comp. John vi. 27. Eph. i. 13. Heb. 1. 3.


One of the missionaries at Peking, who wrote the letter from which I have made the above extracts, takes it for granted, that the mystery of the Trinity was known among the ancient Chinese, and that the character A was its symbol. Let tre sur les characteres Chinois, 4to. Bruxelles, 1773.

It is remarkable that Moses and the prophets, the ancient Chaldee Targumists, the author or authors of the Zend Avesta, Plato, and the first philosophers of Greece, Philo the Jew, John and the apostles, and perhaps even Mohammed himself, should all so perfectly coincide in their ideas concerning a glorious person in the Godhead! This must have been more than the effect of accident. Moses and the pro phets received this divine doctrine from God himself; it was and ancient philosophers and lawgivers borrowed from both. afterward confirmed to the apostles by divine inspiration; CHAPTER II.

The miracle at Cana in Galilee, where our Lord changed water into wine, 1-11. He goes to Capernaum, 12. He purges The Jews require a miracle, as a proof that he had authority to do these the temple at the feast of the pass-over, 13-17. things, 18 In answer, he refers to his own death and resurrection, 19-22. Many believe on him while at the feast of the pass-over, to whom Jesus would not trust himself, 23-25. [A. M. 4031. A. D. 27. An. Olymp. CCI. 3.]

AND the third day there was a marriage in Cana of Gali

lee; and the mother of Jesus was there :

2 And both Jesus was called, band his disciples, to the marriage.

a See Josh. 19.29-b Ver. 11. Deut. 16. 14.

NOTES.-Verse 1. Cana of Galilee] This was a small city in the tribe of Asher, Josh. xix. 28. and by saying this was Cana of Galilee, the evangelist distinguishes it from another Cana, which was in the tribe of Ephraim, in the Samaritan country. See Josh. xvi. 8. xvii. 9.

Some suppose that the third day mentioned here, refers to the third day of the marriage feast: such feasts lasting among the Jews seven days. See Judg. xiv. 12, 17, 18. and Bishop Pearce.

The mother of Jesus was there] Some of the ancients have thought that this was the marriage of John the evangelist, who is supposed to have been a near relative of our Lord. See the sketch of his life prefixed to these notes.

2. And both Jesus was called, and his disciples] There are several remarkable circumstances here. 1. This was probably the first Christian wedding that was ever in the world. 2 The great Author of the Christian religion with his disciples (probably then only four or five in number, see chapter i. 37, &c.) were invited to it. 3. The first miracle Jesus Christ wrought was at it, and in honour of it. 4. The mother of Christ, the most pureof all virgins, the most holy of all wives, and the first Christian mother, was also at it. 5. The marriage was according to God, or these holy persons would not have attended it. 6. The bride and bridegroom must have been a holy pair, otherwise they would have had nothing to do with such holy company.

Marriage is ever honourable in itself; but it is not at all
times used honourably. Where Jesus is not invited to bless
the union, no good can be expected: and where the disciples
of sin and Satan are preferred to the disciples of Christ on
such occasions, it is a melancholy intimation, that so bad a
Vos. V.

3 And when they wanted wine, the mother of Jesus saith unto him, They have no wine.

4 Jesus saith unto her, Woman, d what have I to do with thee? mine hour is not yet come.

c Ch.19.26.-d So 2 Sam. 16 10, & 19. 22.- Ch. 7. 6.

beginning will have a bad ending. I am afraid we may
search long, before we find a marriage conducted on such
principles as this appears to have been, even among those
who make more than a common profession of the religion of

3. They have no wine.] Though the blessed Virgin is supposed to have never seen her Son work a miracle before this extraordinary on this occasion; as from her acquaintance time, yet she seems to have expected him to do something with him, she must have formned some adequate idea of his power and goodness.

4. Woman, what have I to do with thee?] Ti εμot kat σol, yuvai; O woman, what is this to thee and me? This is an abrupt denial, as if he had said, "WE are not employed to provide the necessaries for this feast: this matter belongs to others, who should have made a proper and sufficient provision for the persons they had invited." The words seem to convey a reproof to the Virgin for meddling with that which did not particularly concern her. The holiest persons are always liable to errors of judgment: and should ever conduct themselves with modesty and humility, especially in those things in which the providence of God is particularly concerned. But here, indeed, there appears to be no blame. It is very likely the bride or bridegroom's family were relathat our Lord would feel interested for the honour and comtives of the blessed Virgin; and she would naturally suppose fort of the family; and knowing that he possessed extraordinary power, made this application to him to come forward to their assistance. Our Lord's answer to his mother, if proper ly translated, is far from being disrespectful. He addresses 257 the Virgin, as he did the Syrophoenician woman, Matt. xv. 28

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